About: Shumishi

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Shumishi (Chinese: 樞密使), or shumi, was an official title in imperial China important in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the Liao dynasty, the Song dynasty and the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). Shumishi managed the Bureau of Military Affairs (Chinese: 樞密院).

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  • Shumishi (Chinese: 樞密使), or shumi, was an official title in imperial China important in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the Liao dynasty, the Song dynasty and the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). Shumishi managed the Bureau of Military Affairs (Chinese: 樞密院). Originally created in 765 in the Tang Dynasty for eunuchs to coordinate and supervise the emperor's paperwork, this post grew in importance since the 870s as eunuchs dominated the imperial Tang government. After the Tang Dynasty fell in the beginning of the 10th century, shumishi was no longer restricted to eunuchs and indeed was the title of some of highest officeholders in many Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) states. In the Song Dynasty (960–1279), a shumishi was a military affairs commissioner in charge of the entire national military. (en)
  • 枢密使,尊称枢相。中国古代官名,負責統帥全国軍政。 唐代宗永泰年間,置枢密使、以宦官为之,掌接受朝臣以及四方表奏并宣达帝命,參贊軍機;至昭宗时,借朱温之力,尽诛杀宦官,开始以士人任枢密使。天祐元年(904),朱溫命蔣玄暉擔任樞密使,是為外朝臣僚擔任此職之始。后梁置崇政院,改崇政使,然后以君主左右最亲信的大臣担任此职,“凡承上之旨,宣之宰相而奉行之”。 后唐复改枢密使,位同宰相,专掌军政。莊宗任用宦官張居翰為樞密使,與郭崇韜對掌機務,又以宦官李紹宏為樞密使。後晉天福四年(939)廢樞密院,而“以印付中書,院事皆委宰相分判”。開運元年(944)“復置樞密院,以桑維翰為中書令兼樞密使,事無大小,悉以委之”。 宋朝,枢密院与中书门下并称“二府”,枢密使位高權重,雅稱為太尉,与中书门下之同平章事合称“宰执”;统帅全国军队。枢密院长官为枢密使、知枢密院事、同知枢密院事、僉书枢密院事、同僉书枢密院事等。太平興國八年正月,曹彬罷樞密使。次日,王顯受命為樞密副使,六月任樞密使。樞密院長官張遜、柴禹錫、趙镕等都是太宗早年在藩邸的親從。宋真宗即位後,以曹彬任樞密使,而以向敏中、夏侯嶠副之。 元朝置枢密院,长官称枢密使,按例太子领枢密使虚衔。枢密副使主持军务,多用蒙古人,汉人任之极少,仅史天泽、王约等任期较长。 清朝对军机大臣也往往尊称为枢密。 (zh)
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  • 枢密使,尊称枢相。中国古代官名,負責統帥全国軍政。 唐代宗永泰年間,置枢密使、以宦官为之,掌接受朝臣以及四方表奏并宣达帝命,參贊軍機;至昭宗时,借朱温之力,尽诛杀宦官,开始以士人任枢密使。天祐元年(904),朱溫命蔣玄暉擔任樞密使,是為外朝臣僚擔任此職之始。后梁置崇政院,改崇政使,然后以君主左右最亲信的大臣担任此职,“凡承上之旨,宣之宰相而奉行之”。 后唐复改枢密使,位同宰相,专掌军政。莊宗任用宦官張居翰為樞密使,與郭崇韜對掌機務,又以宦官李紹宏為樞密使。後晉天福四年(939)廢樞密院,而“以印付中書,院事皆委宰相分判”。開運元年(944)“復置樞密院,以桑維翰為中書令兼樞密使,事無大小,悉以委之”。 宋朝,枢密院与中书门下并称“二府”,枢密使位高權重,雅稱為太尉,与中书门下之同平章事合称“宰执”;统帅全国军队。枢密院长官为枢密使、知枢密院事、同知枢密院事、僉书枢密院事、同僉书枢密院事等。太平興國八年正月,曹彬罷樞密使。次日,王顯受命為樞密副使,六月任樞密使。樞密院長官張遜、柴禹錫、趙镕等都是太宗早年在藩邸的親從。宋真宗即位後,以曹彬任樞密使,而以向敏中、夏侯嶠副之。 元朝置枢密院,长官称枢密使,按例太子领枢密使虚衔。枢密副使主持军务,多用蒙古人,汉人任之极少,仅史天泽、王约等任期较长。 清朝对军机大臣也往往尊称为枢密。 (zh)
  • Shumishi (Chinese: 樞密使), or shumi, was an official title in imperial China important in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the Liao dynasty, the Song dynasty and the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). Shumishi managed the Bureau of Military Affairs (Chinese: 樞密院). (en)
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  • Shumishi (en)
  • 枢密使 (zh)
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