Traditional African masks are one of the elements of great African art that have most evidently influenced European and Western art in general; in the 20th century, artistic movements such as cubism, fauvism and expressionism have often taken inspiration from the vast and diverse heritage of African masks. Influences of this heritage can also be found in other traditions such as South- and Central American masked Carnival parades. African masks are used in rituals and ceremonies. Usually, the mask is worn by a dancer or participant in the process rather than a spectator. Some masks are worn by men, while others by women. Some forms are worn by both genders. In general, masks tend to represent spirits or beings important to the ritual in which the mask in used. The wearer of the mask is oft

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  • Las máscaras africanas desempeñan un papel importante en las ceremonias tradicionales y danzas de teatro. Todas las máscaras africanas caen en una de cuatro categorías: espíritus del antepasado, héroes mitológicos, la combinación del antepasado y el héroe, y los espíritus animales​. Las máscaras en África son de gran importancia en las ceremonias de países de ese continente (como también en algunos de Asia, incluyendo Camboya y Laos), especialmente durante las ceremonias funerarias. La palabra designa tanto a la persona que la porta como a la máscara misma. La máscara es un objeto de madera tallada. Hay un bailarín, un traje, un "espíritu" o un "genio" que lo habita. Se trata de un "ser sagrado", un instrumento de la armonía social. En la sociedad tradicional, la máscara es una institución religiosa, política y social. Es el mediador entre Dios y los antepasados de los hombres. Interviene en las decisiones políticas, acompaña a la siembra y la cosecha, castiga a los culpables, garantiza la continuidad de los conocimientos, recibe al niño al nacer, le permite convertirse en adulto, lo trae al mundo de la sabiduría y lo acompaña en su muerte. En la época colonial, las máscaras eran destruidas por los "misioneros" que veían en ellas una competencia religiosa peligrosa. Al igual que la mayoría de países de África, Costa de Marfil nunca ha autorizado la exportación de máscaras "auténticas". Por otra parte, una resolución adoptada por Unesco prohibía desde principios de los años 1990 quitar las máscaras y estatuas de África. Para las culturas africanas, en términos generales, la función siempre es preferible a la forma, la belleza no es deseable en sí misma. Lo que los coleccionistas "del norte" llaman "el arte africano" en realidad se refiere a los objetos ordinarios o culturales, profanados o no utilizados hoy en día, que se muestran o se venden para colección. (es)
  • Traditional African masks are one of the elements of great African art that have most evidently influenced European and Western art in general; in the 20th century, artistic movements such as cubism, fauvism and expressionism have often taken inspiration from the vast and diverse heritage of African masks. Influences of this heritage can also be found in other traditions such as South- and Central American masked Carnival parades. African masks are used in rituals and ceremonies. Usually, the mask is worn by a dancer or participant in the process rather than a spectator. Some masks are worn by men, while others by women. Some forms are worn by both genders. In general, masks tend to represent spirits or beings important to the ritual in which the mask in used. The wearer of the mask is often believed to be able to communicate to the being symbolized by it, or to be possessed by who or what the mask represents. To African cultures, masks aren't playthings or decorations. They might serve an important role in rituals or ceremonies to ensure a good harvest, address tribal needs in time of peace or war, or convey spiritual presences in initiation rituals or burial ceremonies. Some masks represent the spirits of deceased ancestors. Other symbolize totem animals, creatures important to a certain family or group. In some cultures, like the Kuba culture of Zaire, masks represent specific figures in tribal mythology, like a king or a rival to the ruler. Ritual and ceremonial masks are an essential feature of the traditional culture of the peoples of a part of Sub-Saharan Africa, e.g. roughly between the Sahara and the Kalahari Desert. While the specific implications associated with ritual masks widely vary in different cultures, some traits are common to most African cultures. For instance, masks usually have a spiritual and religious meaning and they are used in ritual dances and social and religious events, and a special status is attributed to the artists that create masks to those that wear them in ceremonies. In most cases, mask-making is an art that is passed on from father to son, along with the knowledge of the symbolic meanings conveyed by these masks. African masks come in all different colours, such as red, black, orange, and brown. In most traditional African cultures, the person who wears a ritual mask conceptually loses his or her human life and turns into the spirit represented by the mask itself. This transformation of the mask wearer into a spirit usually relies on other practices, such as specific types of music and dance, or ritual costumes that contribute to the shedding of the mask-wearer's human identity. The mask wearer thus becomes a sort of medium that allows for a dialogue between the community and the spirits (usually those of the dead or nature-related spirits). Masked dances are a part of most traditional African ceremonies related to weddings, funerals, initiation rites, and so on. Some of the most complex rituals that have been studied by scholars are found in Nigerian cultures such as those of the Yoruba and Edo peoples, rituals that bear some resemblance to the Western notion of theatre. Since every mask has a specific spiritual meaning, most traditions comprise several different traditional masks. The traditional religion of the Dogon people of Mali, for example, comprises three main cults (the Awa or cult of the dead, the Bini or cult of the communication with the spirits, and the Lebe or cult of nature); each of these has its pantheon of spirits, corresponding to 78 different types of masks overall. It is often the case that the artistic quality and complexity of a mask reflects the relative importance of the portrayed spirit in the systems of beliefs of a particular people; for example, simpler masks such as the kple kple of the Baoulé people of Côte d'Ivoire (essentially a circle with minimal eyes, mouth and horns) are associated with minor spirits. (en)
  • Le maschere sono un elemento fondamentale della cultura tradizionale e dell'arte dei popoli dell'Africa subsahariana e occidentale. Diverse culture associano a questi oggetti differenti significati specifici, ma sono elementi costanti l'attribuzione alle maschere di significati spirituali, il loro uso nelle danze e in altri riti religiosi, e il riconoscimento di uno speciale status sociale agli artisti che le realizzano e a coloro che le indossano durante le cerimonie. Nella maggior parte dei casi, la creazione di maschere è un'arte che si tramanda di padre in figlio, insieme alla conoscenza dei valori simbolici e religiosi associati. Le maschere sono una delle forme d'arte africana più note in Europa e America, e nel XX secolo sono servite come ispirazione per movimenti artistici come cubismo, fauvismo ed espressionismo. (it)
  • 아프리카의 전통 가면은 대체적으로 유럽과 서양 미술에 영향을 미친 요소들 가운데 하나이다. 아프리카의 가면에는 성년식에 사용되는 것, 농경의식에 사용되는 것, 선조 제사에 사용되는 것 등이 있는데 특히 성년식과 결부되어 가면은 넓은 지역에 걸쳐 발달하였다. 많은 미개사회에서는 남녀가 다같이 사춘기에 이르면 어떤 일정기간 일상생활에서 떠나 시련과 교육을 받은 후에 한 사람 몫의 성인이 되어 어른의 생활 축에 들어가는 것이 허락되었다. 성년식 때에 소년과 소녀에게 시련을 과하고 부족사회의 전승(傳承)과 비사(秘事)를 가르치는 역할을 맡은 것이 가면에 표현된 신령(神靈)이었다. 가면을 쓰고 수모(樹毛)와 천으로 몸을 감싼 자는 이미 마을사람이 아니고 신령으로서 젊은 사람들 앞에 모습을 드러낸 것이다. 따라서 가면은 가면을 갖지 못한 사회에서는 특히 발달한 화장이나 신체장식과 기능면에서 같은 작용을 한다. 또한 가면은 '비밀결사'라 불리는 폐쇄적인 결사(結社)와도 밀접한 관계를 가지고 발달해 왔다. 이것은 일상생활의 치안유지와 경찰의 역할을 수행하고 장소에 따라서는 정치상의 기능을 가진 것이다. 결사가 성인식이나 제사를 지냈고 사법이나 정치활동을 할 때에는 그 성원이 가면을 쓰고 세속사회로부터 격리된 신성한 성격 아래 비로소 공중 앞에 모습을 나타낸다. 비밀결사가 발달한 서아프리카의 기니만 연안에서 중앙아프리카에 걸쳐서 가면이 유달리 풍부한 것도 그러한 이유에서 비롯된다. 그러나 가면을 쓰고 행하는 의식의 전부가 신비적이어서 사람에게 외포감(猥佈感)을 주는 것만은 아니다. 카메룬의 바문족에서 보는 혹부리 영감과 같은 가면은 마을축제에서 죽마(竹馬)처럼 높은 발판을 붙이고 연출하는 야릇한 춤에 사용한 것이었다. 이와 같이 가면은 모두 동작에 수반되어 연출되는 한 부분이고 동적인 성격을 가지고 있다. 따라서 우리가 감상(鑑賞)할 때에 정적(靜的)으로 나타나는 면(面)만을 보아서는 가면(假面)이 주는 본디의 미(美)는 알아볼 수가 없다. (ko)
  • Een traditioneel Afrikaans masker is een voorwerp dat op of boven het hoofd van een danser wordt gedragen. Afrikaanse maskers zijn onderdeel van de cultuur en religie van volkeren uit het Sub-Saharagebied van Afrika. Er zijn vele etnische groepen die maskers gebruiken. De maskers spelen een belangrijke spirituele en functionele rol in het traditionele leven. (nl)
  • Африканские маски — собирательное название традиционных масок народов Африканского континента. Произведения художественной пластики используются для отправления культа многими народами Африки. Так, например, маски со спокойными лицами, глаза у которых обычно закрыты, изображают умерших родственников и используются в погребальных обрядах или во время празднеств. Устрашающие маски, где человеческие черты лица зачастую соединялось с чертами зверя, надеваются членами тайных обществ во время традиционных празднеств или охоты за нечистой силой. Считается, что человек в маске даёт временное пристанище духу, которого эта маска изображает. Кроме того, маски также используются во время охотничьих ритуалов; члены племени, надевая маски и шкуры животного, на которого предстояло охотиться, имитируют его поведение. Маски зачастую отображают в них определённых животных, духов или героев местной мифологии. Европейские художники начала XX века ценили и собирали африканские маски. Как способ радикальной геометризации изображения человеческого лица африканская маска оказала влияние на становление кубизма (см. «Авиньонские девицы»). (ru)
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  • Een traditioneel Afrikaans masker is een voorwerp dat op of boven het hoofd van een danser wordt gedragen. Afrikaanse maskers zijn onderdeel van de cultuur en religie van volkeren uit het Sub-Saharagebied van Afrika. Er zijn vele etnische groepen die maskers gebruiken. De maskers spelen een belangrijke spirituele en functionele rol in het traditionele leven. (nl)
  • Traditional African masks are one of the elements of great African art that have most evidently influenced European and Western art in general; in the 20th century, artistic movements such as cubism, fauvism and expressionism have often taken inspiration from the vast and diverse heritage of African masks. Influences of this heritage can also be found in other traditions such as South- and Central American masked Carnival parades. African masks are used in rituals and ceremonies. Usually, the mask is worn by a dancer or participant in the process rather than a spectator. Some masks are worn by men, while others by women. Some forms are worn by both genders. In general, masks tend to represent spirits or beings important to the ritual in which the mask in used. The wearer of the mask is oft (en)
  • Las máscaras africanas desempeñan un papel importante en las ceremonias tradicionales y danzas de teatro. Todas las máscaras africanas caen en una de cuatro categorías: espíritus del antepasado, héroes mitológicos, la combinación del antepasado y el héroe, y los espíritus animales​. Las máscaras en África son de gran importancia en las ceremonias de países de ese continente (como también en algunos de Asia, incluyendo Camboya y Laos), especialmente durante las ceremonias funerarias. La palabra designa tanto a la persona que la porta como a la máscara misma. (es)
  • Le maschere sono un elemento fondamentale della cultura tradizionale e dell'arte dei popoli dell'Africa subsahariana e occidentale. Diverse culture associano a questi oggetti differenti significati specifici, ma sono elementi costanti l'attribuzione alle maschere di significati spirituali, il loro uso nelle danze e in altri riti religiosi, e il riconoscimento di uno speciale status sociale agli artisti che le realizzano e a coloro che le indossano durante le cerimonie. Nella maggior parte dei casi, la creazione di maschere è un'arte che si tramanda di padre in figlio, insieme alla conoscenza dei valori simbolici e religiosi associati. (it)
  • 아프리카의 전통 가면은 대체적으로 유럽과 서양 미술에 영향을 미친 요소들 가운데 하나이다. 아프리카의 가면에는 성년식에 사용되는 것, 농경의식에 사용되는 것, 선조 제사에 사용되는 것 등이 있는데 특히 성년식과 결부되어 가면은 넓은 지역에 걸쳐 발달하였다. 많은 미개사회에서는 남녀가 다같이 사춘기에 이르면 어떤 일정기간 일상생활에서 떠나 시련과 교육을 받은 후에 한 사람 몫의 성인이 되어 어른의 생활 축에 들어가는 것이 허락되었다. 성년식 때에 소년과 소녀에게 시련을 과하고 부족사회의 전승(傳承)과 비사(秘事)를 가르치는 역할을 맡은 것이 가면에 표현된 신령(神靈)이었다. 가면을 쓰고 수모(樹毛)와 천으로 몸을 감싼 자는 이미 마을사람이 아니고 신령으로서 젊은 사람들 앞에 모습을 드러낸 것이다. 따라서 가면은 가면을 갖지 못한 사회에서는 특히 발달한 화장이나 신체장식과 기능면에서 같은 작용을 한다. 또한 가면은 '비밀결사'라 불리는 폐쇄적인 결사(結社)와도 밀접한 관계를 가지고 발달해 왔다. 이것은 일상생활의 치안유지와 경찰의 역할을 수행하고 장소에 따라서는 정치상의 기능을 가진 것이다. (ko)
  • Африканские маски — собирательное название традиционных масок народов Африканского континента. Произведения художественной пластики используются для отправления культа многими народами Африки. Так, например, маски со спокойными лицами, глаза у которых обычно закрыты, изображают умерших родственников и используются в погребальных обрядах или во время празднеств. Европейские художники начала XX века ценили и собирали африканские маски. Как способ радикальной геометризации изображения человеческого лица африканская маска оказала влияние на становление кубизма (см. «Авиньонские девицы»). (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Máscaras africanas (es)
  • Traditional African masks (en)
  • Maschere tradizionali africane (it)
  • 아프리카의 전통 가면 (ko)
  • Afrikaans masker (nl)
  • Африканские маски (ru)
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