Squadrismo (IPA: [skwaˈdrizmo]) is the movement of squadre d’azione (literally translated as ‘action squads’), which was a non-state organised fascist militia, led by local leaders called ‘Ras’ (title given to the Abyssinian headmen). The militia originally consisted of farmers and the middle-class creating their own defense against revolutionary socialists. Squadrismo became an important asset for the rise of the fascist party led by Mussolini, by using violence to systematically eliminate any political parties which were opposed to Fascism. This violence was not solely an instrument in politics, but was also a vital component of squadrismo identity, which made it difficult for the movement to be tamed. This was shown in the various attempts by Mussolini to control squadrismo violence, wi

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  • El squadrismo es el término que hace referencia a un fenómeno característico del fascismo italiano. Designa en particular a los movimientos de tipo milicias, dirigidos por jefes locales (los ras, por el nombre de los jefes etíopes) de los Fasci italiani di combattimento. Esta militancia al interior de escuadras de acción fascista duró entre los años 1919 y 1924. (es)
  • Squadrismo (IPA: [skwaˈdrizmo]) is the movement of squadre d’azione (literally translated as ‘action squads’), which was a non-state organised fascist militia, led by local leaders called ‘Ras’ (title given to the Abyssinian headmen). The militia originally consisted of farmers and the middle-class creating their own defense against revolutionary socialists. Squadrismo became an important asset for the rise of the fascist party led by Mussolini, by using violence to systematically eliminate any political parties which were opposed to Fascism. This violence was not solely an instrument in politics, but was also a vital component of squadrismo identity, which made it difficult for the movement to be tamed. This was shown in the various attempts by Mussolini to control squadrismo violence, with the Pact of Pacification, and finally with the Consolidated Public Safety Act. Squadrismo, which ultimately became the Blackshirts, served as a source of inspiration for Adolf Hitler’s S.A. (en)
  • Lo squadrismo fu un fenomeno politico-sociale verificatosi in Italia a partire dal 1919 che consistette nell'uso di squadre d'azione paramilitari armate che avevano lo scopo d’intimidire e reprimere violentemente gli avversari politici, specialmente quelli appartenenti al movimento operaio. Lo squadrismo fu in breve tempo assorbito dal fascismo che lo usò come strumento della propria affermazione. (it)
  • Squadrismo [skwaˈdrizmo] bestod av fascistgrupper under ledning av ras från 1918 till 1924. Som rörelse växte det fram ur den inspiration som många av Ras-ledarna hämtade från Benito Mussolini. Det till trots var inte rörelsen direkt kontrollerad av Mussolini. Squadrismo var till största delen använt för att bekämpa den växande socialiströrelsen i Italien, som var starka motståndare till fascismen. Fascistgrupperna deltog i strejker, organiserade skattestrejker i städer som kontrollerades av socialister och förödmjukade röstare vid valen. År 1922 hade många framstående Ras-ledare, såsom Dino Grandi och Italo Balbo, tagit kontroll över städer i Po-dalen, såsom Ferrara och Bologna. Efter 1921 års val försökte Mussolini vinna kontroll över några av dessa autonoma grupper genom en pacificeringspakt med det socialistiska partiet. Det finns olika tolkningar av anledningarna till pakten: såsom att det var ett återvändande till Mussolinis vänsterinriktade rötter. Det slutgiltiga målet bör dock ha varit att skrämma Ras till konformitet med fasciströrelsen, trots att Ras lekte med idén att avsätta Mussolini som fascistledare och ersätta honom med nationalisten Gabriele d'Annunzio som två år tidigare med framgång ockuperat Fiume tillsammans med 100 000 andra nationalister, i huvudsak före detta soldater. Grupperna identifierades genom sina svarta skjortor, vilket gav dem namnet svartskjortor. Dessa blev senare inspiration till Hitlers S.A. i det tredje riket. (sv)
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  • El squadrismo es el término que hace referencia a un fenómeno característico del fascismo italiano. Designa en particular a los movimientos de tipo milicias, dirigidos por jefes locales (los ras, por el nombre de los jefes etíopes) de los Fasci italiani di combattimento. Esta militancia al interior de escuadras de acción fascista duró entre los años 1919 y 1924. (es)
  • Lo squadrismo fu un fenomeno politico-sociale verificatosi in Italia a partire dal 1919 che consistette nell'uso di squadre d'azione paramilitari armate che avevano lo scopo d’intimidire e reprimere violentemente gli avversari politici, specialmente quelli appartenenti al movimento operaio. Lo squadrismo fu in breve tempo assorbito dal fascismo che lo usò come strumento della propria affermazione. (it)
  • Squadrismo (IPA: [skwaˈdrizmo]) is the movement of squadre d’azione (literally translated as ‘action squads’), which was a non-state organised fascist militia, led by local leaders called ‘Ras’ (title given to the Abyssinian headmen). The militia originally consisted of farmers and the middle-class creating their own defense against revolutionary socialists. Squadrismo became an important asset for the rise of the fascist party led by Mussolini, by using violence to systematically eliminate any political parties which were opposed to Fascism. This violence was not solely an instrument in politics, but was also a vital component of squadrismo identity, which made it difficult for the movement to be tamed. This was shown in the various attempts by Mussolini to control squadrismo violence, wi (en)
  • Squadrismo [skwaˈdrizmo] bestod av fascistgrupper under ledning av ras från 1918 till 1924. Som rörelse växte det fram ur den inspiration som många av Ras-ledarna hämtade från Benito Mussolini. Det till trots var inte rörelsen direkt kontrollerad av Mussolini. Grupperna identifierades genom sina svarta skjortor, vilket gav dem namnet svartskjortor. Dessa blev senare inspiration till Hitlers S.A. i det tredje riket. (sv)
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  • Squadrismo (es)
  • Squadrismo (en)
  • Squadrismo (it)
  • Squadrismo (sv)
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