About: Erethism

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Erethism, also known as erethismus mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex, derived from mercury poisoning. Erethism is characterized by behavioral changes such as irritability, low self-confidence, depression, apathy, shyness and timidity, and in some extreme cases with prolonged exposure to mercury vapors, by delirium, personality changes and memory loss. People with erethism often have difficulty with social interactions. Associated physical problems may include a decrease in physical strength, "headaches, general pain, and tremors after exposure to metallic mercury" as well as an irregular heartbeat.

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  • فرط التهيج هو اضطراب يصيب الجهاز العصبي المركزي ويسمى هذا الاضطراب أيضًا بمرض صانع القبعات المجنون والتسمم بالزئبق، وهو حالة من التغيرات السلوكية مثل سرعة الانفعال وعدم الثقة بالنفس والاكتئاب والفتور والخجل. والتعرض لفترة طويلة إلى أبخرة الزئبق يعتبر من الحالات الخطيرة لأن ذلك يؤدي إلى الهذيان وتغيرات في الشخصية وفقدان الذاكرة. والأشخاص المصابين بهذا الاضطراب غالبًا ما يعانون من صعوبة في التواصل مع الآخرين ومن مشاكل جسدية قد تتضمن نقص القوة البدنية والصداع والآلام وعدم انتظام نبضات القلب وارتعاشات عند التعرض للزئبق. الزئبق هو عنصر عالمي يوجد في التربة والصخور والماء، والأشخاص الذين يتعرضون للزئبق من خلال وظائفهم غالبًا ما يعانون من اضطراب فرط التهيج. والوظائف الأكثر خطورة هي الوظائف التي تتخصص في البناء والصناعة والعمل في المصانع. وهناك بعض الأشكال العنصرية والكيميائية للزئبق مثل بخار الزئبق وميثيل الزئبق والزئبق غير العضوي، وتعتبر هذه الأشكال سامة أكثر من أي شكل آخر كما أن الأشخاص الأكثر تعرضًا للتسمم بالزئبق هم المرضى الذين يعانون من مشاكل في الرئة أو الكلى. والتسمم بالزئبق هو مرض ليس محصورًا فقط في الأماكن المهنية بل من الممكن أن يتواجد خارجها مثل المنزل. ويعتبر استنشاق بخار الزئبق من الطقوس الثقافية والدينية عند البعض، حيث يتم نثر الزئبق على أرض المنزل أو في السيارة أو في الشمع أو أن يكون ممزوجًا مع العطور. ونتيجةً لانتشار الزئبق، تم فحص خطورة التسمم الناتجة عن ملغم الأسنان، وتبين أنه صالح للاستخدام. وهذا الاضطراب كان شائعًا بين صانعي القبعات في إنجلترا لكثرة تعرضهم لأبخرة الزئبق سابقًا، وذلك بأنهم كانوا يستخدمونها لتثبيت الصوف وتسمى هذه العملية التلبيد، حيث يُقَص الشعر من جلد الحيوان مثل الأرنب. فتعرض عمال الصناعة إلى هذه الأبخرة نتج عن ظهور عبارة "مجنون كصانع القبعات" حيث يعتقد البعض أن شخصية صانع القبعات المجنون للكاتب لويس كارول في أليس في بلاد العجائب هي مثال لشخص يعاني من هذا الاضطراب ولكن صحة هذه المعلومة ليست مؤكدة، وكانت الشخصية تمثل دور تاجر أثاث غريب الأطوار. (ar)
  • Als Erethismus (Erethie) bezeichnet man eine krankhaft gesteigerte Erregbarkeit und einen ruhelosen Bewegungsdrang. Die Bezeichnung erethisch kommt aus dem Griechischen (ἐρεθίζω [erethizo]: reizen) und steht für reizbar, erregbar. In der älteren Form der Psychiatrie wird damit jede Form stärkerer und dauerhafter Erregung bezeichnet. Solche Formen können sein: * Erethismus ebriosorum der Alkoholiker, * Erethismus mercurialis (Aufregung und Schlaflosigkeit bei chronischer Quecksilbervergiftung), siehe Hutmachersyndrom, * Erethismus tropicus als Form des Sonnenstichs selten gebraucht für Hitzschlag,, * Erethismus vaginae: Vaginismus, * Erethismus genitalis (gesteigerte geschlechtliche Erregbarkeit). Heute bezeichnet man damit dranghafte Hyperkinesen bei Kindern. Im ICD-10 werden entsprechend unter F90.8 die sonstigen hyperkinetischen Störungen kodiert. (de)
  • Erethism, also known as erethismus mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex, derived from mercury poisoning. Erethism is characterized by behavioral changes such as irritability, low self-confidence, depression, apathy, shyness and timidity, and in some extreme cases with prolonged exposure to mercury vapors, by delirium, personality changes and memory loss. People with erethism often have difficulty with social interactions. Associated physical problems may include a decrease in physical strength, "headaches, general pain, and tremors after exposure to metallic mercury" as well as an irregular heartbeat. Mercury is an element that is found worldwide in soil, rocks, and water. People who get erethism are often exposed to mercury through their jobs. Some of the higher risk jobs that can lead to occupational exposure of workers to mercury are working in a chlor-alki, thermometer, glass blowing, or florescent light bulb factory, and working in construction, dental clinics, or in gold and silver mines. In factories, workers are exposed to mercury primarily through the base products and processes involved in making the final end consumer product. In dental clinics it is primarily through their interaction and installation of dental amalgams to treat dental caries. And in the case of the mines, mercury is used in the process to purify and completely extract the precious metals. Some elemental and chemical forms of mercury (vapor, methylmercury, inorganic mercury) are more toxic than other forms. The human fetus and medically compromised people (for example, patients with lung or kidney problems) are the most susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury. Mercury poisoning can also occur outside of occupational exposures including in the home. Inhalation of mercury vapor may stem from cultural and religious rituals where mercury is sprinkled on the floor of a home or car, burned in a candle, or mixed with perfume. Due to widespread use and popular concern, the risk of toxicity from dental amalgam has been exhaustively investigated. It has conclusively been shown to be safe although in 2020 the FDA issued new guidance for at-risk populations who should avoid mercury amalgam. Historically, this was common among old England felt-hatmakers who had long-term exposure to vapors from the mercury they used to stabilize the wool in a process called felting, where hair was cut from a pelt of an animal such as a rabbit. The industrial workers were exposed to the mercury vapors, giving rise to the expression "mad as a hatter". Some believe that the character the Mad Hatter in Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland is an example of someone suffering from erethism, but the origin of this account is unclear. The character was almost certainly based on Theophilus Carter, an eccentric furniture dealer who was well known to Carroll. (en)
  • L'éréthisme mercuriel, également connu sous le nom d'erethismus mercurialis, est un trouble neurologique qui affecte l'ensemble du système nerveux central, ainsi qu'un complexe de symptômes, dérivé d'un empoisonnement au mercure. L'éréthisme se caractérise par des changements de comportement tels que l'irritabilité, le manque de confiance en soi, la dépression, l'apathie, la timidité, et dans certains cas extrêmes d'exposition prolongée aux vapeurs de mercure, par le délire, des changements de personnalité et des pertes de mémoire. Les personnes atteintes d'éréthisme ont souvent des difficultés à avoir des interactions sociales. Les problèmes physiques associés peuvent inclure une diminution de la force physique, des maux de tête, des douleurs générales et des tremblements après une exposition au mercure métallique ainsi qu'un rythme cardiaque irrégulier. Le mercure est un élément que l'on trouve dans le monde entier dans le sol, les roches et l'eau. Les personnes atteintes d'éréthisme sont souvent exposées au mercure dans le cadre de leur travail. Les emplois à haut risque comprennent la construction, le travail industriel et le travail en usine. Certaines formes élémentaires et chimiques du mercure (vapeur, méthylmercure, mercure inorganique) sont plus toxiques que d'autres. Le fœtus humain et les personnes médicalement fragiles (par exemple, les patients souffrant de problèmes pulmonaires ou rénaux) sont les plus sensibles aux effets toxiques du mercure. L'intoxication au mercure peut également se produire en dehors des expositions professionnelles, notamment à la maison. L'inhalation de vapeurs de mercure peut provenir de rituels culturels et religieux où le mercure est saupoudré sur le sol d'une maison ou d'une voiture, brûlé dans une bougie ou mélangé à un parfum. En raison de l'utilisation répandue et des inquiétudes des populations, le risque de toxicité entraîné par la présence de mercure dans les amalgames dentaires a été étudié de manière exhaustive. Il a été démontré de manière concluante que le risque est faible. En 2020, l'Agence américaine des produits alimentaires et médicamenteux a cependant publié de nouvelles directives concernant les populations à risque préconisant d'éviter les amalgames au mercure. Historiquement, l'éthérisme mercuriel était courant chez les fabricants de chapeaux en feutre de la vieille Angleterre qui étaient exposés à long terme aux vapeurs du mercure qu'ils utilisaient pour stabiliser la laine dans un processus appelé feutrage, où les poils étaient coupés dans la peau d'un animal tel qu'un lapin. Les travailleurs industriels étaient également couramment exposés aux vapeurs de mercure. (fr)
  • L'eretismo (dal greco erethízein, irritare), in medicina, è uno stato di aumentata eccitabilità, generalizzato o circoscritto. In quanto tale si considera malattia psicogena. Esistono poi altre forme come quella cardiovascolare e quella mercuriale. (it)
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  • Mercury poisoning, chronic (en)
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  • The surprise is that men can be induced to work at all in such death producing enclosures. It is hard to believe that men of ordinary intelligence could be so indifferent to the ordinary laws of health... It does not seem to have occurred to them that all the efforts to keep up wages... [are] largely offset by the impairment of their health, due to neglect of proper hygienic regulations of their workshops... And when the fact of the workmen in the sizing room, who stand in water, was mentioned, and the simple and inexpensive means by which it could be largely avoided was spoken of, the reply was that it would cost money and hat manufacturers did not care to expend money for such purposes, if they could avoid it. (en)
  • The man affected is easily upset and embarrassed, loses all joy in life and lives in constant fear of being dismissed from his job. He has a sense of timidity and may lose self control before visitors. Thus, if one stops to watch such a man in a factory, he will sometimes throw down his tools and turn in anger on the intruder, saying he cannot work if watched. Occasionally a man is obliged to give up work because he can no longer take orders without losing his temper or, if he is a foreman, because he has no patience with men under him. Drowsiness, depression, loss of memory and insomnia may occur, but hallucinations, delusions and mania are rare. (en)
  • The most characteristic symptom, though it is seldom the first to appear, is mercurial tremor. It is neither as fine nor as regular as that of hyperthyroidism. It may be interrupted every few minutes by coarse jerky movements. It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms and legs, so that it becomes very difficult for a man to walk about the workshop, and he may have to be guided to his bench. At this stage the condition is so obvious that it is known to the layman as "hatter's shakes." (en)
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  • Buckell et al., Chronic Mercury Poisoning (en)
  • Bishop, Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries of New Jersey (en)
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  • L'eretismo (dal greco erethízein, irritare), in medicina, è uno stato di aumentata eccitabilità, generalizzato o circoscritto. In quanto tale si considera malattia psicogena. Esistono poi altre forme come quella cardiovascolare e quella mercuriale. (it)
  • فرط التهيج هو اضطراب يصيب الجهاز العصبي المركزي ويسمى هذا الاضطراب أيضًا بمرض صانع القبعات المجنون والتسمم بالزئبق، وهو حالة من التغيرات السلوكية مثل سرعة الانفعال وعدم الثقة بالنفس والاكتئاب والفتور والخجل. والتعرض لفترة طويلة إلى أبخرة الزئبق يعتبر من الحالات الخطيرة لأن ذلك يؤدي إلى الهذيان وتغيرات في الشخصية وفقدان الذاكرة. والأشخاص المصابين بهذا الاضطراب غالبًا ما يعانون من صعوبة في التواصل مع الآخرين ومن مشاكل جسدية قد تتضمن نقص القوة البدنية والصداع والآلام وعدم انتظام نبضات القلب وارتعاشات عند التعرض للزئبق. (ar)
  • Als Erethismus (Erethie) bezeichnet man eine krankhaft gesteigerte Erregbarkeit und einen ruhelosen Bewegungsdrang. Die Bezeichnung erethisch kommt aus dem Griechischen (ἐρεθίζω [erethizo]: reizen) und steht für reizbar, erregbar. In der älteren Form der Psychiatrie wird damit jede Form stärkerer und dauerhafter Erregung bezeichnet. Solche Formen können sein: Heute bezeichnet man damit dranghafte Hyperkinesen bei Kindern. Im ICD-10 werden entsprechend unter F90.8 die sonstigen hyperkinetischen Störungen kodiert. (de)
  • Erethism, also known as erethismus mercurialis, mad hatter disease, or mad hatter syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex, derived from mercury poisoning. Erethism is characterized by behavioral changes such as irritability, low self-confidence, depression, apathy, shyness and timidity, and in some extreme cases with prolonged exposure to mercury vapors, by delirium, personality changes and memory loss. People with erethism often have difficulty with social interactions. Associated physical problems may include a decrease in physical strength, "headaches, general pain, and tremors after exposure to metallic mercury" as well as an irregular heartbeat. (en)
  • L'éréthisme mercuriel, également connu sous le nom d'erethismus mercurialis, est un trouble neurologique qui affecte l'ensemble du système nerveux central, ainsi qu'un complexe de symptômes, dérivé d'un empoisonnement au mercure. L'éréthisme se caractérise par des changements de comportement tels que l'irritabilité, le manque de confiance en soi, la dépression, l'apathie, la timidité, et dans certains cas extrêmes d'exposition prolongée aux vapeurs de mercure, par le délire, des changements de personnalité et des pertes de mémoire. Les personnes atteintes d'éréthisme ont souvent des difficultés à avoir des interactions sociales. Les problèmes physiques associés peuvent inclure une diminution de la force physique, des maux de tête, des douleurs générales et des tremblements après une exposi (fr)
rdfs:label
  • فرط التهيج (ar)
  • Erethismus (de)
  • Erethism (en)
  • Éréthisme mercuriel (fr)
  • Eretismo (it)
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  • Mercury poisoning, chronic (neurological symptomatology) (en)
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