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The Rainbow Coalition was an antiracist, anticlass multicultural movement founded April 4, 1969 in Chicago, Illinois by Fred Hampton of the Black Panther Party, along with William "Preacherman" Fesperman of the Young Patriots Organization and José Cha Cha Jiménez, founder of the Young Lords. It was the first of several 20th century black-led organizations to use the "rainbow coalition" concept.

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  • Die Rainbow Coalition war die Vereinigung der sozialrevolutionären Bewegungen in den USA. Sie wurde von dem Mitbegründer der Black Panther Party Fred Hampton Ende der 1960er Jahre initiiert, überwand Rassen- und Herkunftsgrenzen und gelangte – aufgrund ihres Erfolgs und raschen Wachstums – bald in den Fokus des FBI. (de)
  • La Coalición Arcoíris (en inglés, Rainbow Coalition) fue una coordinación de movimientos sociales antirracistas y anticapitalistas estadounidenses​ iniciada en Chicago en abril de 1969 por Fred Hampton de las Panteras Negras (Black Panthers, organización negra), William «Preacherman» Fesperman de la (Young Patriot Organization o YPO, organización blanca) y , fundador de los (organización hispánica). La coalición pronto incorporó varios grupos socialistas radicales tales como la Coalición de Personas Pobres de Lincoln Park (Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition),​ y posteriormente a nivel nacional a los (Students for a Democratic Society), el Movimiento Indio Americano, los Boinas Cafés y el . En abril de 1969, Hampton convocó varias conferencias de prensa para anunciar la formación de esta Coalición Arcoíris. La coalición participó en acciones conjuntas para protestar, entre otras cosas, contra la pobreza, la brutalidad policial y la deficiente calidad de la vivienda.​ Los grupos integrantes se apoyaron entre sí en las manifestaciones, protestas y huelgas en las que luchaban por una causa común.​​ El abogado y escritor Jeffrey Haas ha elogiado algunas de las políticas de Hampton y su empeño en unificar movimientos sociales como un ejemplo a seguir. Sin embargo, también ha mostrado una posición crítica hacia la forma jerárquica y vertical en que se habían organizado las Panteras Negras, prefiriendo en su lugar la organización horizontal del movimiento Black Lives Matter.​ Fue la primera de una serie de organizaciones lideradas por la comunidad negra que empleó el concepto de «coalición arcoíris»,​ entre las que destacó la coalición Rainbow/PUSH del reverendo Jesse Jackson, de carácter más moderado. Algunos estudiosos, como , sostienen que el concepto original de coalición arcoíris fue un prerrequisito para la coalición multicultural sobre la que Barack Obama construyó su trayectoria política.​ (es)
  • La Rainbow Coalition (Coalition de l'arc-en-ciel) était une coordination de différents groupes politiques américains, lancée en avril 1969 à Chicago aux États-Unis par Fred Hampton des Black Panthers (organisation noire), William "Preacherman" Fesperman de la Young Patriots Organization (organisation blanche) et (en), fondateur des Young Lords (organisation hispanique). Elle est ensuite rejointe par des organisations locales de gauche radicale comme la Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition, puis au niveau national par les Students for a Democratic Society, le groupe chicano des (en), l'organisation amérindienne American Indian Movement et le (en), un parti maoïste fondé par des Sino-Américains. Plus tard, elle sera rejointe par d'autres organisations locales comme (en) et Mothers and Others. Sa création fut rendue publique par le journal des Black Panthers le 7 juin 1969. (fr)
  • The Rainbow Coalition was an antiracist, anticlass multicultural movement founded April 4, 1969 in Chicago, Illinois by Fred Hampton of the Black Panther Party, along with William "Preacherman" Fesperman of the Young Patriots Organization and José Cha Cha Jiménez, founder of the Young Lords. It was the first of several 20th century black-led organizations to use the "rainbow coalition" concept. Some members of the Young Patriots included Jack (Junebug) Boykin, Bobby Joe Mcginnis and Hy Thurman who worked with Field Marshall Bobby Lee of the Black Panthers. The founder of the coalition, Fred Hampton, first met Jose Cha Cha Jimenez of the Young Lords in Chicago's Lincoln Park neighborhood the day after the Young Lords were in the news, after they had occupied the police community workshop meeting of the 18th District Police Station. Fred Hampton was arrested twice in February 1969 with Jose Cha Cha Jimenez at the Wicker Park Welfare Office. Both were charged with Mob Action during peaceful pickets of the welfare office protesting mistreatment of the patrons. The Rainbow Coalition soon included various radical socialist community groups like the Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition, later, the coalition was joined nationwide by the Students for a Democratic Society ("SDS"), the Brown Berets, the American Indian Movement and the Red Guard Party. In April 1969, Hampton called several press conferences to announce that this "Rainbow Coalition" had formed. Some of the things the coalition engaged in joint action against was poverty, corruption, racism, police brutality, and substandard housing. The participating groups supported each other at protests, strikes, and demonstrations where they had a common cause. Author Jeffrey Haas has praised some of Hampton's politics, and his work unifying movements are things we can learn from him. However, Haas was critical towards the way Hampton and the BPP had organized in a pyramid/vertical like structure. Hass has praised the horizontal structure of Black Lives Matter stating: "They may also have picked up on the vulnerability of a hierarchal movement where you have one leader, which makes the movement very vulnerable if that leader is imprisoned, killed, or otherwise compromised. I think the fact that Black Lives Matter says, "We're leaderfull, not leaderless" perhaps makes them less vulnerable to this kind of government assault." The coalition later included many other local groups like Rising Up Angry, and Mothers and Others. The Coalition also brokered treaties to end crime and gang violence. Hampton, Jimenez and their colleagues believed that the Richard J. Daley Democratic Party machine in Chicago used gang wars to consolidate their own political positions by gaining funding for law enforcement and dramatizing crime rather than underlying social issues. The phrase "rainbow coalition" was co-opted over the years by Reverend Jesse Jackson, who eventually appropriated the name in forming his own, more moderate coalition, Rainbow/PUSH. Some scholars, including Peniel Joseph, assert that the original rainbow coalition concept was a prerequisite for the multicultural coalition that Barack Obama built his political career upon. (en)
  • La Coalizione Arcobaleno (in inglese: Rainbow Coalition) è stato un movimento multiculturale fondato il 4 aprile 1969 a Chicago, in Illinois, da Fred Hampton, presidente della sezione locale e vicepresidente nazionale del Black Panther Party, assieme a della e , fondatore del gruppo degli . È stata la prima delle diverse organizzazioni del ventesimo secolo a basarsi sul concetto di una “coalizione arcobaleno”, quindi multi-etnica e anti-razzista. La Coalizione Arcobaleno, nata in seno ad organizzazioni che si richiamavano esplicitamente al marxismo-leninismo, al socialismo rivoluzionario, e all’anti-capitalismo, cominciò a includere ben presto altri gruppi radicali e socialisti, come la o successivamente, gli Students for a Democratic Society, i chicano, l’American Indian Movement nativo-americano e le sino-americane. Nell’aprile del 1969, Hampton annunciò tramite numerose conferenze stampa che il movimento era sorto. La Coalizione Arcobaleno affrontò in modo diretto povertà, corruzione, brutalità delle forze dell’ordine, e la questione abitativa. I gruppi che vi prendevano parte si supportarono l’un altro con proteste, scioperi, e manifestazioni per portare avanti una causa unica. Successivamente alla Coalizione vennero ad aggiungersi molti altri gruppi locali, come . Il movimento inoltre prese posizione contro la criminalità e la violenza delle gang; in particolare Hampton, Jiménez e i loro colleghi ritenevano che la violenza di strada fosse utilizzata dal Partito Democratico a Chicago (capeggiato da Richard J. Daley) per consolidare il proprio potere grazie all’ottenimento di fondi per rafforzare la sicurezza. (it)
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  • Die Rainbow Coalition war die Vereinigung der sozialrevolutionären Bewegungen in den USA. Sie wurde von dem Mitbegründer der Black Panther Party Fred Hampton Ende der 1960er Jahre initiiert, überwand Rassen- und Herkunftsgrenzen und gelangte – aufgrund ihres Erfolgs und raschen Wachstums – bald in den Fokus des FBI. (de)
  • La Rainbow Coalition (Coalition de l'arc-en-ciel) était une coordination de différents groupes politiques américains, lancée en avril 1969 à Chicago aux États-Unis par Fred Hampton des Black Panthers (organisation noire), William "Preacherman" Fesperman de la Young Patriots Organization (organisation blanche) et (en), fondateur des Young Lords (organisation hispanique). Elle est ensuite rejointe par des organisations locales de gauche radicale comme la Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition, puis au niveau national par les Students for a Democratic Society, le groupe chicano des (en), l'organisation amérindienne American Indian Movement et le (en), un parti maoïste fondé par des Sino-Américains. Plus tard, elle sera rejointe par d'autres organisations locales comme (en) et Mothers and Ot (fr)
  • La Coalición Arcoíris (en inglés, Rainbow Coalition) fue una coordinación de movimientos sociales antirracistas y anticapitalistas estadounidenses​ iniciada en Chicago en abril de 1969 por Fred Hampton de las Panteras Negras (Black Panthers, organización negra), William «Preacherman» Fesperman de la (Young Patriot Organization o YPO, organización blanca) y , fundador de los (organización hispánica). (es)
  • La Coalizione Arcobaleno (in inglese: Rainbow Coalition) è stato un movimento multiculturale fondato il 4 aprile 1969 a Chicago, in Illinois, da Fred Hampton, presidente della sezione locale e vicepresidente nazionale del Black Panther Party, assieme a della e , fondatore del gruppo degli . È stata la prima delle diverse organizzazioni del ventesimo secolo a basarsi sul concetto di una “coalizione arcobaleno”, quindi multi-etnica e anti-razzista. (it)
  • The Rainbow Coalition was an antiracist, anticlass multicultural movement founded April 4, 1969 in Chicago, Illinois by Fred Hampton of the Black Panther Party, along with William "Preacherman" Fesperman of the Young Patriots Organization and José Cha Cha Jiménez, founder of the Young Lords. It was the first of several 20th century black-led organizations to use the "rainbow coalition" concept. (en)
rdfs:label
  • Rainbow Coalition (de)
  • Coalición Arcoíris (es)
  • Rainbow Coalition (fr)
  • Rainbow Coalition (Fred Hampton) (en)
  • Coalizione Arcobaleno (it)
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