A chromosome is a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle. This three-dimensional genome structure plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation.

Property Value
dbo:abstract
  • A chromosome is a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle. This three-dimensional genome structure plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation. Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form). Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured here) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends. The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids. During metaphase the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. In animal cells, chromosomes reach their highest compaction level in anaphase during chromosome segregation. Chromosomal recombination during meiosis and subsequent sexual reproduction play a significant role in genetic diversity. If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe. Usually, this will make the cell initiate apoptosis leading to its own death, but sometimes mutations in the cell hamper this process and thus cause progression of cancer. Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. Others use the concept in a narrower sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin during cell division, visible under light microscopy due to high condensation. (en)
dbo:thumbnail
dbo:wikiPageExternalLink
dbo:wikiPageID
  • 6438 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageLength
  • 61482 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 984869978 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageWikiLink
dbp:align
  • right (en)
dbp:footer
  • Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri independently developed the chromosome theory of inheritance in 1902. (en)
dbp:image
  • Theodor Boveri.jpg (en)
  • Walter sutton.jpg (en)
dbp:width
  • 120 (xsd:integer)
  • 140 (xsd:integer)
dbp:wikiPageUsesTemplate
dct:subject
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • A chromosome is a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle. This three-dimensional genome structure plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation. (en)
rdfs:label
  • Chromosome (en)
rdfs:seeAlso
owl:sameAs
skos:closeMatch
prov:wasDerivedFrom
foaf:depiction
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
is dbo:knownFor of
is dbo:wikiPageDisambiguates of
is dbo:wikiPageRedirects of
is dbo:wikiPageWikiLink of
is dbp:knownFor of
is foaf:primaryTopic of