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The Irish backstop (formally the Northern Ireland Protocol) was a proposed protocol to a draft Brexit withdrawal agreement that never came into force. It was developed by the May government and the European Commission in December 2017 and finalised in November 2018, that aimed to prevent an evident border (one with customs controls) between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland after Brexit.

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  • The Irish backstop (formally the Northern Ireland Protocol) was a proposed protocol to a draft Brexit withdrawal agreement that never came into force. It was developed by the May government and the European Commission in December 2017 and finalised in November 2018, that aimed to prevent an evident border (one with customs controls) between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland after Brexit. The backstop would have required keeping Northern Ireland in some aspects of the Single Market, until an alternative arrangement were agreed between the EU and the UK. The proposal also provided for the UK as a whole to have a common customs territory with the EU until a solution were delivered to avoid the need for customs controls within the UK (between Northern Ireland and Great Britain). The 'backstop' element was that the arrangement would have continued to apply potentially indefinitely unless the UK and the EU were both to agree on a different arrangement, for example on a trade agreement between UK and EU at the end of the transition period. The Irish government and Northern Irish nationalists (favouring a united Ireland) supported the protocol, whereas Unionists (favouring the existing United Kingdom) opposed it. By early 2019, the Westminster Parliament had voted three times against ratifying the Withdrawal Agreement and thus also rejected the backstop. In October 2019, the new Johnson government renegotiated the draft, replacing the backstop. In the new protocol, the whole of the UK comes out of the EU Customs Union as a single customs territory. Northern Ireland will be included in any future UK trade deals, but will have no tariffs or restrictions on goods crossing the Irish border in either direction, thereby creating a de facto customs border down the Irish Sea with Great Britain. There is also a unilateral exit mechanism by which the Northern Ireland Assembly can choose to leave the protocol via a simple majority vote. This new protocol has been dubbed by some as "Chequers for Northern Ireland", due to its similarity with the UK-wide Chequers future relationship plan proposed by Theresa May, which had previously been rejected by the EU and criticised by Johnson. (en)
  • De Ierse backstop, meestal kortweg backstop genoemd, was een voorlopige regeling die er moest komen voor de grens tussen Ierland en Noord-Ierland bij een Brexit. De term is in gebruik geraakt na het referendum in het Verenigd Koninkrijk over het lidmaatschap van de Europese Unie van juni 2016. De benaming backstop is ontleend aan het gelijknamige scherm achter de bij honkbal en softbal. (nl)
  • Backstop irlandese, conosciuto formalmente come Protocollo dell'Irlanda del Nord, è il nome dato a un progetto di accordo tra il Regno Unito e l'UE che mira a prevenire un confine fisico in Irlanda dopo l'uscita del Regno Unito dall'Unione europea. Si tratta di un trattato autonomo, allegato al proposto accordo della Brexit che consente al Regno Unito di lasciare l'Unione europea con il minor danno possibile. Stati sovrani d'Irlanda: Repubblica d'Irlanda, a sud e ad ovest; il Regno Unito a nord (Irlanda del Nord) Il backstop mira a prevenire un confine rigido mantenendo l'Irlanda del Nord sotto alcuni aspetti nel mercato unico, fino a quando non sarà possibile giungere a un accordo alternativo che preveda una soluzione tecnica o di altro tipo per consentire un confine effettivamente invisibile. La proposta prevede, inoltre, che il Regno Unito (nel suo insieme) abbia un territorio doganale comune con l'UE fino ad una soluzione, per evitare la necessità di controlli doganali all'interno del Regno Unito (tra Irlanda del Nord e Gran Bretagna). L'assunto di base prevede che l'accordo continuerà ad applicarsi fino a quando non verrà trovata una soluzione, anche se non vi sarà alcun accordo commerciale tra Regno Unito e UE entro la fine del periodo di transizione. Sebbene il governo irlandese e i nazionalisti nell'Irlanda del Nord sostengano fortemente il protocollo, l'opposizione unionista è una delle ragioni principali delle decisioni di Westminster di rifiutare di ratificare l'accordo di recesso nel suo insieme. (it)
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  • De Ierse backstop, meestal kortweg backstop genoemd, was een voorlopige regeling die er moest komen voor de grens tussen Ierland en Noord-Ierland bij een Brexit. De term is in gebruik geraakt na het referendum in het Verenigd Koninkrijk over het lidmaatschap van de Europese Unie van juni 2016. De benaming backstop is ontleend aan het gelijknamige scherm achter de bij honkbal en softbal. (nl)
  • The Irish backstop (formally the Northern Ireland Protocol) was a proposed protocol to a draft Brexit withdrawal agreement that never came into force. It was developed by the May government and the European Commission in December 2017 and finalised in November 2018, that aimed to prevent an evident border (one with customs controls) between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland after Brexit. (en)
  • Backstop irlandese, conosciuto formalmente come Protocollo dell'Irlanda del Nord, è il nome dato a un progetto di accordo tra il Regno Unito e l'UE che mira a prevenire un confine fisico in Irlanda dopo l'uscita del Regno Unito dall'Unione europea. Si tratta di un trattato autonomo, allegato al proposto accordo della Brexit che consente al Regno Unito di lasciare l'Unione europea con il minor danno possibile. Stati sovrani d'Irlanda: Repubblica d'Irlanda, a sud e ad ovest; il Regno Unito a nord (Irlanda del Nord) (it)
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  • Backstop irlandese (it)
  • Irish backstop (en)
  • Ierse backstop (nl)
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