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Vitrified forts are stone enclosures whose walls have been subjected to vitrification through heat. It was long thought that these structures were unique to Scotland, but they have since been identified in several other parts of western and northern Europe.

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  • Los fuertes vitrificados son recintos de piedra cuyos muros han sido sometidas a vitrificación por calor.​ Durante mucho tiempo se pensó que estas estructuras eran exclusivas de Escocia, pero desde entonces se han identificado en varias otras partes de Europa occidental y septentrional. Los fuertes vitrificados generalmente están situados en colinas que ofrecen fuertes posiciones defensivas. Su forma parece haber sido determinada por el contorno de las cimas planas que encierran. Los muros varían en tamaño, algunos tienen más de 3.7 m de altura y son tan anchos que presentan la apariencia de terraplenes. Las partes débiles de la defensa están reforzadas por muros dobles o triples, y ocasionalmente vastas líneas de murallas, compuestas por grandes bloques de piedras sin labrar y sin vitrificar, envuelven el centro vitrificado a cierta distancia de él.​ Los propios muros se denominan murallas vitrificadas.​ En ninguna de estas estructuras se ha encontrado cal ni cemento, todas ellas presentando la peculiaridad de estar más o menos consolidadas por la fusión de las rocas que las componen. Esta fusión, que ha sido provocada por la aplicación de un intenso calor, no es igualmente completa en los distintos fuertes, ni siquiera en los muros del mismo fuerte. En algunos casos, las piedras sólo se funden y se calcinan parcialmente; en otros, sus bordes contiguos se fusionan de modo que estén firmemente cementados entre sí; en muchos casos, los trozos de roca están envueltos en una capa vidriosa similar a un esmalte que los une en un todo uniforme; y en raras oportunidades, toda la longitud del muro presenta una masa sólida de sustancia vítrea.​ No está claro por qué o cómo los muros fueron sometidos a vitrificación. Algunos anticuarios han argumentado que se hizo para fortalecer el muro, pero la aplicación de calor en realidad debilita la estructura. También es poco probable que el daño de la batalla sea la causa, ya que se cree que los muros fueron sometidos a fuegos cuidadosamente mantenidos para garantizar que estuvieran lo suficientemente calientes como para que se produjera la vitrificación.​​ La mayoría de los arqueólogos ahora consideran que los fuertes vitrificados son el producto de la destrucción deliberada, ya sea después de la captura del sitio por una fuerza enemiga o por los ocupantes al final de su vida activa como un acto de cierre ritual.​ El proceso no tiene importancia cronológica y se encuentra tanto durante la Edad de Hierro como durante los Fuertes Medievales Tempranos en Escocia.​ (es)
  • L'expression « mur vitrifié » (ou « fort vitrifié ») désigne des vestiges archéologiques présentant des caractéristiques impliquant une chauffe à très haute température et datant d'une période comprise entre 800 et 200 ans av. J.-C. Il s'agit le plus souvent de constructions composées de blocs de grès, de granite ou d'autres roches métamorphiques, soudés entre eux par un mortier noirâtre, verdâtre ou rougeâtre, ressemblant à une coulée de lave refroidie. Pour fondre de tels murs de granite, une température supérieure à 1100 et 1 300 °C est nécessaire et doit être combinée à un procédé de combustion lente. Des vestiges d'enceintes vitrifiées ont été découverts dans toute l'Europe du Nord (Îles britanniques, France, pays scandinaves, Allemagne, Hongrie) mais aussi en Europe du Sud (Portugal). Diverses théories ont été proposées pour expliquer la formation des murs vitrifiés mais aucune n'est satisfaisante. (fr)
  • 유리요새(Vitrified fort)는 서유럽 및 북유럽에서 발견되는 폐허 유적의 일종이다. 스코틀랜드에서 가장 많이 발견되어, 오랫동안 스코틀랜드 고유의 유적 양식이라고 생각되기도 했다. 하지만 체코, 프랑스, 독일, 아일랜드, 헝가리에서도 발견되었다. 대개 높은 언덕 위에 지어졌다. 벽의 높이는 유적마다 제각각이다. 이중벽이나 삼중벽을 짓기도 했고, 어떤 유적에는 성곽만 덜렁 남아있는 것도 있다. 벽을 쌓은 돌들은 서로 끈끈하게 들러붙어 있다. 여기에는 석회와 시멘트가 전혀 사용되지 않았다. 그 정체는 성곽을 쌓은 돌이 고열을 받아 녹아 유리화된 것이다. 성곽의 방어력 향상을 위해 의도적으로 유리화가 이루어졌다는 주장도 있지만, 대개의 경우 같은 유적 안에서도 유리화가 일관적으로 이루어지지 않았기 때문에 그 설은 오늘날은 대개 기각된다. 현재의 통설은 요새가 적에게 함락된 이후 약탈되는 과정에서 요새 전체에 불이 질러져서 이렇게 되었다는 것이다. (ko)
  • La vetrificazione dei forti è un processo chimico-fisico indotto dall'alta temperatura a cui, in epoca preistorica, venivano esposti i muri in pietra delle fortificazioni sommitali europee, secondo un'usanza che si colloca nell'età del ferro nord-europea. (it)
  • Витрифици́рованные фо́рты — оборонительные сооружения, каменные стены которых подвергнуты витрификации, то есть частично расплавлены, а пустоты между ними заполнены стекловидным шлаком. (ru)
  • Vitrified forts are stone enclosures whose walls have been subjected to vitrification through heat. It was long thought that these structures were unique to Scotland, but they have since been identified in several other parts of western and northern Europe. Vitrified forts are generally situated on hills offering strong defensive positions. Their form seems to have been determined by the contour of the flat summits which they enclose. The walls vary in size, a few being upwards of 12 feet (3.7 m) high, and are so broad that they present the appearance of embankments. Weak parts of the defence are strengthened by double or triple walls, and occasionally vast lines of ramparts, composed of large blocks of unhewn and unvitrified stones, envelop the vitrified centre at some distance from it. The walls themselves are termed vitrified ramparts. No lime or cement has been found in any of these structures, all of them presenting the peculiarity of being more or less consolidated by the fusion of the rocks of which they are built. This fusion, which has been caused by the application of intense heat, is not equally complete in the various forts, or even in the walls of the same fort. In some cases the stones are only partially melted and calcined; in others their adjoining edges are fused so that they are firmly cemented together; in many instances pieces of rock are enveloped in a glassy enamel-like coating which binds them into a uniform whole; and at times, though rarely, the entire length of the wall presents one solid mass of vitreous substance. It is not clear why or how the walls were subjected to vitrification. Some antiquarians have argued that it was done to strengthen the wall, but the heating actually weakens the structure. Battle damage is also unlikely to be the cause, as the walls are thought to have been subjected to carefully maintained fires to ensure they were hot enough for vitrification to take place. Most archaeologists now consider that vitrified forts are the product of deliberate destruction either following the capture of the site by an enemy force or by the occupants at the end of its active life as an act of ritual closure. The process has no chronological significance and is found during both Iron Age and early medieval forts in Scotland. (en)
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  • 2012-09-02 (xsd:date)
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dbp:title
  • The Mystery of the Vitrified Forts (en)
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  • 유리요새(Vitrified fort)는 서유럽 및 북유럽에서 발견되는 폐허 유적의 일종이다. 스코틀랜드에서 가장 많이 발견되어, 오랫동안 스코틀랜드 고유의 유적 양식이라고 생각되기도 했다. 하지만 체코, 프랑스, 독일, 아일랜드, 헝가리에서도 발견되었다. 대개 높은 언덕 위에 지어졌다. 벽의 높이는 유적마다 제각각이다. 이중벽이나 삼중벽을 짓기도 했고, 어떤 유적에는 성곽만 덜렁 남아있는 것도 있다. 벽을 쌓은 돌들은 서로 끈끈하게 들러붙어 있다. 여기에는 석회와 시멘트가 전혀 사용되지 않았다. 그 정체는 성곽을 쌓은 돌이 고열을 받아 녹아 유리화된 것이다. 성곽의 방어력 향상을 위해 의도적으로 유리화가 이루어졌다는 주장도 있지만, 대개의 경우 같은 유적 안에서도 유리화가 일관적으로 이루어지지 않았기 때문에 그 설은 오늘날은 대개 기각된다. 현재의 통설은 요새가 적에게 함락된 이후 약탈되는 과정에서 요새 전체에 불이 질러져서 이렇게 되었다는 것이다. (ko)
  • La vetrificazione dei forti è un processo chimico-fisico indotto dall'alta temperatura a cui, in epoca preistorica, venivano esposti i muri in pietra delle fortificazioni sommitali europee, secondo un'usanza che si colloca nell'età del ferro nord-europea. (it)
  • Витрифици́рованные фо́рты — оборонительные сооружения, каменные стены которых подвергнуты витрификации, то есть частично расплавлены, а пустоты между ними заполнены стекловидным шлаком. (ru)
  • Los fuertes vitrificados son recintos de piedra cuyos muros han sido sometidas a vitrificación por calor.​ Durante mucho tiempo se pensó que estas estructuras eran exclusivas de Escocia, pero desde entonces se han identificado en varias otras partes de Europa occidental y septentrional. (es)
  • L'expression « mur vitrifié » (ou « fort vitrifié ») désigne des vestiges archéologiques présentant des caractéristiques impliquant une chauffe à très haute température et datant d'une période comprise entre 800 et 200 ans av. J.-C. Des vestiges d'enceintes vitrifiées ont été découverts dans toute l'Europe du Nord (Îles britanniques, France, pays scandinaves, Allemagne, Hongrie) mais aussi en Europe du Sud (Portugal). Diverses théories ont été proposées pour expliquer la formation des murs vitrifiés mais aucune n'est satisfaisante. (fr)
  • Vitrified forts are stone enclosures whose walls have been subjected to vitrification through heat. It was long thought that these structures were unique to Scotland, but they have since been identified in several other parts of western and northern Europe. (en)
rdfs:label
  • Fuerte vitrificado (es)
  • Mur vitrifié (fr)
  • Vetrificazione dei forti (it)
  • 유리요새 (ko)
  • Витрифицированные форты (ru)
  • Vitrified fort (en)
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