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There is a difference of opinion among Muslims regarding the circumstances in which women may act as imams, i.e. to lead a congregation in salat (prayer). The orthodox position is that women cannot lead prayers, which is justified by the different roles that men and women take in society. A small number of schools of Islamic thought make exceptions for tarawih (optional Ramadan prayers) or for a congregation consisting only of close relatives. Women acting as leaders, teachers, and authorities in other capacities however is not deviating from the Islamic orthodoxy as women have never been restricted from becoming scholars, ulema, jurists, muftis, preachers, missionaries, or spiritual guides. There is a long history of female masters of Islamic sciences teaching men.

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  • إمامة المرأة في الصلاة أو القدوة في الصلاة بالمرأة، في الإسلام، هو: أن تكون المرأة إماماً لمن خلفها في الصلاة، تختص الإمامة في صلاة الجماعة بالرجل بحسب رأي أغلب العلماء، ويصلي خلفه الرجال، أو النساء، أو كلاهما معا لكن لا بد من تأخر النساء في الصفوف خلف الرجال، والمرأة لا تخطب في الناس، ولا ترفع صوتها بالأذان، ولكن يمكن أن تؤم النساء. (ar)
  • Murschida (arabisch مرشدة, DMG Muršida ‚spirituelle Lehrerin‘, im frankophonen Bereich auch Mourchida) ist die Bezeichnung für eine Frau, die unter anderem auch die meisten Aufgaben eines Imams wahrnimmt. Im Unterschied zu einem Imam leitet eine Murschida in der Regel jedoch kein öffentliches Gebet. Beispiele für Imaminnen, die auch Freitagsgebete leiten, existieren aber ebenfalls. (de)
  • Terdapat kontroversi terkini di kalangan Muslim tentang peristiwa dimana wanita bertindak menjadi imam, orang yang memimpin sekelompok orang dalam salat. (Catatan: terdapat beberapa jenis selain imam, dan bahwa tampil sebagai figur teologi dalam sejarah Islam.) Sejumlah membuat pengecualian untuk tarawih (salat Ramadan) atau untuk sekelompok orang yang hanya terdiri dari para kerabat dekat. Pada masa lalu, beberapa sekte tertentu menganggap hal ini diperbolehkan bagi wanita untuk bertindak menjadi imam. Ini sebenarnya tak hanya terjadi di tanah jantung Arab pada zaman Islam awal, tetapi juga di Tiongkok pada masa paling terkini. Debat tersebut telah timbul kembali pada abad ke-21. Pernyataan-pernyataan yang dikemukakan adalah bahwa semangat al-Qur'an dan sebuah surah dari sebuah hadist yang dipersengketakan menyatakan bahwa wanita harus diperbolehkan untuk memimpin bersifat campuran, bertentangan dengan pengelompokan pemisahan jenis kelamin, dan bahwa larangan tersebut bertentangan dengan praktik yang bermula dari seksisme di lingkungan abad pertengahan dan dari penafsiran patriarkhal tak akurat dari teks-teks keagamaan, ketimbang semangat Islam yang sebenarnya. (in)
  • Le donne imam sono attualmente oggetto di una controversia in seno all'Islam, cioè se sia lecito, eventualmente in particolari circostanze, a una donna guidare uomini e donne nella Ṣalāt (preghiera islamica canonica). Tre su quattro scuole sunnite e molte di quelle sciite sono d'accordo sulla possibilità per una donna di guidare almeno la preghiera di altre donne (il malikismo non ammette neppure questo), mentre nell'Hanbalismo solo una minoranza si esprime favorevolmente. Secondo tutte le scuole tradizionali dell'Islam, una donna non può comunque guidare un gruppo promiscuo di fedeli nella Ṣalāt. Alcune scuole fanno eccezione per la Tarawih (preghiere facoltative del mese lunare di Ramadan) o per gruppi costituiti solo da parenti stretti. Alcuni studiosi medioevali quali Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (838–932), (764–854), (791–878), e Ibn Arabi (1165–1240), consideravano la pratica ammissibile almeno per le preghiere facoltative . Alcuni musulmani in anni recenti hanno rianimato il dibattito, affermando che lo spirito del Corano e la lettera di un ḥadīth indicano che alle donne dovrebbe essere concesso di guidare tanto gruppi promiscui quanto di appartenenti ad un solo sesso e che la proibizione si è sviluppata nell'ambito del sessismo tipico della società medioevale, principio contrario al vero Islam. Una discussione, questa, che trova fondamento nell'atto dello stesso Profeta Maometto di incaricare una donna, Umm Waraqa, per la guida della preghiera per tutta la sua casata, senza discriminazioni legate al sesso dei fedeli. Nel novembre 2003 Asra Nomani fu la prima donna nella sua moschea della Virginia Occidentale a chiedere di poter pregare nella sala principale riservata ai maschi. Successivamente organizzò la prima preghiera pubblica negli Stati Uniti di un gruppo promiscuo di fedeli guidata da una donna (lei stessa). Il 18 marzo 2005 esordì dicendo: (it)
  • There is a difference of opinion among Muslims regarding the circumstances in which women may act as imams, i.e. to lead a congregation in salat (prayer). The orthodox position is that women cannot lead prayers, which is justified by the different roles that men and women take in society. A small number of schools of Islamic thought make exceptions for tarawih (optional Ramadan prayers) or for a congregation consisting only of close relatives. Women acting as leaders, teachers, and authorities in other capacities however is not deviating from the Islamic orthodoxy as women have never been restricted from becoming scholars, ulema, jurists, muftis, preachers, missionaries, or spiritual guides. There is a long history of female masters of Islamic sciences teaching men. Historically, certain sects have considered it acceptable for women to function as imams. This was true not only in the Arab heartland of early Islam, but in China over recent centuries, where women's mosques developed. The debate has been reactivated during the 21st century as the west and the world revisit sexism. Those critical of the ruling that women cannot lead congressional prayers have argued that the spirit of the Qur'an and the letter of a da'if (weak) hadith (saying of Mohammed) indicate that women should be able to lead mixed (albeit children) congregations, as opposed to sex-segregated congregations, and they suggest that the prohibition against the practice originated from sexism in the medieval environment and from inaccurate patriarchal interpretations of religious texts, rather than from a spirit of "true Islam". Those who reply to these arguments typically mention that Islam has a long history of female scholarship and legal rulings and they claim that unlike other religions Islam never had a male dominated class of jurists. They also put suggest that the arguments of those who support female leadership of congressional prayer often criticize the entire history of Islamic scholarship with sweeping accusations of patriarchy or sexism rather than pointing to jurisprudential methodologies or preexisting legal opinions, especially as preexisting rulings are the foundation of all judicial systems, and carry a lot of weight when jurists are considering new rulings. (en)
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  • إمامة المرأة في الصلاة أو القدوة في الصلاة بالمرأة، في الإسلام، هو: أن تكون المرأة إماماً لمن خلفها في الصلاة، تختص الإمامة في صلاة الجماعة بالرجل بحسب رأي أغلب العلماء، ويصلي خلفه الرجال، أو النساء، أو كلاهما معا لكن لا بد من تأخر النساء في الصفوف خلف الرجال، والمرأة لا تخطب في الناس، ولا ترفع صوتها بالأذان، ولكن يمكن أن تؤم النساء. (ar)
  • Murschida (arabisch مرشدة, DMG Muršida ‚spirituelle Lehrerin‘, im frankophonen Bereich auch Mourchida) ist die Bezeichnung für eine Frau, die unter anderem auch die meisten Aufgaben eines Imams wahrnimmt. Im Unterschied zu einem Imam leitet eine Murschida in der Regel jedoch kein öffentliches Gebet. Beispiele für Imaminnen, die auch Freitagsgebete leiten, existieren aber ebenfalls. (de)
  • Terdapat kontroversi terkini di kalangan Muslim tentang peristiwa dimana wanita bertindak menjadi imam, orang yang memimpin sekelompok orang dalam salat. (Catatan: terdapat beberapa jenis selain imam, dan bahwa tampil sebagai figur teologi dalam sejarah Islam.) Sejumlah membuat pengecualian untuk tarawih (salat Ramadan) atau untuk sekelompok orang yang hanya terdiri dari para kerabat dekat. (in)
  • There is a difference of opinion among Muslims regarding the circumstances in which women may act as imams, i.e. to lead a congregation in salat (prayer). The orthodox position is that women cannot lead prayers, which is justified by the different roles that men and women take in society. A small number of schools of Islamic thought make exceptions for tarawih (optional Ramadan prayers) or for a congregation consisting only of close relatives. Women acting as leaders, teachers, and authorities in other capacities however is not deviating from the Islamic orthodoxy as women have never been restricted from becoming scholars, ulema, jurists, muftis, preachers, missionaries, or spiritual guides. There is a long history of female masters of Islamic sciences teaching men. (en)
  • Le donne imam sono attualmente oggetto di una controversia in seno all'Islam, cioè se sia lecito, eventualmente in particolari circostanze, a una donna guidare uomini e donne nella Ṣalāt (preghiera islamica canonica). Tre su quattro scuole sunnite e molte di quelle sciite sono d'accordo sulla possibilità per una donna di guidare almeno la preghiera di altre donne (il malikismo non ammette neppure questo), mentre nell'Hanbalismo solo una minoranza si esprime favorevolmente. (it)
rdfs:label
  • المرأة والإمامة (ar)
  • Murschida (de)
  • Women as imams (en)
  • Wanita sebagai imam (in)
  • Donne come imam (it)
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