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AISI 316 Marine grade stainless Нержавеющая сталь AISI 316
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AISI 316 — марка стали, представляющая собой марку AISI 304, улучшенную за счёт добавления 2.5% молибдена. Благодаря молибдену сталь этой марки особенно устойчива к коррозии, высоким температурам и агрессивным средам. В силу широкой доступности данного материала, часто используется при изготовлении бижутерии (преимущественно, мужской), а также при производстве пирсинга и иных украшений. Аналог в СНГ - 08Х16Н11М3. Marine grade stainless steel is a misunderstood description. There is no industry recognized definition for a marine grade stainless steel though it is routinely used by many end-users. In a marine environment it must be made clear as to whether the stainless steel is submerged in seawater or is simply near enough to the seashore such that it can be attacked by the chloride present in seawater by splashing or carried by onshore breeze. Chloride ions can cause localized corrosive attack (pitting and crevice corrosion) of susceptible stainless steels. L'AISI 316 (designazione americana) (acciaio 18/8/3, designazione originaria italiana) o X5CrNiMo17-12-2 (designazione europea) - numero DIN 1.4401 (designazione tedesca) è una lega di acciaio inox austenitica composta da un tenore di cromo tra il 16% ed il 18%, di nichel tra l'11% e il 14% e di molibdeno tra il 2% ed il 3%. Ne esiste anche una versione 316L (designazione EN X2CrNiMo17-12-2 numero 1.4404), cioè con tenore di carbonio inferiore allo 0,035% (il 316 ammette fino a 0,080%) utile a impedire la precipitazione dei carburi di cromo e quindi la corrosione.
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Marine grade stainless steel is a misunderstood description. There is no industry recognized definition for a marine grade stainless steel though it is routinely used by many end-users. In a marine environment it must be made clear as to whether the stainless steel is submerged in seawater or is simply near enough to the seashore such that it can be attacked by the chloride present in seawater by splashing or carried by onshore breeze. Chloride ions can cause localized corrosive attack (pitting and crevice corrosion) of susceptible stainless steels. When the stainless steel will be submerged, a PREN > 40 is typically specified as the minimum for resistance to seawater. Stainless steels, such as super austenitic stainless steels (for example UNS S31254 or N08367), or super duplex stainless steels (for example UNS S32760 or S32750) meet this requirement. Near the seashore 316L is typically considered the minimum grade of for use in such a marine environment. Concentrations of chloride in seawater can vary, and splash zones can cause concentrations to increase dramatically by evaporation, thus the corrosive severity of marine environments can vary. The resistance of any stainless steel near the seashore will also be dependent on whether the stainless surface can be rinsed by rainfall, which will reduce the tendency for surface chlorides to concentrate by evaporation. Thus, the underside of overhangs will be more susceptible to corrosion due to lack of rinsing, also desert locations near the seashore will typically be more corrosive than seashores in locations with high rainfall. Visible evidence of corrosive attack in a marine environment is known as “tea staining”. L'AISI 316 (designazione americana) (acciaio 18/8/3, designazione originaria italiana) o X5CrNiMo17-12-2 (designazione europea) - numero DIN 1.4401 (designazione tedesca) è una lega di acciaio inox austenitica composta da un tenore di cromo tra il 16% ed il 18%, di nichel tra l'11% e il 14% e di molibdeno tra il 2% ed il 3%. È nato come modifica dell'acciaio X5CrNi1810 per aggiunta del 2,5% di molibdeno, utile per migliorare la resistenza alla corrosione elettrolitica (pitting) da cloruri, che per il 304 è molto scarsa.È un acciaio inossidabile standard: il suo indice di inossidabilità (numero PREN) è infatti compreso in genere tra 25 e 28. È adatto all'impiego per edilizia all'esterno, e all'esercizio per un periodo limitato in ambienti interessati da acqua di mare e in alcune applicazioni navali non pesanti. Ne esiste anche una versione 316L (designazione EN X2CrNiMo17-12-2 numero 1.4404), cioè con tenore di carbonio inferiore allo 0,035% (il 316 ammette fino a 0,080%) utile a impedire la precipitazione dei carburi di cromo e quindi la corrosione. La presenza in analisi del Molibdeno rende ottima la resistenza alla corrosione della marca in tutti gli ambienti naturali: acque ed atmosfere rurali, urbane, ed industriali anche in presenza di moderata concentrazione di cloruri e acidi. Il 316/316L trova impiego nel settore alimentare ed agroalimentare ed in numerosi ambienti chimici acidi (acido solforico, acido fosforico, acidi organici) e clorurati, in condizioni però di temperature e concentrazione al di sotto di una certa soglia, oltre la quale subentrano materiali superiori. Molto buona è la resistenza alla corrosione intergranulare, anche dopo saldatura. AISI 316 — марка стали, представляющая собой марку AISI 304, улучшенную за счёт добавления 2.5% молибдена. Благодаря молибдену сталь этой марки особенно устойчива к коррозии, высоким температурам и агрессивным средам. В силу широкой доступности данного материала, часто используется при изготовлении бижутерии (преимущественно, мужской), а также при производстве пирсинга и иных украшений. Аналог в СНГ - 08Х16Н11М3.
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