A shoulder, or hard shoulder is an emergency stopping lane by the verge of a road or motorway, on the right in countries which drive on the right, or on the left side in India, Pakistan, Japan, the UK, Australia, and other left-side driving countries. Many wider US and European freeways have shoulders on both sides of each directional carriageway, in the median as well as at the outer edges of the road, for additional safety. Shoulders are not intended for use by through traffic, although there are exceptions (see below).
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