Ernst Otto Beckmann was born in Solingen, Germany on July 4, 1853 to a family headed by Johannes Friedrich Wilhelm Beckmann, a manufacturer. The elder Beckmann's factory produced mineral dyes, pigments, abrasives, and polishing material, and it was there that the younger Beckmann conducted his early chemical experiments. At the age of 17, Beckmann was persuaded by his father to study pharmacy instead of chemistry, and so in 1870 an apprenticeship was arranged in Elberfeld. However, Beckmann did not enjoy the working conditions and returned home, to his father's disappointment. Told that a chemical career would be difficult if could not handle an apprenticeship in pharmacy, Beckmann then returned to Elberfeld to finish his work. He also worked at pharmacies in Arolsen, Burg an der Wupper, L

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dbo:abstract
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (* 4. Juli 1853 in Solingen; † 12. Juli 1923 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Chemiker. (de)
  • إرنست أوتو بكمان (بالألمانية: Ernst Otto Beckmann) هو كيميائي ألماني، ولد في الرابع من تموز/يوليو 1853 في زولينغن وتوفي في الثالث عشر من تموز/يوليو في برلين. (ar)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (né le 4 juillet 1853 à Solingen, mort le 13 juillet 1923 à Berlin), est un chimiste allemand. Après l'obtention de son Abitur (baccalauréat), il acheva d'abord une formation d'aide pharmacien et travailla dans différentes villes. De 1875 à 1878, il étudia la pharmacie et la chimie à Leipzig et passa son doctorat. Il obtint son habilitation à diriger des recherches en 1882 à l'université technique de Brunswick, et revint un an plus tard à Leipzig auprès de Hermann Kolbe et devint bientôt lui-même professeur. Il exerça ensuite à Giessen et Erlangen et revint une nouvelle fois en 1897 à Leipzig. En 1912, il devint directeur du nouvel Institut Kaiser-Wilhelm pour la chimie à Berlin-Dahlem. Son nom est lié au réarrangement de Beckmann, ainsi qu'au réarrangement intramoléculaire des cétoximes en amides substituées et au thermomètre de Beckmann qui sont présents jusqu'aujourd'hui dans la chimie et la littérature. Le réarrangement de Beckmann est encore aujourd'hui employé dans l'industrie chimique pour la fabrication de l'ε-caprolactame à partir de l'oxime de la cyclohexanone. À partir du ε-caprolactame, on synthétise des polyamides. Beckmann est enterré au cimetière de Dahlem. (fr)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (Solingen, Alemania, 4 de julio de 1853 - Berlín, 13 de julio de 1923) fue un químico alemán conocido por inventar el termómetro diferencial de Beckmann y descubrir la transposición de Beckmann. (es)
  • エルンスト・オットー・ベックマン(Ernst Otto Beckmann, 1853年7月4日 - 1923年7月13日)はドイツの化学者。 ヘルマン・コルベの元で化学を学んだ後、コルベの後任者であったヨハネス・ヴィスリケヌスの助手となった。その後、ライプツィヒ大学、ギーセン大学、エアランゲン大学、ベルリン大学の教授を歴任した。またベルリン大学在籍時にカイザー・ヴィルヘルム化学研究所の初代所長を兼任した。 業績としてはオキシムの研究と凝固点測定器、沸点測定器の開発があり、オキシムの転位反応であるベックマン転位、凝固点降下の測定に用いるベックマン温度計に名前を残している。 130名余りの博士を研究室から出すなど、教育にも熱心であった。 (ja)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (ur. 4 lipca 1853 w Solingen, zm. 13 lipca 1923 w Berlinie) – niemiecki chemik. Zajmował się kriometrią i ebuliometrią. Skonstruował termometr Beckmanna. Prowadził badania nad oksymami. W 1886 roku odkrył przegrupowanie ketoksymów w amidy, nazwane później przegrupowaniem Beckmanna. (pl)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (Solingen, 04 de julho de 1853 - Dahlem, 12 de julho de 1923) foi um químico alemão que é lembrado por sua invenção do termômetro diferencial de Beckmann e pela sua descoberta do rearranjo de Beckmann. (pt)
  • 恩斯特·奥托·贝克曼(Ernst Otto Beckmann,1853年7月4日-1923年7月13日),是一名德国化学家,主要成就包括发明贝克曼温度计和发现贝克曼重排反应。 (zh)
  • Эрнст Отто Бекман (нем. Ernst Otto Beckmann; 4 июля 1853, Золинген — 13 июля 1923, Берлин) — немецкий химик. (ru)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann was born in Solingen, Germany on July 4, 1853 to a family headed by Johannes Friedrich Wilhelm Beckmann, a manufacturer. The elder Beckmann's factory produced mineral dyes, pigments, abrasives, and polishing material, and it was there that the younger Beckmann conducted his early chemical experiments. At the age of 17, Beckmann was persuaded by his father to study pharmacy instead of chemistry, and so in 1870 an apprenticeship was arranged in Elberfeld. However, Beckmann did not enjoy the working conditions and returned home, to his father's disappointment. Told that a chemical career would be difficult if could not handle an apprenticeship in pharmacy, Beckmann then returned to Elberfeld to finish his work. He also worked at pharmacies in Arolsen, Burg an der Wupper, Leipzig, and Cologne. To improve his theoretical skills, in 1874 Beckmann joined the school of Remigius Fresenius in Wiesbaden, and moved to the University of Leipzig the following year when Fresenius became a professor there. At Leipzig, Beckmann came into contact with the renowned chemist Hermann Kolbe. Although Beckmann wanted to study chemistry, he finished his studies with Fresenius, passing his pharmacy examination in 1877. He then joined Kolbe, and his assistant, Ernst von Meyer, and started work on the oxidation of dialkyle sulfides. For this research Beckmann received his PhD in July 1878. After a year of voluntary military service, as a pharmacist, Beckmann began studying toxicology at the TU Braunschweig with Robert Otto, receiving his habilitation in 1882. He returned to Leipzig and wanted to work as a lecturer with Kolbe, but the habilitation at a technical university was not a sufficient qualification for such a position. For a habilitation at a university an abitur from a humanistic gymnasium was necessary, and for this Latin language skills were obligatory. Therefore, Beckmann again began studying, and was able to complete the necessary exams in Latin, Greek language, and history in 1883, and again work at Leipzig. Kolbe died in 1884 and was succeeded by one of his critics, Johannes Wislicenus. This might have threatened Beckmann's academic career, but contrary to expectations the two chemists became colleagues and friends. Beckmann tried to apply an already-known reaction to discriminate between aldehydes and ketones. The reaction involved the use of hydroxylamine to convert benzophenone into an oxime. Treating this oxime with phosphorus pentachloride converted it into a substance already characterized by Wallach. This reaction is now known as the Beckmann rearrangement. In 1887 Wilhelm Ostwald moved to Leipzig, and physical chemistry then became a focus of Beckmann's work, as he served as an assistant to Ostwald. Beckmann used the methods of ebullioscopy (boiling-point elevation) and cryoscopy (freezing-point depression) to determine the molecular masses of several substances. These measurements required a careful determination of temperature differences, as opposed to absolute values, and to accomplish them Beckmann invented the differential thermometer that now carries his name (Beckmann thermometer). For this work he altered the methods of François-Marie Raoult, and the improvement was sufficiently great that Beckmann's method, and the associated equipment, became standard in chemical laboratories. However, by the end of the twentieth century these colligative-property techniques had been largely superseded by molecular mass determinations using electronic instrumentation. It was also during this time of work with Ostwald at Leipzig that Beckmann discovered the sodium and benzophenone react in dry ether to produce a blue solution, now known to be due to ketyl-radical formation. This reactions remains a standard one among chemists seeking to judge the anhydrous state of solvents. Beckmann left Leipzig to spend a year working at the University of Gießen and then served as a professor at the University of Erlangen, but in 1897 he was back in Leipzig for the third time, as Director of the Laboratory of Applied Chemistry. In 1912 he was asked to head a division of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. He accepted the offer, moved to Berlin on April 1, 1912, and there he remained until his retirement from the institute in October 1921. Afterwards he was allowed to use a laboratory at the institute, and he worked again on the Beckmann rearrangement and measurements of physical properties of solutions. (en)
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  • Ernst Beckmann
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  • German chemist (en)
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rdfs:comment
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (* 4. Juli 1853 in Solingen; † 12. Juli 1923 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Chemiker. (de)
  • إرنست أوتو بكمان (بالألمانية: Ernst Otto Beckmann) هو كيميائي ألماني، ولد في الرابع من تموز/يوليو 1853 في زولينغن وتوفي في الثالث عشر من تموز/يوليو في برلين. (ar)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (Solingen, Alemania, 4 de julio de 1853 - Berlín, 13 de julio de 1923) fue un químico alemán conocido por inventar el termómetro diferencial de Beckmann y descubrir la transposición de Beckmann. (es)
  • エルンスト・オットー・ベックマン(Ernst Otto Beckmann, 1853年7月4日 - 1923年7月13日)はドイツの化学者。 ヘルマン・コルベの元で化学を学んだ後、コルベの後任者であったヨハネス・ヴィスリケヌスの助手となった。その後、ライプツィヒ大学、ギーセン大学、エアランゲン大学、ベルリン大学の教授を歴任した。またベルリン大学在籍時にカイザー・ヴィルヘルム化学研究所の初代所長を兼任した。 業績としてはオキシムの研究と凝固点測定器、沸点測定器の開発があり、オキシムの転位反応であるベックマン転位、凝固点降下の測定に用いるベックマン温度計に名前を残している。 130名余りの博士を研究室から出すなど、教育にも熱心であった。 (ja)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (ur. 4 lipca 1853 w Solingen, zm. 13 lipca 1923 w Berlinie) – niemiecki chemik. Zajmował się kriometrią i ebuliometrią. Skonstruował termometr Beckmanna. Prowadził badania nad oksymami. W 1886 roku odkrył przegrupowanie ketoksymów w amidy, nazwane później przegrupowaniem Beckmanna. (pl)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (Solingen, 04 de julho de 1853 - Dahlem, 12 de julho de 1923) foi um químico alemão que é lembrado por sua invenção do termômetro diferencial de Beckmann e pela sua descoberta do rearranjo de Beckmann. (pt)
  • 恩斯特·奥托·贝克曼(Ernst Otto Beckmann,1853年7月4日-1923年7月13日),是一名德国化学家,主要成就包括发明贝克曼温度计和发现贝克曼重排反应。 (zh)
  • Эрнст Отто Бекман (нем. Ernst Otto Beckmann; 4 июля 1853, Золинген — 13 июля 1923, Берлин) — немецкий химик. (ru)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (né le 4 juillet 1853 à Solingen, mort le 13 juillet 1923 à Berlin), est un chimiste allemand. Après l'obtention de son Abitur (baccalauréat), il acheva d'abord une formation d'aide pharmacien et travailla dans différentes villes. De 1875 à 1878, il étudia la pharmacie et la chimie à Leipzig et passa son doctorat. Il obtint son habilitation à diriger des recherches en 1882 à l'université technique de Brunswick, et revint un an plus tard à Leipzig auprès de Hermann Kolbe et devint bientôt lui-même professeur. Il exerça ensuite à Giessen et Erlangen et revint une nouvelle fois en 1897 à Leipzig. En 1912, il devint directeur du nouvel Institut Kaiser-Wilhelm pour la chimie à Berlin-Dahlem. (fr)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann was born in Solingen, Germany on July 4, 1853 to a family headed by Johannes Friedrich Wilhelm Beckmann, a manufacturer. The elder Beckmann's factory produced mineral dyes, pigments, abrasives, and polishing material, and it was there that the younger Beckmann conducted his early chemical experiments. At the age of 17, Beckmann was persuaded by his father to study pharmacy instead of chemistry, and so in 1870 an apprenticeship was arranged in Elberfeld. However, Beckmann did not enjoy the working conditions and returned home, to his father's disappointment. Told that a chemical career would be difficult if could not handle an apprenticeship in pharmacy, Beckmann then returned to Elberfeld to finish his work. He also worked at pharmacies in Arolsen, Burg an der Wupper, L (en)
rdfs:label
  • إرنست أوتو بكمان (ar)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (de)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (es)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (fr)
  • エルンスト・オットー・ベックマン (ja)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (pl)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (en)
  • Ernst Otto Beckmann (pt)
  • Бекман, Эрнст Отто (ru)
  • 恩斯特·奥托·贝克曼 (zh)
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