About: Desire

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Desires are conative states of mind that are expressed by terms like "wanting", "wishing", "longing" or "craving". A great variety of features is commonly associated with desires. They are seen as propositional attitudes towards conceivable states of affairs. They aim to change the world by representing how the world should be, unlike beliefs, which aim to represent how the world actually is. Desires are closely related to agency: they motivate the agent to realize them. For this to be possible, a desire has to be combined with a belief about which action would realize it. Desires present their objects in a favorable light, as something that appears to be good. Their fulfillment is normally experienced as pleasurable in contrast to the negative experience of failing to do so. Conscious des

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  • الرغبة هي الشعور بالاحتياج إلى شخص أو شيء، وعلماء النفس يفرقون بين الرغبة (desire) والمشاعر (emotion) فالرغبة تنبع من جسم الإنسان مثل احتياج الجسم للطعام بينما المشاعر تأتى من الحالة العقلية للأنسان.لكن تختلف الآراء حول الرغبة بين من يعرفها على أنها انعكاس لمطالب الهو و بين من يعرفها على أنها وسيلة لإشباع الحاجات الفيزيولوجية للإنسان (ar)
  • Touha je silný a reflektovaný nenaplněný vztah k něčemu, co by si člověk přál, zejména když předmět touhy je vzdálený, neurčitý a naděje na splnění je malá. Od potřeby se liší stálostí a vzdáleností předmětu, od přání svou naléhavostí. Žádost a buddhistická „žízeň“ (tanhá) je naproti tomu méně reflektovaná. Touha může člověka tížit jako stesk, je však také důležitým motivem jednání. (cs)
  • Desira, irrika, gutizia edo irritsa zerbaiterako edo norbaitenganako nahi bizia da, desiratzen dena lortzeko pertsona kitzikapen eta suhartasun egoeran jartzen duena. Tomas Akinokoak desiderium deitzen zion eta grinatzat hartzen zuen, amodioarekin (amor), gorrotoarekin (odium) , nardarekin (fuga), gozamenarekin (delectatio) eta minarekin (dolor eta tristitia) batera. Kristautasunean, iturritzat hartu izan da; eta budismoan sufrimenduaren iturburutzat. (eu)
  • Le désir désigne la sensation d'attraction et d'attente à l'égard d'une personne, d'un objet, d'une situation ou d'un futur particulier. Le désir et son contentement engendrent une tension chez l'individu qui le ressent et qui cherche à résoudre celle-ci pour combler le manque induit. La satisfaction du désir ou l'obtention de l'objet désiré mène - à différentes échelles de durées (courte, moyenne, longue) - à la jouissance, la joie, ou au bonheur. De nombreux philosophes ont analysé le désir sous ses différentes implications. Platon dans Le Banquet, évoquait l'idée que le désir se fixe sur ce dont on manque. L'invention (ou découverte) par soi d'un objet de satisfaction potentielle est à l'origine du besoin de réaliser la possession de cet objet. Pour d'autres, comme Thomas Hobbes, le désir est par essence à l'origine de la motivation de toutes les actions humaines. Le désir est tantôt considéré positivement puisque l'on considère l'objet désiré comme source de plaisir ou de contentement, voire de bonheur et tantôt considéré négativement comme une source de souffrance, une forme d'insatisfaction, en fonction de la proportion que le désir et que son contentement peut prendre dans l'architecture des actions d'un individu ou d'une communauté d'individus. D'un point de vue psychologique, le désir est une tendance, une inclination, devenue consciente d'elle-même, qui s'accompagne de la représentation du but à atteindre et souvent d'une volonté de mettre en œuvre des moyens d'atteindre ce but. Le désir est en cela similaire au besoin, car les deux se manifestent a priori pour combler un manque. Le besoin faisant quant à lui partie de la pyramide des besoins, il relève d'une forme de nécessité vitale. (fr)
  • Desires are conative states of mind that are expressed by terms like "wanting", "wishing", "longing" or "craving". A great variety of features is commonly associated with desires. They are seen as propositional attitudes towards conceivable states of affairs. They aim to change the world by representing how the world should be, unlike beliefs, which aim to represent how the world actually is. Desires are closely related to agency: they motivate the agent to realize them. For this to be possible, a desire has to be combined with a belief about which action would realize it. Desires present their objects in a favorable light, as something that appears to be good. Their fulfillment is normally experienced as pleasurable in contrast to the negative experience of failing to do so. Conscious desires are usually accompanied by some form of emotional response. While many researchers roughly agree on these general features, there is significant disagreement about how to define desires, i.e. which of these features are essential and which ones are merely accidental. Action-based theories define desires as structures that incline us toward actions. Pleasure-based theories focus on the tendency of desires to cause pleasure when fulfilled. Value-based theories identify desires with attitudes toward values, like judging or having an appearance that something is good. Desires can be grouped into various types according to a few basic distinctions. Intrinsic desires concern what the subject wants for its own sake while instrumental desires are about what the subject wants for the sake of something else. Occurrent desires are either conscious or otherwise causally active, in contrast to standing desires, which exist somewhere in the back of one's mind. Propositional desires are directed at possible states of affairs while object-desires are directly about objects. Various authors distinguish between higher desires associated with spiritual or religious goals and lower desires, which are concerned with bodily or sensory pleasures. Desires play a role in many different fields. There is disagreement whether desires should be understood as practical reasons or whether we can have practical reasons without having a desire to follow them. According to fitting-attitude theories of value, an object is valuable if it is fitting to desire this object or if we ought to desire it. Desire-satisfaction theories of well-being state that a person's well-being is determined by whether that person's desires are satisfied. Marketing and advertising companies have used psychological research on how desire is stimulated to find more effective ways to induce consumers into buying a given product or service. Techniques include creating a sense of lack in the viewer or associating the product with desirable attributes. Desire plays a key role in art. The theme of desire is at the core of romance novels, which often create drama by showing cases where human desire is impeded by social conventions, class, or cultural barriers. Melodrama films use plots that appeal to the heightened emotions of the audience by showing "crises of human emotion, failed romance or friendship", in which desire is thwarted or unrequited. (en)
  • Is iomaí bealach a mbíonn fonn ar dhaoine – fonn gáire, fonn oibre, fonn cainte, fonn caointe, fonn achrainn. Thiocfadh fonn múisce ar dhuine freisin. Fonn a níos fiach agus gabhtar fonn le fonn agus fonn le mífhonn. (ga)
  • 欲(よく、慾、希: ἐπιθυμητής, 羅: cupio, 英: desire)とは、何かを欲しいと思う心。欲望、欲求などともいう。 人間(ヒト)、動物が、それを満たすために何らかの行動・手段を取りたいと思わせ、それが満たされたときには快を感じる感覚のことである。生理的(本能的)なレベルのものから、社会的・愛他的な高次なものまで含まれる。心の働きや行動を決定する際に重要な役割をもつと考えられている。 仏教などでいう「欲」は、概ね生理的(本能的)なレベルのものを指しており、精神にとって心をよくしていくもの、愛情を育てるもの、抑制するべきものとして説かれている。 (ja)
  • 慾望一詞專指五官之慾,尤指情慾。馬斯洛需求層次理論是人本主義科學的理論之一,由美國心理學家亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛在1943年在《人類激勵理論》論文中所提出。書中將人類需求像階梯一樣從低到高按層次分為五種,分別是:生理需求、安全需求、社交需求、尊重需求和自我實現需求。 「慾望」是哲學家探討的題目,無論是道家、儒家、兵家、法家、縱橫家及佛教與西方哲學。經濟學及管理學也有分析利用管理人類慾望,稱為動機。 這是一个與心理学及精神疾病相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。 (zh)
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  • الرغبة هي الشعور بالاحتياج إلى شخص أو شيء، وعلماء النفس يفرقون بين الرغبة (desire) والمشاعر (emotion) فالرغبة تنبع من جسم الإنسان مثل احتياج الجسم للطعام بينما المشاعر تأتى من الحالة العقلية للأنسان.لكن تختلف الآراء حول الرغبة بين من يعرفها على أنها انعكاس لمطالب الهو و بين من يعرفها على أنها وسيلة لإشباع الحاجات الفيزيولوجية للإنسان (ar)
  • Touha je silný a reflektovaný nenaplněný vztah k něčemu, co by si člověk přál, zejména když předmět touhy je vzdálený, neurčitý a naděje na splnění je malá. Od potřeby se liší stálostí a vzdáleností předmětu, od přání svou naléhavostí. Žádost a buddhistická „žízeň“ (tanhá) je naproti tomu méně reflektovaná. Touha může člověka tížit jako stesk, je však také důležitým motivem jednání. (cs)
  • Desira, irrika, gutizia edo irritsa zerbaiterako edo norbaitenganako nahi bizia da, desiratzen dena lortzeko pertsona kitzikapen eta suhartasun egoeran jartzen duena. Tomas Akinokoak desiderium deitzen zion eta grinatzat hartzen zuen, amodioarekin (amor), gorrotoarekin (odium) , nardarekin (fuga), gozamenarekin (delectatio) eta minarekin (dolor eta tristitia) batera. Kristautasunean, iturritzat hartu izan da; eta budismoan sufrimenduaren iturburutzat. (eu)
  • Is iomaí bealach a mbíonn fonn ar dhaoine – fonn gáire, fonn oibre, fonn cainte, fonn caointe, fonn achrainn. Thiocfadh fonn múisce ar dhuine freisin. Fonn a níos fiach agus gabhtar fonn le fonn agus fonn le mífhonn. (ga)
  • 欲(よく、慾、希: ἐπιθυμητής, 羅: cupio, 英: desire)とは、何かを欲しいと思う心。欲望、欲求などともいう。 人間(ヒト)、動物が、それを満たすために何らかの行動・手段を取りたいと思わせ、それが満たされたときには快を感じる感覚のことである。生理的(本能的)なレベルのものから、社会的・愛他的な高次なものまで含まれる。心の働きや行動を決定する際に重要な役割をもつと考えられている。 仏教などでいう「欲」は、概ね生理的(本能的)なレベルのものを指しており、精神にとって心をよくしていくもの、愛情を育てるもの、抑制するべきものとして説かれている。 (ja)
  • 慾望一詞專指五官之慾,尤指情慾。馬斯洛需求層次理論是人本主義科學的理論之一,由美國心理學家亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛在1943年在《人類激勵理論》論文中所提出。書中將人類需求像階梯一樣從低到高按層次分為五種,分別是:生理需求、安全需求、社交需求、尊重需求和自我實現需求。 「慾望」是哲學家探討的題目,無論是道家、儒家、兵家、法家、縱橫家及佛教與西方哲學。經濟學及管理學也有分析利用管理人類慾望,稱為動機。 這是一个與心理学及精神疾病相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。 (zh)
  • Desires are conative states of mind that are expressed by terms like "wanting", "wishing", "longing" or "craving". A great variety of features is commonly associated with desires. They are seen as propositional attitudes towards conceivable states of affairs. They aim to change the world by representing how the world should be, unlike beliefs, which aim to represent how the world actually is. Desires are closely related to agency: they motivate the agent to realize them. For this to be possible, a desire has to be combined with a belief about which action would realize it. Desires present their objects in a favorable light, as something that appears to be good. Their fulfillment is normally experienced as pleasurable in contrast to the negative experience of failing to do so. Conscious des (en)
  • Le désir désigne la sensation d'attraction et d'attente à l'égard d'une personne, d'un objet, d'une situation ou d'un futur particulier. Le désir et son contentement engendrent une tension chez l'individu qui le ressent et qui cherche à résoudre celle-ci pour combler le manque induit. La satisfaction du désir ou l'obtention de l'objet désiré mène - à différentes échelles de durées (courte, moyenne, longue) - à la jouissance, la joie, ou au bonheur. De nombreux philosophes ont analysé le désir sous ses différentes implications. Platon dans Le Banquet, évoquait l'idée que le désir se fixe sur ce dont on manque. L'invention (ou découverte) par soi d'un objet de satisfaction potentielle est à l'origine du besoin de réaliser la possession de cet objet. Pour d'autres, comme Thomas Hobbes, le dés (fr)
rdfs:label
  • Desire (en)
  • رغبة (ar)
  • Touha (cs)
  • Begierde (de)
  • Avido (eo)
  • Desira (eu)
  • Fonn (ga)
  • Désir (fr)
  • (ja)
  • 욕구 (ko)
  • 慾望 (zh)
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