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Wesley Charles Salmon (August 9, 1925 – April 22, 2001) was an American philosopher of science renowned for his work on the nature of scientific explanation. He also worked on confirmation theory, trying to explicate how probability theory via inductive logic might help confirm and choose hypotheses. Yet most prominently, Salmon was a realist about causality in scientific explanation, although his realist explanation of causality drew ample criticism. Still, his books on scientific explanation itself were landmarks of the 20th century's philosophy of science, and solidified recognition of causality's important roles in scientific explanation, whereas causality itself has evaded satisfactory elucidation by anyone.

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  • ويسلي س. سالمون (بالإنجليزية: Wesley C. Salmon)‏ هو فيلسوف وأستاذ جامعي أمريكي، ولد في 1925، وتوفي في 22 أبريل 2001. (ar)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (* 9. August 1925; † 22. April 2001) war ein US-amerikanischer Philosoph und Wissenschaftstheoretiker, bekannt für seine Arbeit über Modelle der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung. Salmon analysierte im Bereich der Theorie der Bestätigung, wie auf der Basis von Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie und Induktiver Logik Hypothesen entwickelt und bestätigt werden. Er war verheiratet mit der Wissenschaftstheoretikerin . Salmon lehrte an der Indiana University Bloomington und der University of Pittsburgh. Seinen PhD in Philosophie erlangte er unter Hans Reichenbach. Er starb im April 2001 in Folge eines Autounfalls. Besondere Beiträge leistete Salmon für ein realistisches Verständnis von Kausalität in wissenschaftlichen Erklärungs- und Begründungszusammenhängen, auch oder weil dieser Realismus zahlreich Kritik gefunden hat. Seine Bücher über die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Erklärung gelten als wegweisend für die Wissenschaftstheorie des 20. Jahrhunderts, und führten zur Anerkennung der Rollen der Kausalität für wissenschaftliche Erklärungsmodelle, auch wenn die Natur der Kausalität selbst im Unklaren bleibt. Unter dem Einfluss des logischen Empirismus vor allem durch Carl Hempels deduktiv-nomologischem Modell hatte sich die Ansicht etabliert, dass wissenschaftliche Erklärungen Regelmäßigkeiten und Muster feststellen, anstatt Ursachen zu ermitteln. Das mit der dort impliziten Vorstellung einer herrschenden allgemeinen und notwendigen Regel verbundene induktiv-statistische Verständnis der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung ersetzte Salmon durch ein Model statistische Relevanz, und ergänzte das deduktiv-nomologische Modell um ein Kriterium der strikten maximalem Spezifität. Doch schließlich bestand Salmon darauf, dass statistische Modelle und gesetzmäßige Regularität nur Vorstufen und unzureichende Stadien der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung sein können. Nach Salmon sollte eine kausale Mechanik der Standard für eine ausgereifte wissenschaftliche Erklärung sein. (de)
  • Wesley Charles Salmon (August 9, 1925 – April 22, 2001) was an American philosopher of science renowned for his work on the nature of scientific explanation. He also worked on confirmation theory, trying to explicate how probability theory via inductive logic might help confirm and choose hypotheses. Yet most prominently, Salmon was a realist about causality in scientific explanation, although his realist explanation of causality drew ample criticism. Still, his books on scientific explanation itself were landmarks of the 20th century's philosophy of science, and solidified recognition of causality's important roles in scientific explanation, whereas causality itself has evaded satisfactory elucidation by anyone. Under logical empiricism's influence, especially Carl Hempel's work on the "covering law" model of scientific explanation, most philosophers had viewed scientific explanation as stating regularities, but not identifying causes. To replace the covering law model's inductive-statistical model (IS model), Salmon introduced the statistical-relevance model (SR model), and proposed the requirement of strict maximal specificity to supplement the covering law model's other component, the deductive-nomological model (DN model). Yet ultimately, Salmon held statistical models to be but early stages, and lawlike regularities to be insufficient, in scientific explanation. Salmon proposed that scientific explanation's manner is actually causal/mechanical explanation. (en)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (9 agosto 1925 – 22 aprile 2001) è stato un filosofo statunitense, noto per i suoi contributi sulla natura della spiegazione scientifica e sulla teoria della conferma. Sotto l'influenza dell'empirismo logico, in particolare del lavoro di Carl Hempel, la maggior parte dei filosofi aveva visto la spiegazione scientifica come affermazione di regolarità, ma non identificando le cause. Per sostituire il modello statistico-induttivo proposto da Hempel, Salmon ha introdotto il modello di rilevanza statistica ( modello di SR), e ha proposto il criterio di massima specificità massima per integrare l'altra componente del modello di legge di copertura, il modello nomologico-deduttivo (o modello a legge di copertura). (it)
  • Wesley Charles Salmon (9 de agosto de 1925 - 22 de abril de 2001) foi um filósofo americano da ciência conhecido por seu trabalho sobre a natureza das . Ele também trabalhou na , tentando explicar como a teoria da probabilidade via lógica indutiva pode ajudar a confirmar e escolher hipóteses. Ainda mais proeminentemente, Salmon era realista sobre causalidade nas explicações científicas, embora sua explicação realista sobre causalidade tenha atraído muitas críticas. Seus livros sobre a explicação científica foram marcos da filosofia da ciência do século XX, sendo reconhecido por solidificar a importância da causalidade na explicação científica. Sob a influência do empirismo lógico, especialmente do trabalho de Carl Hempel sobre o modelo de explicação científica "covering law" (lei de cobertura), a maioria dos filósofos consideravam as explicações científicas como regularidade, mas não como causas. Para substituir o modelo estatístico-indutivo do modelo de lei de cobertura, Salmon introduziu o modelo de relevância estatística, e propôs o critério especificidade máxima estrita para complementar o outro componente do modelo de lei de cobertura, o dedutivo-nomológico. No entanto, Salmon considerou que os modelos estatísticos eram apenas estágios iniciais e que as regularidades legais eram insuficientes nas explicações científicas. Salmon propôs que a maneira da explicação científica é uma explicação causal / mecânica. (pt)
  • Уэсли Сэлмон (англ. Wesley C. Salmon; 9 августа 1925 — 22 апреля 2001) — современный философ. В сферу его научных интересов входили проблемы метафизики, логики и философии науки. Внёс существенный вклад в исследование причинности. Сэлмон учился в Индианском университете и в Университете Питтсбурга. Получил учёную степень по философии под руководством . Погиб в результате дорожно-транспортного происшествия. (ru)
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  • ويسلي س. سالمون (بالإنجليزية: Wesley C. Salmon)‏ هو فيلسوف وأستاذ جامعي أمريكي، ولد في 1925، وتوفي في 22 أبريل 2001. (ar)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (9 agosto 1925 – 22 aprile 2001) è stato un filosofo statunitense, noto per i suoi contributi sulla natura della spiegazione scientifica e sulla teoria della conferma. Sotto l'influenza dell'empirismo logico, in particolare del lavoro di Carl Hempel, la maggior parte dei filosofi aveva visto la spiegazione scientifica come affermazione di regolarità, ma non identificando le cause. Per sostituire il modello statistico-induttivo proposto da Hempel, Salmon ha introdotto il modello di rilevanza statistica ( modello di SR), e ha proposto il criterio di massima specificità massima per integrare l'altra componente del modello di legge di copertura, il modello nomologico-deduttivo (o modello a legge di copertura). (it)
  • Уэсли Сэлмон (англ. Wesley C. Salmon; 9 августа 1925 — 22 апреля 2001) — современный философ. В сферу его научных интересов входили проблемы метафизики, логики и философии науки. Внёс существенный вклад в исследование причинности. Сэлмон учился в Индианском университете и в Университете Питтсбурга. Получил учёную степень по философии под руководством . Погиб в результате дорожно-транспортного происшествия. (ru)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (* 9. August 1925; † 22. April 2001) war ein US-amerikanischer Philosoph und Wissenschaftstheoretiker, bekannt für seine Arbeit über Modelle der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung. Salmon analysierte im Bereich der Theorie der Bestätigung, wie auf der Basis von Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie und Induktiver Logik Hypothesen entwickelt und bestätigt werden. Er war verheiratet mit der Wissenschaftstheoretikerin . (de)
  • Wesley Charles Salmon (August 9, 1925 – April 22, 2001) was an American philosopher of science renowned for his work on the nature of scientific explanation. He also worked on confirmation theory, trying to explicate how probability theory via inductive logic might help confirm and choose hypotheses. Yet most prominently, Salmon was a realist about causality in scientific explanation, although his realist explanation of causality drew ample criticism. Still, his books on scientific explanation itself were landmarks of the 20th century's philosophy of science, and solidified recognition of causality's important roles in scientific explanation, whereas causality itself has evaded satisfactory elucidation by anyone. (en)
  • Wesley Charles Salmon (9 de agosto de 1925 - 22 de abril de 2001) foi um filósofo americano da ciência conhecido por seu trabalho sobre a natureza das . Ele também trabalhou na , tentando explicar como a teoria da probabilidade via lógica indutiva pode ajudar a confirmar e escolher hipóteses. Ainda mais proeminentemente, Salmon era realista sobre causalidade nas explicações científicas, embora sua explicação realista sobre causalidade tenha atraído muitas críticas. Seus livros sobre a explicação científica foram marcos da filosofia da ciência do século XX, sendo reconhecido por solidificar a importância da causalidade na explicação científica. (pt)
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  • ويسلي س. سالمون (ar)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (de)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (en)
  • Wesley C. Salmon (it)
  • Сэлмон, Уэсли (ru)
  • Wesley Charles Salmon (pt)
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