The Parliament of 1327, the Parliament of England that sat at the Palace of Westminster between 7 January and 9 March 1327, was instrumental in the transfer of the English crown from King Edward II to his son, Edward III. Edward II had become increasingly unpopular with the English nobility due to the excessive influence of unpopular court favourites, the patronage he accorded them, and his perceived ill-treatment of the nobility. By 1325, even his wife, Queen Isabella, despised him. Towards the end of the year, she took the young Edward to her native France, where she entered into an alliance with the powerful and wealthy nobleman Roger Mortimer, who her husband previously had exiled. The following year, they invaded England to depose Edward II. Almost immediately, the King's resistance w

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  • Le Parlement de 1327, qui siège à Westminster entre le 7 janvier et le 9 mars 1327, joue un rôle instrumental dans le transfert des pouvoirs entre le roi Édouard II et son fils aîné et successeur Édouard III, auparavant comte de Chester. Édouard II est devenu incroyablement impopulaire auprès de la noblesse anglaise pendant son règne, particulièrement à cause des honneurs dont il comble ses favoris, les promotions qu'il leur accorde et les torts qu'il fait aux nobles. À partir de 1325, même son épouse Isabelle le méprise. À la fin de cette année-là, elle emmène leur fils, le comte de Chester, en France et rejoint Roger Mortimer — que son époux avait auparavant fait exiler —, avec lequel elle entame une liaison adultérine. Elle envahit avec lui l'Angleterre l'année suivante afin de déposer son époux. Édouard II est incapable de prendre des mesures contre l'armée des rebelles conduite par la reine car il est trahi par ses vassaux et est contraint de s'enfuir de Londres pour se réfugier à l'ouest, espérant lever des troupes en Galles ou en Irlande. Il est rapidement capturé et emprisonné. Isabelle et Mortimer convoquent un Parlement pour conférer une légitimité à leur nouveau régime. L'assemblée commence à se rassembler au Palais de Westminster le 7 janvier 1327 mais elle n'apporte pas de solutions car le roi est absent. Le jeune comte de Chester Édouard est proclamé « Gardien du royaume » et une délégation parlementaire est envoyée rendre visite à Édouard II pour lui demander d'accepter de se présenter devant le Parlement. Il s'y refuse et le Parlement se poursuit sans lui. Le roi est accusé de plusieurs offenses, allant de la promotion de ses favoris à l'affaiblissement de l'Église, résultant en la rupture de son serment de couronnement adressé à son peuple. Ces charges retenues à l'encontre du roi sont connues sous le nom d'« Articles d'Accusation ». La cité de Londres est particulièrement agressive dans ses attaques contre Édouard II et les citoyens parviennent à intimider ceux qui assistent aux sessions du Parlement afin qu'ils consentent à la déposition du roi, qui a lieu l'après-midi du 13 janvier. Les barons d'Angleterre envoient alors une autre délégation auprès du roi pour l'informer de sa déposition. Les ecclésiastiques missionnés auprès du roi l'en avertissent vers le 21 janvier, posant effectivement un ultimatum au roi : s'il n'accepte pas de renoncer à la couronne en faveur de son fils, alors les barons pourront choisir comme monarque quelqu'un n'appartenant pas à la famille royale. Édouard II est profondément peiné mais accepte leurs conditions. La délégation retourne à Londres et le fils d'Édouard II est proclamé immédiatement roi sous le nom d'Édouard III. Il est couronné le 1er février 1327. Pendant les sessions qui suivent, le roi déchu demeure emprisonné et est régulièrement déplacé afin d'empêcher les tentatives de délivrance. Édouard II meurt — sans doute assassiné sur ordre de Roger Mortimer — en septembre 1327. Le régime de Mortimer et Isabelle — qui régentent au nom du jeune Édouard III — doit quant à lui faire face au mécontentement de la population à cause de son avidité, de la mauvaise gestion des affaires et la manipulation du jeune roi. Édouard III organise finalement en 1330 un coup d'État contre Mortimer, le renverse et commence son règne personnel. (fr)
  • The Parliament of 1327, the Parliament of England that sat at the Palace of Westminster between 7 January and 9 March 1327, was instrumental in the transfer of the English crown from King Edward II to his son, Edward III. Edward II had become increasingly unpopular with the English nobility due to the excessive influence of unpopular court favourites, the patronage he accorded them, and his perceived ill-treatment of the nobility. By 1325, even his wife, Queen Isabella, despised him. Towards the end of the year, she took the young Edward to her native France, where she entered into an alliance with the powerful and wealthy nobleman Roger Mortimer, who her husband previously had exiled. The following year, they invaded England to depose Edward II. Almost immediately, the King's resistance was beset by betrayal, and he eventually abandoned London and fled west, probably to raise an army in Wales or Ireland. He was soon captured and imprisoned. Isabella and Mortimer summoned a parliament to confer legitimacy on their regime. The meeting began gathering at Westminster on 7 January, but little could be done in the absence of the King. The fourteen-year-old Edward was proclaimed "Keeper of the Realm" (but not yet king), and a parliamentary deputation was sent to Edward II asking him to allow himself to be brought to parliament. He refused, and the parliament continued without him. The King was accused of offences ranging from the promotion of favourites to the destruction of the church, resulting in a betrayal of his coronation oath to the people. These were known as the "Articles of Accusation". The City of London was particularly aggressive in its attacks on Edward II, and its citizens may have helped intimidate those attending the parliament into agreeing to the King's deposition, which occurred on the afternoon of 13 January. On or around 21 January, the Lords Temporal sent another delegation to the King to inform him of his deposition, effectively giving Edward an ultimatum: if he did not agree to hand over the crown to his son, then the lords in parliament would give it to somebody outside the royal family. King Edward wept but agreed to their conditions. The delegation returned to London, and Edward III was proclaimed king immediately. He was crowned on 1 February 1327. In the aftermath of the parliamentary session, his father remained imprisoned, being moved around to prevent attempted rescues; he died—presumed killed, probably on Mortimer's orders—that September. Crises continued for Mortimer and Isabella, who were de facto rulers of the country, partly because of Mortimer's own greed, mismanagement, and mishandling of the new king. Edward III led a coup d'état against Mortimer in 1330, overthrew him, and began his personal rule. (en)
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  • The deposition of Edward II "exemplifies the feudal view of the tie of fealty, which really persisted for two centuries after the Conquest; namely, that if a lord persistently refuses justice to his man, the bond is broken and the man may, after openly "defying " his lord, make war upon him." (en)
  • Although the deposition of Edward II did not attack kingship itself, the actual process of deposing a legitimate and anointed king involved an attempt to square the circle. That process had taken place during, in, on the margins of, and outside an assembly whose own legitimacy was, to say the least, doubtful. (en)
  • ... Although Edward II’s reign as king ended in January 1327, his story did not end there. The lurid reports about the brutal, and possibly symbolic, manner of Edward II’s death the following September have fuelled a prurient interest in him on the one hand, while on the other the circulation of claims that he had instead survived and escaped from captivity gave him in effect a long 'after-life' which has provided endless scope for further research and speculation. (en)
  • Magnates and prelates had deposed a King in response to the clamour of the whole people. That clamour had a distinct London accent. (en)
  • To try to determine precisely how it was that Edward II was removed from the throne, whether by abdication, deposition, Roman legal theory, renunciation of homage, or parliamentary decision is a futile task. What was necessary was to ensure that every conceivable means of removing the King was adopted, and the procedures combined all possible precedents. (en)
  • The articles accused the king, the fount of justice, of a series of high crimes against his country. Instead of good government by good laws, he had ruled by evil counsel. Instead of justice, he had sent noblemen to shameful and illegal deaths. He had lost Scotland and Gascony, and he had oppressed and impoverished England. In short, he had broken his coronation oath—here treated as a solemn contract with his people and country—and he must pay the price. (en)
  • ...the whole community of the realm there present, unanimously chose [Edward] to be guardian of the said kingdom ... and govern the said kingdom in the name and in the right of the Lord King his father, then being absent. And the same [Edward] there assumed the rule of the said kingdom on the same day in the form aforesaid, and began to exercise those things which were rightful under his privy seal, which was then in the custody of his clerk Sir Robert Wyville, because he did not then have any other seal for the said rule... (en)
  • The overt manipulation of parliament was entirely Roger [Mortimer]'s doing ... Roger was able to say that the decision was with the assent of the people of parliament. The English monarchy had changed forever. (en)
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  • dbr:J._R._S._Phillips
  • --10-26
  • Gwyn A. Williams (en)
  • Michael Prestwich (en)
  • Ian Mortimer, The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (en)
  • David Starkey, Crown and Country: A History of England Through the Monarchy (en)
  • Alfred O'Rahilly, 1922. (en)
  • TNA SC 1/37/46. (en)
  • Seymour Phillips, The Reign of Edward II: New Perspectives (en)
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  • Given that Mortimer and his adherents were already condemned traitors and that any engagement with the invading force was to be treated as an act of open rebellion, it is all the more striking how many great men were prepared to enter upon such a high-risk venture at so early a stage in its prosecution. In this respect at least the presence of the heir to the throne in the queen's entourage may have proved decisive. (en)
  • Isabel by the grace of God Queen of England, lady of Ireland, Countess of Ponthieu and we, Edward, eldest son of the noble King Edward of England, Duke of Gascony, Earl of Chester, of Ponthieu, of Montreuil... (en)
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  • Le Parlement de 1327, qui siège à Westminster entre le 7 janvier et le 9 mars 1327, joue un rôle instrumental dans le transfert des pouvoirs entre le roi Édouard II et son fils aîné et successeur Édouard III, auparavant comte de Chester. (fr)
  • The Parliament of 1327, the Parliament of England that sat at the Palace of Westminster between 7 January and 9 March 1327, was instrumental in the transfer of the English crown from King Edward II to his son, Edward III. Edward II had become increasingly unpopular with the English nobility due to the excessive influence of unpopular court favourites, the patronage he accorded them, and his perceived ill-treatment of the nobility. By 1325, even his wife, Queen Isabella, despised him. Towards the end of the year, she took the young Edward to her native France, where she entered into an alliance with the powerful and wealthy nobleman Roger Mortimer, who her husband previously had exiled. The following year, they invaded England to depose Edward II. Almost immediately, the King's resistance w (en)
rdfs:label
  • Parliament of 1327 (en)
  • Parlement de 1327 (fr)
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