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Scottish castles are buildings that combine fortifications and residence, built within the borders of modern Scotland. Castles arrived in Scotland with the introduction of feudalism in the twelfth century. Initially these were wooden motte-and-bailey constructions, but many were replaced by stone castles with a high curtain wall. During the Wars of Independence, Robert the Bruce pursued a policy of castle slighting. In the late Middle Ages new castles were built, some on a grander scale as "livery and maintenance" castles that could support a large garrison. Gunpowder weaponry led to the use of gun ports, platforms to mount guns and walls adapted to resist bombardment.

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  • Les châteaux écossais sont des bâtiments qui combinent fortifications et résidence, construits à l'intérieur des frontières de l'Écosse moderne. Les châteaux sont arrivés en Écosse avec l'introduction du féodalisme au XIIe siècle. Au départ, il s'agissait de constructions en motte et bailey en bois, mais beaucoup ont été remplacées par des châteaux de pierre avec un haut mur-rideau. Pendant les guerres d'indépendance, Robert le Bruce a mené une politique d'allégeance au château. À la fin du Moyen Âge, de nouveaux châteaux ont été construits, certains à plus grande échelle en tant que châteaux de " livrée et d'entretien " pouvant soutenir une grande garnison. L'armement de la poudre à canon a conduit à l'utilisation de ports d'armes à feu, de plates-formes pour monter des canons et des murs adaptés pour résister au bombardement. Beaucoup des châteaux médiévaux tardifs construits aux frontières étaient sous la forme de maisons - tours, de petites tours de pele ou de maisons de basteaux plus simples. À partir du XVe siècle, il y a eu une phase de construction de palais de la Renaissance, qui les a restructurés en palais de type château, à partir de Linlithgow. Des éléments de châteaux médiévaux, de palais royaux et de maisons-tours ont été utilisés dans la construction de maisons de la propriété baronniale écossaise, qui ont été construites en grande partie pour le confort, mais avec une apparence de château. Aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, l'importance militaire des châteaux a diminué, mais ils sont devenus de plus en plus des attractions touristiques. Des éléments du style baronnial écossais seraient relancés à partir de la fin du XVIIIe siècle et la tendance serait confirmée en popularité par la reconstruction du château de Balmoral au XIXe siècle et son adoption comme retraite par la reine Victoria . Au XXe siècle, il n'y avait que des exemples isolés de nouvelles maisons influencées par un château. De nombreuses maisons-tours ont été rénovées et de nombreux châteaux ont été repris par le National Trust for Scotland ou Historic Scotland et sont ouverts au public. (fr)
  • I castelli scozzesi sono edifici che combinano fortificazioni e residenza, costruiti all'interno dei confini della Scozia moderna e presenti su tutto il suo territorio. Diversi per dimensione e caratteristiche, i castelli scozzesi furono utilizzati come abitazioni reali, come grandi avamposti militari o come fattorie fortificate. Della maggior parte di questi castelli rimangono oggi solo delle rovine. Di altri se ne conosce l'esistenza solo attraverso documenti storici. Nascono nel XII secolo con l'arrivo del feudalesimo. All'inizio si trattava di costruzioni di legno che successivamente furono sostituite da castelli in pietra. Nel tardo medioevo vennero costruiti castelli più grandi che potevano ospitare una grande guarnigione. Le armi da fuoco hanno introdotto alcune novità che hanno potenziato la resistenza agli attacchi esterni. Molti dei castelli erano costruiti sotto forma di case a torre. Dal XV secolo vennero ristrutturati come castelli, a partire dal Palazzo di Linlithgow. Le case baronali scozzesi avevano al loro interno elementi dei castelli medioevali, palazzi reali e case a torre. Nel XVII-XVIII secolo il castello iniziò a diventare più un'attrazione turistica che militare. Lo stile baronale fu ripreso alla fine del XVIII secolo, la cui continuità fu affermata con la costruzione del Castello di Balmoral nel secolo successivo. Nel XX secolo il castello influenzò meno lo stile delle case, molte case a torre sono state rinnovate e molti castelli sono stati rilevati dall'Historic Scotland e sono aperti al pubblico. (it)
  • Scottish castles are buildings that combine fortifications and residence, built within the borders of modern Scotland. Castles arrived in Scotland with the introduction of feudalism in the twelfth century. Initially these were wooden motte-and-bailey constructions, but many were replaced by stone castles with a high curtain wall. During the Wars of Independence, Robert the Bruce pursued a policy of castle slighting. In the late Middle Ages new castles were built, some on a grander scale as "livery and maintenance" castles that could support a large garrison. Gunpowder weaponry led to the use of gun ports, platforms to mount guns and walls adapted to resist bombardment. Many of the late Medieval castles built in the borders were in the form of tower houses, smaller pele towers or simpler bastle houses. From the fifteenth century there was a phase of Renaissance palace building, which restructured them as castle-type palaces, beginning at Linlithgow. Elements of Medieval castles, royal palaces and tower houses were used in the construction of Scots baronial estate houses, which were built largely for comfort, but with a castle-like appearance. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the military significance of castles declined, but they increasingly became tourist attractions. Elements of the Scots Baronial style would be revived from the late eighteenth century and the trend would be confirmed in popularity by the rebuilding of Balmoral Castle in the nineteenth century and its adoption as a retreat by Queen Victoria. In the twentieth century there were only isolated examples of new castle-influenced houses. Many tower houses were renovated, and many castles were taken over by the National Trust for Scotland or Historic Scotland and are open to the public. (en)
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  • Les châteaux écossais sont des bâtiments qui combinent fortifications et résidence, construits à l'intérieur des frontières de l'Écosse moderne. Les châteaux sont arrivés en Écosse avec l'introduction du féodalisme au XIIe siècle. Au départ, il s'agissait de constructions en motte et bailey en bois, mais beaucoup ont été remplacées par des châteaux de pierre avec un haut mur-rideau. Pendant les guerres d'indépendance, Robert le Bruce a mené une politique d'allégeance au château. À la fin du Moyen Âge, de nouveaux châteaux ont été construits, certains à plus grande échelle en tant que châteaux de " livrée et d'entretien " pouvant soutenir une grande garnison. L'armement de la poudre à canon a conduit à l'utilisation de ports d'armes à feu, de plates-formes pour monter des canons et des murs (fr)
  • Scottish castles are buildings that combine fortifications and residence, built within the borders of modern Scotland. Castles arrived in Scotland with the introduction of feudalism in the twelfth century. Initially these were wooden motte-and-bailey constructions, but many were replaced by stone castles with a high curtain wall. During the Wars of Independence, Robert the Bruce pursued a policy of castle slighting. In the late Middle Ages new castles were built, some on a grander scale as "livery and maintenance" castles that could support a large garrison. Gunpowder weaponry led to the use of gun ports, platforms to mount guns and walls adapted to resist bombardment. (en)
  • I castelli scozzesi sono edifici che combinano fortificazioni e residenza, costruiti all'interno dei confini della Scozia moderna e presenti su tutto il suo territorio. Diversi per dimensione e caratteristiche, i castelli scozzesi furono utilizzati come abitazioni reali, come grandi avamposti militari o come fattorie fortificate. Della maggior parte di questi castelli rimangono oggi solo delle rovine. Di altri se ne conosce l'esistenza solo attraverso documenti storici. (it)
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  • Châteaux écossais (fr)
  • Castelli della Scozia (it)
  • Scottish castles (en)
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