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dbr:Miscegenation
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Mescolanza razziale 混合 (社会学) Mestizaje Метисація Miscegenation Métis Amalgamasi Rasblandning Miscigenação تمازج الأجناس Cinemheascadh Метисация
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A miscigenação ou mestiçagem consiste na mistura de raças, de povos e de diferentes etnias. Assim, multirraciais ou mestiças são as pessoas que não são descendentes de uma única origem. Essas pessoas possuem características de cada uma das raças de que descendem. Um exemplo pode ser alguém com ancestralidade europeia e africana, ou com ancestralidade europeia e indígena. Por exemplo, nos EUA, 6,1 milhões de pessoas se autodeclararam multirraciais no censo de 2001. تمازج الأجناس (بالإنجليزية: Miscegenation) هو الاختلاط بين المجموعات العرقية المختلفة من خلال أو المعاشرة أو العلاقات الجنسية أو الإنجاب ، غلباً ما ينظر إلى الاختلاط الذي يُعتقد أنه يؤثر سلبًا على نقاء عرق أو ثقافة معينة. مكافحة تمازج الأجناس هو موضوع بارز في تفوق البيض. Метиса́ция (от лат. mixticius букв. смешение; также или от миксус и генус букв. «смешанные гены, смешанная родословная») — физическое смешение (половые контакты с последующим появлением генетически смешанного потомства) разных популяций людей, принадлежащих как к близким, так и к разным, особенно удалённым друг от друга этносам и расам. 混合(英文:Amalgamation),指的是:某一民族或者种族群体与主流人口在生物意义上的。如迁入美国的来自世界各地不同的民族的人群、中国的生活在汉族为主的地域的少数民族等都会与当地的主流人口发生混合。 Метисація (від лат. mixticius букв. змішання; також місгенація або міксгенація від міксус і генус, букв. «змішані гени, змішаний родовід») — фізичне змішання (статеві контакти з подальшою появою генетично змішаного потомства) різних популяцій людей, що належать як до близьких, так і до різних, особливо віддалених один від одного етносів і рас. Amalgamasi adalah istilah kuno sekarang sebagian besar untuk perkawinan dan antar pembiakan dari etnik yang berbeda atau ras. Di dunia berbahasa Inggris, istilah ini digunakan dalam abad kedua puluh. Di Amerika Serikat, sebagian diganti setelah 1863 dengan istilah perkawinan antara suku atau bangsa. Sementara itu, istilah amalgamasi bisa mengacu pada antar pembiakan yang berbeda putih maupun etnis non-putih, istilah perkawinan antara suku atau bangsa dimaksud antar pembiakan khusus untuk kulit putih dan non-putih, terutama Afrika-Amerika. Miscegenation () is the interbreeding of people who are considered to be of different racial types. This racial mixing requires sexual activity between members of different races, thus producing mixed-race offspring. Opposition to miscegenation, thereby preserving their race's purity and nature, is a typical theme of racial supremacist movements, especially white supremacy. Is an trasphórú na daoine a mheastar a bheitha ina ciniúil éagsúil cineálacha é cinemheascadh. Il termine miscegenazione, ovvero mescolanza etnica, si diffuse nel corso del XIX secolo per riferirsi agli incroci di diverse cosiddette "etnie umane", soprattutto in considerazione del colore della pelle umana e del presupposto che voleva l'esistenza di etnie ben distinte riferibili alla specie umana (vedi storia dei concetti razziali nella specie umana). Le terme métis, au féminin : métisse, du latin : mixtīcius ou mixtus qui signifie « mélangé »/« mêlé », est employé, dans le langage courant, pour désigner des personnes dont les parents auraient des caractéristiques géographiques, culturelles ou phénotypiques différentes. Pour les scientifiques, tous les êtres humains sont le produit d'un mélange génétique de même nature. Comme la "race", le métissage n'est pas une catégorie biologique. Rasblandning är ett begrepp som historiskt använts för att beskriva par från olika så kallade mänskliga raser som gifter sig, inleder ett förhållande, eller skaffar barn. Rasbegreppet är idag omstritt, och termen anses även vara rasistisk. Idag råder det vetenskaplig konsensus om att människan inte går att kategorisera i separata raser. Istället ses i regel hela människosläktet idag som en enda "ras", och därför är begreppet rasblandning inte meningsfullt.
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dbo:abstract
Il termine miscegenazione, ovvero mescolanza etnica, si diffuse nel corso del XIX secolo per riferirsi agli incroci di diverse cosiddette "etnie umane", soprattutto in considerazione del colore della pelle umana e del presupposto che voleva l'esistenza di etnie ben distinte riferibili alla specie umana (vedi storia dei concetti razziali nella specie umana). "Miscegenazione" o mescolanza genetica deriva da miscuglio (dalla lingua latina miscere-mescolare e genus-discendenza) è stato considerato come il mescolamento di diversi gruppi etnici attraverso il matrimonio, la convivenza, le relazioni sessuali o la procreazione. A causa dell'utilizzazione storica del termine in contesti generalmente implicanti una forte disapprovazione, parole più neutrali come interrazziale, interetnico o transculturale si rivelano essere più comuni nell'uso contemporaneo. Il termine, soprattutto nei paesi anglosassoni, dove viene indicato come miscegenation, venne utilizzato fin dal XIX secolo per riferirsi al e alle relazioni sessuali interetnici e, più in generale, al processo di "commistione genetica". Storicamente fu utilizzato nel contesto delle leggi contro la mescolanza razziale che vietarono il matrimonio e il rapporto sessuale interrazziale. Il termine derivante dal latino acquisì un primato storico e penetrò massimamente durante il colonialismo europeo e nel corso dell'epoca delle esplorazioni geografiche. A miscigenação ou mestiçagem consiste na mistura de raças, de povos e de diferentes etnias. Assim, multirraciais ou mestiças são as pessoas que não são descendentes de uma única origem. Essas pessoas possuem características de cada uma das raças de que descendem. Um exemplo pode ser alguém com ancestralidade europeia e africana, ou com ancestralidade europeia e indígena. Por exemplo, nos EUA, 6,1 milhões de pessoas se autodeclararam multirraciais no censo de 2001. Este termo também pode se referir a uma sociedade multiétnica, com alto grau de heterogeneidade cultural e grande variedade de tipos humanos, mas não, necessariamente, alto grau de miscigenação entre as etnias. Exemplos de sociedades multirraciais são o Brasil, E.U.A, África do Sul, Mexico, Canadá, Austrália, França, Reino Unido e Colombia. China, Rússia, Argentina e Índia possuem sociedades multiétnicas, mas não, propriamente, multirraciais, onde a interação entre as diferentes raças é bem menos presente. Le terme métis, au féminin : métisse, du latin : mixtīcius ou mixtus qui signifie « mélangé »/« mêlé », est employé, dans le langage courant, pour désigner des personnes dont les parents auraient des caractéristiques géographiques, culturelles ou phénotypiques différentes. Pour les scientifiques, tous les êtres humains sont le produit d'un mélange génétique de même nature. Comme la "race", le métissage n'est pas une catégorie biologique. 混合(英文:Amalgamation),指的是:某一民族或者种族群体与主流人口在生物意义上的。如迁入美国的来自世界各地不同的民族的人群、中国的生活在汉族为主的地域的少数民族等都会与当地的主流人口发生混合。 تمازج الأجناس (بالإنجليزية: Miscegenation) هو الاختلاط بين المجموعات العرقية المختلفة من خلال أو المعاشرة أو العلاقات الجنسية أو الإنجاب ، غلباً ما ينظر إلى الاختلاط الذي يُعتقد أنه يؤثر سلبًا على نقاء عرق أو ثقافة معينة. مكافحة تمازج الأجناس هو موضوع بارز في تفوق البيض. على الرغم من أن المجتمعات الأنسانية هم نتيجة الاختلاط المستمر للعديد من المجموعات السكانية منذ عصور ما قبل التاريخ ، إلا أن المحظورات المتعلقة بالاختلاط - في بعض الحالات التي تم إنفاذها قانونًا - موجودة وما زالت موجودة في العديد من المجتمعات القائمة على العرق. في جنوب أفريقيا شملت السياسة الرسمية للفصل العنصري لسنوات عديدة المحظورات القانونية على تمازج الأجناس. على الرغم من أن فكرة الاختلاط الأجناس كأمر غير مرغوب فيه قد نشأ في نقاط مختلفة في التاريخ، واكتسبت أهمية خاصة في أوروبا خلال حقبة الاستعمار. دخل تمازج الأجناس مصطلح اللغة الإنجليزية في القرن التاسع حيث بدأ الفصل العنصري لتصبح أكثر طابعا رسميا في الولايات المتحدة. تم استخدامه على وجه التحديد للإشارة إلى الزواج بين الأعراق والعلاقات الجنسية بين الأعراق. وجاء هذا المصطلح لتترافق مع القوانين التي تمنع الزواج بين الأعراق والجنس، والمعروفة باسم قوانين مكافحة تمازج الأجناس. إلى أن أعلنت المحكمة العليا عدم دستوريتها في عام 1967. لطالما كانت البرازيل بوتقة تنصهر فيها مجموعة واسعة من الثقافات . منذ العصور الاستعمارية ، كان البرازيليون البرتغاليون يفضلون الاستيعاب والتسامح تجاه الشعوب الأخرى ، وكان التزاوج مقبولاً في البرازيل أكثر من معظم المستعمرات الأوروبية الأخرى ؛ ومع ذلك ، لم يكن المجتمع البرازيلي أبدًا خالٍ تمامًا من الصراع والاستغلال العرقيين ، وقد اختارت بعض المجموعات أن تبقى منفصلة عن الحياة الاجتماعية السائدة. يمثل البرازيليون المنحدرون من أصل أوروبي ما يقرب من نصف السكان ، على الرغم من أن الأشخاص من خلفيات عرقية مختلطة يشكلون شريحة أكبر على نحو متزايد ؛ أكثر من خمسي المجموع هم مولاتو ؛ (وهم أناس من أصول أفريقية وأوروبية مختلطة) و مستيزو (وهم أناس من أصول أوروبية وهندية مختلطة). وهناك نسبة صغيرة من أصل أفريقي أو من أصل أفريقي هندي بالكامل ، والشعوب من أصل آسيوي لحساب تقسيم أصغر من المجموع. الهنود ، إلى حد بعيد ، أصغر المجموعات العرقية الرئيسية ؛ ومع ذلك ، ما يصل إلى ثلث جميع البرازيليين لديهم بعض الأسلاف الهنود. Метисація (від лат. mixticius букв. змішання; також місгенація або міксгенація від міксус і генус, букв. «змішані гени, змішаний родовід») — фізичне змішання (статеві контакти з подальшою появою генетично змішаного потомства) різних популяцій людей, що належать як до близьких, так і до різних, особливо віддалених один від одного етносів і рас. У ряді країн метисація викликає або викликала традиційно негативну реакцію на побутовому рівні (нацистська расова політика, «правило однієї краплі крові», апартеїд, сегрегація тощо). Для боротьби з метисацією протягом століть витрачалися адміністративні, політичні та соціальні ресурси багатьох країн (США, Британська імперія, Німеччина, ПАР, Нідерланди). Так, у США до 1967 року діяли ; в ПАР заборону на міжрасові шлюби було знято лише в 1985 році. Метиса́ция (от лат. mixticius букв. смешение; также или от миксус и генус букв. «смешанные гены, смешанная родословная») — физическое смешение (половые контакты с последующим появлением генетически смешанного потомства) разных популяций людей, принадлежащих как к близким, так и к разным, особенно удалённым друг от друга этносам и расам. В ряде стран метисация вызывает или вызывала традиционно негативную реакцию на бытовом уровне (нацистская расовая политика, «правило одной капли крови», апартеид, сегрегация и т. д.). Для борьбы с метисацией были брошены административные, политические и социальные ресурсы многих стран на протяжении столетий (США, Британская империя, Германия, ЮАР, Нидерланды). Так, в США до 1967 года действовали ; в ЮАР запрет на межрасовые браки был снят лишь в 1985 году. Rasblandning är ett begrepp som historiskt använts för att beskriva par från olika så kallade mänskliga raser som gifter sig, inleder ett förhållande, eller skaffar barn. Rasbegreppet är idag omstritt, och termen anses även vara rasistisk. Idag råder det vetenskaplig konsensus om att människan inte går att kategorisera i separata raser. Istället ses i regel hela människosläktet idag som en enda "ras", och därför är begreppet rasblandning inte meningsfullt. Antropologiskt råder konsensus att det inte finns människoraser, och man anser att försök till identifiering av rasskillnader mellan människor inte är en vetenskaplig verksamhet. Sociologisk forskning har visat att fördomsfyllda historiska föreställningar om existens av "raser" bland människor kan få konsekvenser för individers liv genom såväl privilegier som exkludering och diskriminering. "Ras" betraktas idag inom vetenskapen som en social konstruktion där konstruktionen av "ras" sker genom en materiell process som kallas rasifiering. I västerländska samhällen finns rasregelsystem där skapandet av "ras", rasidentiteter och rasrelationer helt eller delvis skett genom en naturalistisk eller historicistisk modell, eller i kombination. Den första utgår ifrån rasbiologiska antaganden om högre och lägre stående raser medan den förra utgår ifrån kulturella och kulturrasistiska principer. Miscegenation () is the interbreeding of people who are considered to be of different racial types. This racial mixing requires sexual activity between members of different races, thus producing mixed-race offspring. Opposition to miscegenation, thereby preserving their race's purity and nature, is a typical theme of racial supremacist movements, especially white supremacy. Though the notion that racial mixing is undesirable has arisen at different points in history, it gained particular prominence in Europe during the era of colonialism. Anonymous authors invented the word in an 1863 fraudulent political pamphlet, indicating that miscegenation meant interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations, particularly between "... the American White Man and Negro". The term came to be associated with laws which banned interracial marriage and sex, these laws were known as anti-miscegenation laws. Although the term "miscegenation" was formed from the Latin miscere "to mix" plus genus "race" or "kind", and it could therefore be perceived as value-neutral, it is almost always a pejorative term used by people who believe in white racial superiority and purity. More neutral terms for mixed-race relationships, such as "interracial", "interethnic", or even "cross-cultural" are more common in contemporary usage. In Spanish America, the term mestizaje, which is derived from mestizo—the blending of European whites and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, is used to refer to racial mixing. Amalgamasi adalah istilah kuno sekarang sebagian besar untuk perkawinan dan antar pembiakan dari etnik yang berbeda atau ras. Di dunia berbahasa Inggris, istilah ini digunakan dalam abad kedua puluh. Di Amerika Serikat, sebagian diganti setelah 1863 dengan istilah perkawinan antara suku atau bangsa. Sementara itu, istilah amalgamasi bisa mengacu pada antar pembiakan yang berbeda putih maupun etnis non-putih, istilah perkawinan antara suku atau bangsa dimaksud antar pembiakan khusus untuk kulit putih dan non-putih, terutama Afrika-Amerika. Penggabungan istilah ini berasal dari metalurgi. Ini telah dikaitkan dengan metafora dari melting pot, yang juga berasal dari AS, dan yang menggambarkan asimilasi dan perkawinan antar budaya dari etnik yang berbeda. Perkawinan antar kulit putih dengan Amerika dan Afrika, dengan tingkat lebih rendah, non-putih itu sampai saat ini tidak disukai sosial di Amerika Serikat, meskipun sejarah panjang penghubung informal antara laki-laki kulit putih dan wanita kulit putih selama bertahun-tahun perbudakan dan setelah emansipasi. Sampai tahun 1967, perkawinan antar-ras dilarang di banyak negara bagian Amerika Serikat melalui undang-undang anti-perkawinan antara suku atau bangsa. Is an trasphórú na daoine a mheastar a bheitha ina ciniúil éagsúil cineálacha é cinemheascadh.
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