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Subject Item
dbr:Constitution_of_the_United_Kingdom
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Constitución del Reino Unido Constituição do Reino Unido Costituzione del Regno Unito Конституция Великобритании Σύνταγμα του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου Britse grondwet Constitution du Royaume-Uni 영국의 헌법 Конституція Великої Британії دستور المملكة المتحدة イギリスの憲法 Constitution of the United Kingdom Konstitusi Britania Raya 英国宪法
rdfs:comment
英国宪法(英語:Constitution of United Kingdom),是一系列规范英国政治体制的规则的统称。英国宪法不是一个单一的成文法律文件,而是几个世纪以来,通过制定法,判例,和而形成的一系列原则的集合。 早在1215年的大宪章,英国就形成了法律面前人人平等的原则和议会的原则,在1688年光荣革命过后,建立了议会主权原则,正式形成了现代宪法的雏形,英国人民通过不断的几百年的抗争和努力,终于使英国在1928年正式进入民主社会。1972年,英国正式加入欧洲共同体,议会主权部分上交欧洲议会。1997年,英国开始权力下放,英国宪法从一个单一制宪法向联邦制宪法转化,1998年人权法案,正式把欧洲人权公约正式纳入了英国宪法框架,2005年宪法改革,把终审权从议会上院剥离,同时剥离了的部分司法职能,组成了新的英国最高法院。2020年1月,英国正式脱离欧洲联盟,未来欧盟法对英国宪法失去了限制。 英国宪法,通过几百年来的不断的改革,抗争和进化,形成了议会主权,法治,,君主特权,和,六大基本原则,体现了人权,民主,自由,平等现代民主宪法的最基本的要求。 A Constituição do Reino Unido (Constitution of the United Kingdom) é o conjunto de leis e princípios sob o qual o Reino Unido é governado. Não é constituído de um único documento constitucional, como o é, por exemplo, a Constituição dos Estados Unidos. É, muitas vezes, dito que o país tem uma constituição "não escrita", "não codificada" ou de facto ("na prática"). A maior parte da constituição britânica existe na forma escrita de leis, jurisprudência, tratados e convenções. Ως Σύνταγμα του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου ορίζεται το άθροισμα των νόμων και των αρχών που απαρτίζουν το πολιτικό σώμα του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου. Αφορά τόσο τη σχέση μεταξύ του ατόμου και του κράτους, όσο και τη λειτουργία της νομοθετικής, της εκτελεστικής και της δικαστικής εξουσίας. Σε αντίθεση με πολλά άλλα έθνη, το Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο δεν έχει ενιαίο συνταγματικό έγγραφο. Έτσι, ορισμένες φορές αυτό χαρακτηρίζεται ως ακωδικοποίητο ή άγραφο σύνταγμα. Μεγάλο μέρος του βρετανικού συντάγματος είναι ενσωματωμένο σε γραπτά έγγραφα, στο πλαίσιο καταστατικών, δικαστικών αποφάσεων, έργα αρχών και συνθηκών. Το σύνταγμα έχει άλλες άγραφες πηγές, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των κοινοβουλευτικών συνταγματικών συμβάσεων. Конститу́ция Великобрита́нии — некодифицированная конституция, состоящая из законов, прецедентов и конституционных обычаев Великобритании, которые определяют порядок формирования и полномочия органов государства, принципы взаимоотношений государственных органов между собой, а также государственных органов и граждан. Er is in het Verenigd Koninkrijk geen document dat de naam Britse grondwet draagt. Toch is het niet zo dat de grondwet daarom ongeschreven is. Enkele centrale elementen, waarvan sommige al enkele eeuwen oud, zijn vastgelegd in zogenaamde "Acts of Parliament". Het principe van de is erg sterk. De laatste jaren is er vraag geweest om een geschreven grondwet, die de macht van het parlement en de regering zou omschrijven, maar die vraag stierf een stille dood. La costituzione del Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord costituisce l'insieme delle leggi e dei principi attraverso cui il Regno Unito viene governato. 영국의 헌법(Constitution of the United Kingdom)은 영국과 영국 정부가 통치하는 곳에 적용되는 법 조항을 담고 있다. 다른 국가와 달리 영국은 단일 헌법 문서가 없으며 이는 명문화되지 않은 헌법 즉, 성문법이 아니다. 쓰여지지 않은("unwritten") 헌법으로 칭해지기도 한다. 영국 헌법의 대다수는 여러 문서에 구체화되어 있으며 실증 사례나 협약, 조항 등을 담는다. 미포함된 원천 자료로는 영국 의회와 재판 관행, 국왕의 특권 등이 해당된다. 따라서 관습법과 헌법에 입각한 관습률로 구성되어 있다고 볼 수 있다. 명예혁명(1688) 이후 영국 헌법의 근간은 의회의 영향력으로 판단되기도 했으며 실질적으로 최고 권위를 갖고 있다. 이는 의회가 새로운 의회제정법 제정을 통해 새 헌법을 통과시킬 수 있음을 의미한다. 이 원칙이 여전히 유효한가에 대해서는 논란의 소지가 있는데 유럽연합 가입국이기에 더욱 그렇다. La constitución británica es el conjunto de leyes y principios bajo los cuales se gobierna el Reino Unido.​ A diferencia de muchas otras naciones, el Reino Unido no tiene ningún documento constitucional único. En este sentido, se dice que no tiene una constitución escrita, sino que tiene una no codificada.​ Gran parte de la constitución británica se plasma en documentos escritos, dentro de leyes, sentencias judiciales, y tratados. La constitución tiene otras fuentes no escritas, que incluyen convenciones constitucionales parlamentarias (como se establece en ) y prerrogativas reales. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is the system of rules that decides the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Unlike most countries, the UK constitution is not codified into a single document. However, the UK Supreme Court recognises that there are constitutional principles, including Parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law, democracy, and upholding international law. The UK Supreme Court also recognises that some Acts of Parliament have special constitutional status. These include Magna Carta, which in 1215 required the King to call a "common counsel" (now called Parliament) to represent people, to hold courts in a fixed place, to guarantee fair trials, to guarantee free movement of people, to free the church from the state, and to gua Конституція Великої Британії — це сукупність законів, прецедентів і Великої Британії, які визначають порядок формування та повноваження органів держави, принципи взаємин державних органів між собою, а також державних органів і громадян. La constitution du Royaume-Uni est un ensemble de règles constitutionnelles non codifiées issues de la loi, de la jurisprudence, d'usages constitutionnels. Les premières règles établies remontent au Moyen Âge et le Royaume-Uni est aujourd'hui l'un des deux seuls États occidentaux à être resté fidèle à une Constitution largement coutumière. Parmi ces règles coutumières la démission de l'ensemble du Cabinet lorsque sa politique est remise en cause par les Chambres, qui ne figurent dans aucun texte. 連合王国の憲法(れんごうおうこくのけんぽう、英: Constitution of the United Kingdom)は、イギリス(グレートブリテン及び北アイルランド連合王国、英: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)において、議会決議や法律、裁判所の判例、国際条約、慣習等のうち、国家の性格を規定するものの集合体である。 単一の憲法典としては成典化されていないため、不文憲法または不成典憲法(uncodified constitution)であるといわれるが、それはあくまでも憲法典としての単一の成典を持たないという意味であり、法文化された憲法法(Constitutional law)は先述及び後述のとおり明確に存在している。憲法を構成する大部分は成文法(憲法的法規、law of the constitution)であり、議会によって改正・改革が行われる軟性憲法であるが、慣習に基づき、伝統的に憲法を構成するとされる法典が、その他の法律のようにむやみに改廃されることはない。成文法の他、様々な慣習法(憲法的習律、conventions of the constitution)に基づく権力(国王など)の権能の制限、貴族の権限及び儀礼の様式なども、イギリスの憲法を構成する要素に含まれている。 دستور المملكة المتحدة هي مجموعة من القوانين والمبادئ التي تخضع لها المملكة المتحدة. من المعروف أن بريطانيا هي بلد ديمقراطي لا يملك دستوراً مكتوباً، فالدستور الإنجليزي غير مدون،. أي أن أحكام هذا الدستور غير مضمنة في وثيقة واحدة أسوة بالدستور الفرنسي أو الأمريكي أو غيرهما من الدساتير. Konstitusi Inggris Raya, Undang-Undang Negara Inggris Raya atau UU Inggris Raya adalah sebuah penjelasan hukum dan prinsip yang membuat di Britania Raya. Konstitusi tersebut melingkupi hubungan antar individual dan negara, dan memfungsikan legislatur, eksekutif dan yudisier. Sejak Revolusi Glorious 1688, konsep telah menjadi sandaran konstitusi legislatif Inggris, yang merupakan statuta-statuta yang disahkan oleh Parlemen sebagai sumber hukum tertinggi dan final di Inggris.
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Of the twelve regions of the UK, eight in England remain unrepresented, while Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and London have their own Parliaments or Assemblies. Each have varying powers, for instance, over transport, environmental, housing, and some limited parts of labour rights, and tax.
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دستور المملكة المتحدة هي مجموعة من القوانين والمبادئ التي تخضع لها المملكة المتحدة. من المعروف أن بريطانيا هي بلد ديمقراطي لا يملك دستوراً مكتوباً، فالدستور الإنجليزي غير مدون،. أي أن أحكام هذا الدستور غير مضمنة في وثيقة واحدة أسوة بالدستور الفرنسي أو الأمريكي أو غيرهما من الدساتير. La costituzione del Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord costituisce l'insieme delle leggi e dei principi attraverso cui il Regno Unito viene governato. A Constituição do Reino Unido (Constitution of the United Kingdom) é o conjunto de leis e princípios sob o qual o Reino Unido é governado. Não é constituído de um único documento constitucional, como o é, por exemplo, a Constituição dos Estados Unidos. É, muitas vezes, dito que o país tem uma constituição "não escrita", "não codificada" ou de facto ("na prática"). A maior parte da constituição britânica existe na forma escrita de leis, jurisprudência, tratados e convenções. O alicerce da constituição britânica tem sido, tradicionalmente, a soberania parlamentar, segundo a qual os estatutos são aprovados pelo Parlamento do Reino Unido, suprema e última fonte de direito. Isto significa que os membros do parlamento podem mudar a constituição simplesmente ao aprovar novas leis. No entanto, membros da União Europeia têm dificultado esse princípio. O de 1972 coloca o Reino Unido sob todas as leis da União Europeia (e desabilita quaisquer disposições acerca de seus próprios conflitos), o que se passa também com os outros estados-membros. Ως Σύνταγμα του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου ορίζεται το άθροισμα των νόμων και των αρχών που απαρτίζουν το πολιτικό σώμα του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου. Αφορά τόσο τη σχέση μεταξύ του ατόμου και του κράτους, όσο και τη λειτουργία της νομοθετικής, της εκτελεστικής και της δικαστικής εξουσίας. Σε αντίθεση με πολλά άλλα έθνη, το Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο δεν έχει ενιαίο συνταγματικό έγγραφο. Έτσι, ορισμένες φορές αυτό χαρακτηρίζεται ως ακωδικοποίητο ή άγραφο σύνταγμα. Μεγάλο μέρος του βρετανικού συντάγματος είναι ενσωματωμένο σε γραπτά έγγραφα, στο πλαίσιο καταστατικών, δικαστικών αποφάσεων, έργα αρχών και συνθηκών. Το σύνταγμα έχει άλλες άγραφες πηγές, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των κοινοβουλευτικών συνταγματικών συμβάσεων. Μετά την Ένδοξη Επανάσταση του 1688, το θεμέλιο του νομοθετικού συντάγματος χαρακτηρίστηκε το δόγμα της κοινοβουλευτικής κυριαρχίας, σύμφωνα με το οποίο τα καταστατικά που ψηφίζονται από το Κοινοβούλιο αποτελούν υπέρτατη και τελική πηγή της νομοθεσίας του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου. Κατά συνέπεια, το Κοινοβούλιο μπορεί αλλάξει το σύνταγμα απλά ψηφίζοντας νέες Πράξεις. Ωστόσο, υπάρχει μία αμφισβήτηση σχετικά με το αν η αρχή της κοινοβουλευτικής κυριαρχίας εξακολουθεί να ισχύει, ιδίως υπό το πρίσμα της ένταξης του Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Μια άλλη βασική αρχή του βρετανικού συντάγματος, όπως διατυπώνεται από τον νομικό λόγιο , είναι το κράτος δικαίου. 連合王国の憲法(れんごうおうこくのけんぽう、英: Constitution of the United Kingdom)は、イギリス(グレートブリテン及び北アイルランド連合王国、英: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)において、議会決議や法律、裁判所の判例、国際条約、慣習等のうち、国家の性格を規定するものの集合体である。 単一の憲法典としては成典化されていないため、不文憲法または不成典憲法(uncodified constitution)であるといわれるが、それはあくまでも憲法典としての単一の成典を持たないという意味であり、法文化された憲法法(Constitutional law)は先述及び後述のとおり明確に存在している。憲法を構成する大部分は成文法(憲法的法規、law of the constitution)であり、議会によって改正・改革が行われる軟性憲法であるが、慣習に基づき、伝統的に憲法を構成するとされる法典が、その他の法律のようにむやみに改廃されることはない。成文法の他、様々な慣習法(憲法的習律、conventions of the constitution)に基づく権力(国王など)の権能の制限、貴族の権限及び儀礼の様式なども、イギリスの憲法を構成する要素に含まれている。 議会主権を基礎とすることから、通常の手続に従って議会が法律を制定することにより、憲法的事項を制定、変更することが可能である。かつて首相を務めていたゴードン・ブラウンは、イギリスにも成文憲法典が必要とし、自政権下での制定を目指していたが、達成はできなかった。 Конституція Великої Британії — це сукупність законів, прецедентів і Великої Британії, які визначають порядок формування та повноваження органів держави, принципи взаємин державних органів між собою, а також державних органів і громадян. La constitución británica es el conjunto de leyes y principios bajo los cuales se gobierna el Reino Unido.​ A diferencia de muchas otras naciones, el Reino Unido no tiene ningún documento constitucional único. En este sentido, se dice que no tiene una constitución escrita, sino que tiene una no codificada.​ Gran parte de la constitución británica se plasma en documentos escritos, dentro de leyes, sentencias judiciales, y tratados. La constitución tiene otras fuentes no escritas, que incluyen convenciones constitucionales parlamentarias (como se establece en ) y prerrogativas reales. Históricamente, No Act of Parliament can be unconstitutional, for the law of the land knows not the word or the idea.​ Desde la Revolución de 1688, la piedra angular de la constitución británica ha sido tradicionalmente la doctrina de la soberanía parlamentaria, según la cual los estatutos que se aprueban por el Parlamento son la fuente suprema y última de su ley (la del Reino Unido).​ De ello se desprende que el Parlamento puede cambiar la constitución simplemente cuando se aprueban nuevas leyes. Existía cierto debate sobre si este principio seguía siendo plenamente válido hoy en día,​ en parte debido a la pertenencia del mismo Reino Unido a la Unión Europea, sin embargo con la salida del Reino Unido de la Unión Europea Dicho debate resulta estéril.​ Er is in het Verenigd Koninkrijk geen document dat de naam Britse grondwet draagt. Toch is het niet zo dat de grondwet daarom ongeschreven is. Enkele centrale elementen, waarvan sommige al enkele eeuwen oud, zijn vastgelegd in zogenaamde "Acts of Parliament". Het principe van de is erg sterk. De laatste jaren is er vraag geweest om een geschreven grondwet, die de macht van het parlement en de regering zou omschrijven, maar die vraag stierf een stille dood. Een reden voor de afwezigheid van een Britse grondwet is dat Engeland weinig dramatische structurele veranderingen heeft meegemaakt, maar wel organische ontwikkeling. De Britse Eilanden hebben na 1066 nog maar een keer een succesvolle militaire invasie vanaf het continent ondergaan, namelijk in 1688, waarop de laatste 'regime change' volgde, die de Glorious Revolution werd genoemd. De enige andere maatschappelijke omwenteling die meer inhield dan een verandering van dynastie was het protectoraat van Oliver Cromwell (1653-1658). Veel van Cromwells hervormingen werden kort na zijn dood weer teruggedraaid. Vanuit Engeland zijn de andere delen van de Britse Eilanden (respectievelijk Ierland, Wales en Schotland) veroverd. Een ander aspect, dat moeilijker grijpbaar is, is de Engelse cultuur, die bijzonder laag scoort op het punt van onzekerheidsmijding waardoor er meer dan elders vertrouwd wordt op sociale consensus en minder op het op schrift stellen van wettelijke bepalingen. Ook J.B. Priestley heeft zich in deze zin uitgelaten over de Engelse volksaard. La constitution du Royaume-Uni est un ensemble de règles constitutionnelles non codifiées issues de la loi, de la jurisprudence, d'usages constitutionnels. Les premières règles établies remontent au Moyen Âge et le Royaume-Uni est aujourd'hui l'un des deux seuls États occidentaux à être resté fidèle à une Constitution largement coutumière. Parmi ces règles coutumières la démission de l'ensemble du Cabinet lorsque sa politique est remise en cause par les Chambres, qui ne figurent dans aucun texte. En vertu du principe de souveraineté du parlement, il n'existe pas de contrôle de constitutionnalité et le parlement conserve juridiquement le pouvoir de modifier par une simple loi les institutions du royaume ainsi que les droits fondamentaux des sujets. Konstitusi Inggris Raya, Undang-Undang Negara Inggris Raya atau UU Inggris Raya adalah sebuah penjelasan hukum dan prinsip yang membuat di Britania Raya. Konstitusi tersebut melingkupi hubungan antar individual dan negara, dan memfungsikan legislatur, eksekutif dan yudisier. Inggris tak memiliki dokumen konstitusional spesifik. Meskipun demikian, konstitusinya ditemukan dalam berbagai sumber tertulis dan beberapa belum tertulis. Ini kadang disebut sebagai . Konstitusi Inggris biasanya dirumuskan dari empat sumber: hukum statuta (hukum yang disahkan oleh legislatur), hukum umum (hukum yang didirikan melalui keputusan pengadilan), konvensi parlementer dan . Sejak Revolusi Glorious 1688, konsep telah menjadi sandaran konstitusi legislatif Inggris, yang merupakan statuta-statuta yang disahkan oleh Parlemen sebagai sumber hukum tertinggi dan final di Inggris. Конститу́ция Великобрита́нии — некодифицированная конституция, состоящая из законов, прецедентов и конституционных обычаев Великобритании, которые определяют порядок формирования и полномочия органов государства, принципы взаимоотношений государственных органов между собой, а также государственных органов и граждан. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is the system of rules that decides the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Unlike most countries, the UK constitution is not codified into a single document. However, the UK Supreme Court recognises that there are constitutional principles, including Parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law, democracy, and upholding international law. The UK Supreme Court also recognises that some Acts of Parliament have special constitutional status. These include Magna Carta, which in 1215 required the King to call a "common counsel" (now called Parliament) to represent people, to hold courts in a fixed place, to guarantee fair trials, to guarantee free movement of people, to free the church from the state, and to guarantee rights of "common" people to use the land. After the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution, the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Claim of Right Act 1689 cemented Parliament's supremacy over the monarch, the church and the courts, and said that the "election of members of Parliament ought to be free". The Treaty of Union between England and Scotland in 1706, followed by two[[Acts of Union 1707], one in the Scottish, the other in the English parliament, ] unified England, Wales and Scotland, Ireland was joined in 1801, but the Republic of Ireland separated after the Proclamation of the Irish Republic of 1916. After a slow process of democratic reform, the UK guarantees every adult the equal right to vote in the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928. After World War Two, the UK became a founding member of the Council of Europe to uphold human rights, and the United Nations to guarantee international peace and security. The UK was a member of the European Union, whose predecessor the European Communities (the Common Market) it first joined in 1973, but left in 2020. The UK is also a founding member of the International Labour Organization and the World Trade Organization to participate in regulating the global economy. The leading institutions in the United Kingdom's constitution are Parliament, the judiciary, the executive, and regional or local governments. Parliament is the supreme law-making body, and represents adult voters. It has two houses. The House of Commons is elected by a democratic vote in the country's 650 constituencies. The House of Lords is mostly appointed by cross-political party groups from the House of Commons. To make a new Act of Parliament, the highest form of law, both Houses must read, amend, or approve proposed legislation three times. The judiciary interprets and develops the law found in Acts of Parliament or previous cases. The highest court is the twelve person UK Supreme Court, as it decides appeals from the Courts of Appeal in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland or the Court of Session in Scotland. UK courts cannot declare Acts of Parliament to be unconstitutional, but can declare acts of the executive invalid, or declare any law to be incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights. The executive manages the United Kingdom day to day. The executive is led by the Prime Minister appointed by Parliament, and the cabinet of other Ministers, who lead the civil service departments, such as Department of Health which runs the National Health Service, or the Department of Education which funds schools and universities. There is also a Queen, who inherits her position, and serves as a ceremonial figurehead to give royal assent to new laws. The monarch has not refused to sign any new law since the Scottish Militia Bill in 1708, and it is a constitutional convention that the Monarch follows the democratic will of Parliament. Most litigation over the UK constitution takes place in judicial review applications, to decide whether public bodies have complied with the law. Every public body must also follow the law, as set down in Acts of Parliament, and subject to that also statutory instruments made by the executive. Under the Human Rights Act 1998, courts may review government action to decide whether the government has followed its international commitment to the European Convention on Human Rights. This was established in 1950, following World War Two. Human rights include everyone's rights to liberty against arbitrary arrest or detention, to a fair trial, to privacy against unlawful surveillance, to freedom of expression, to freedom of association including joining trade unions, and to freedom of assembly and protest. 영국의 헌법(Constitution of the United Kingdom)은 영국과 영국 정부가 통치하는 곳에 적용되는 법 조항을 담고 있다. 다른 국가와 달리 영국은 단일 헌법 문서가 없으며 이는 명문화되지 않은 헌법 즉, 성문법이 아니다. 쓰여지지 않은("unwritten") 헌법으로 칭해지기도 한다. 영국 헌법의 대다수는 여러 문서에 구체화되어 있으며 실증 사례나 협약, 조항 등을 담는다. 미포함된 원천 자료로는 영국 의회와 재판 관행, 국왕의 특권 등이 해당된다. 따라서 관습법과 헌법에 입각한 관습률로 구성되어 있다고 볼 수 있다. 명예혁명(1688) 이후 영국 헌법의 근간은 의회의 영향력으로 판단되기도 했으며 실질적으로 최고 권위를 갖고 있다. 이는 의회가 새로운 의회제정법 제정을 통해 새 헌법을 통과시킬 수 있음을 의미한다. 이 원칙이 여전히 유효한가에 대해서는 논란의 소지가 있는데 유럽연합 가입국이기에 더욱 그렇다. 英国宪法(英語:Constitution of United Kingdom),是一系列规范英国政治体制的规则的统称。英国宪法不是一个单一的成文法律文件,而是几个世纪以来,通过制定法,判例,和而形成的一系列原则的集合。 早在1215年的大宪章,英国就形成了法律面前人人平等的原则和议会的原则,在1688年光荣革命过后,建立了议会主权原则,正式形成了现代宪法的雏形,英国人民通过不断的几百年的抗争和努力,终于使英国在1928年正式进入民主社会。1972年,英国正式加入欧洲共同体,议会主权部分上交欧洲议会。1997年,英国开始权力下放,英国宪法从一个单一制宪法向联邦制宪法转化,1998年人权法案,正式把欧洲人权公约正式纳入了英国宪法框架,2005年宪法改革,把终审权从议会上院剥离,同时剥离了的部分司法职能,组成了新的英国最高法院。2020年1月,英国正式脱离欧洲联盟,未来欧盟法对英国宪法失去了限制。 英国宪法,通过几百年来的不断的改革,抗争和进化,形成了议会主权,法治,,君主特权,和,六大基本原则,体现了人权,民主,自由,平等现代民主宪法的最基本的要求。
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