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National Opposition Union (Spanish: Unión Nacional Opositora, UNO) was a Nicaraguan wide-range coalition of opposition parties formed to oppose president Daniel Ortega's Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) in the 1990 election. Its candidate Violeta Chamorro eventually won the race. UNO traced its origins back to the Nicaraguan Democratic Coordinating Group (Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense—CDN), which was formed in 1982 by different opposition groups. At the time of the election, of the UNO coalition's fourteen political parties, four were considered conservative, seven could be characterised as centrist parties, and three – including Nicaragua's Communists – had traditionally been on the far left of the political spectrum.

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  • La Unión Nacional Opositora (UNO) fue una coalición de partidos políticos de Nicaragua liderada por Violeta Barrios, que se formó en 1989 para derrotar al presidente Daniel Ortega Saavedra y su partido, el Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN), en las elecciones del 25 de febrero de 1990. Tomó el nombre de la antigua Unión Nacional Opositora que había liderado durante 1966 y 1967 el difunto marido de Barrios, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, y que se enfrentó electoralmente al dictador Anastasio Somoza Debayle. (es)
  • Union nationale de l'opposition (en espagnol: Unión Nacional Opositora, UNO ; en anglais: National Opposition Union (NOU)) était une vaste coalition nicaraguayenne de partis d’opposition formée pour s’opposer au Front sandiniste de libération nationale (FSLN) du président Daniel Ortega lors des élections de 1990. Sa candidate Violeta Chamorro a finalement remporté l'élection présidentielle. L’UNO trouve son origine dans le Groupe de coordination démocratique nicaraguayen (Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense- CDN), qui avait été formé en 1982 par différents partis d’opposition. Au moment de l’élection, sur les quatorze partis politiques de la coalition, quatre étaient considérés comme conservateurs, sept pouvaient être qualifiés de partis centristes et trois - y compris les communistes nicaraguayens - étaient traditionnellement à l’extrême gauche de l’échiquier politique. Malgré les luttes internes, la coalition menée par Violeta Chamorro a réussi sa campagne centrée sur la récession économique et les promesses de paix. Chamorro a promis de mettre fin au service militaire, d’initier une réconciliation démocratique et de restaurer la croissance économique. De nombreux Nicaraguayens estimaient que la guerre Contras et les dommages économiques continueraient si le FSLN restait au pouvoir, en raison de la forte opposition des États-Unis au FSLN (en novembre 1989, la Maison Blanche avait annoncé que l’embargo économique contre le Nicaragua serait levée si Violeta Chamorro l'emportait. Entre-temps, des ressources et une aide organisationnelle ont été données à l’UNO par le National Endowment for Democracy (NED) du gouvernement des États-Unis, qui en juin 1989 avait reçu 2 millions de dollars du Congrès américain. Celui-ci avait également approuvé en avril 1989 une aide de 49,75 millions de dollars aux Contras, ce qui permit de financer la campagne de propagande pro-UNO. Lors de l’élection présidentielle du 25 février 1990, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro l'a remporté avec 55 % des voix contre 41 % pour Daniel Ortega. L’UNO s’est dissoute au milieu des années 1990, après une domination problématique au cours de laquelle peu de progrès ont été réalisés. La conséquence la plus positive de leur victoire électorale a été la fin de la guerre des Contras et de l’embargo économique américain. (fr)
  • National Opposition Union (Spanish: Unión Nacional Opositora, UNO) was a Nicaraguan wide-range coalition of opposition parties formed to oppose president Daniel Ortega's Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) in the 1990 election. Its candidate Violeta Chamorro eventually won the race. UNO traced its origins back to the Nicaraguan Democratic Coordinating Group (Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense—CDN), which was formed in 1982 by different opposition groups. At the time of the election, of the UNO coalition's fourteen political parties, four were considered conservative, seven could be characterised as centrist parties, and three – including Nicaragua's Communists – had traditionally been on the far left of the political spectrum. Despite internal struggle, the UNO coalition under Violeta Chamorro succeeded in its campaign centered on the economic downfall and promises of peace. Chamorro promised to end military draft, initiate democratic reconciliation, and restore economic growth. Many Nicaraguans felt that the contra war and bad economy would continue if the FSLN remained in power, because of the strong United States opposition to the FSLN (in November 1989, the White House had announced that the economic embargo against Nicaragua would end if Violeta Chamorro won.). Meanwhile, resources and organisational help were given to the UNO by the United States government's National Endowment for Democracy (NED), which in June 1989 had receive $2 million from U.S. Congress, which had also approved in April 1989 a package of $49.75 million in 'nonlethal' aid to the Contras, which funded their pro-UNO propaganda campaign. Some villages reported threats of murder from the Contras if they voted for the FSLN in the elections. In the presidential election held on 25 February 1990, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro won 55% of the popular vote against Daniel Ortega's 41%. The UNO disbanded in the mid-1990s, after a very fractious rule during which little progress was made. The most positive consequence of their electoral victory was the end of the Contra War and the US economic embargo. (en)
  • Uni Oposisi Nasional (Unión Nacional Opositora—UNO) adalah sebuah kartel serangkaian besar partai-partai oposisi yang dibentuk untuk bersaing dengan presiden Nicaragua Daniel Ortega dalam . Kandidatnya Violeta Chamorro kemudian memenangkan persaingan tersebut. UNO bermula pada Kelompok Kerja Sama Demokrat Nicaragua (—CDN), yang dibentuk pada 1982 oleh kelompok-kelompok oposisi yang berbeda. Pada masa pemilihan, dari empat belas partai politik koalisi UNO, empat dianggap konservatisme, tujuh dikarakteristikkan sebagai partai sentris, dan tiga - termasuk - yang biasanya memegang paham kiri jauh dari spektrum politik. (in)
  • L'Unione Nazionale d'Opposizione (Unión Nacional Opositora - UNO) era una vasta coalizione unita dalla comune opposizione al Fronte Sandinista di Liberazione Nazionale ed al suo leader, Daniel Ortega La coalizione raggruppava ben 14 partiti: 4 di orientamento conservatore o liberalconservatore, 8 di carattere centrista e 2 di sinistra. Nonostante i malumori interni, la coalizione riuscì a vincere le elezioni nel 1990, grazie ad una campagna incentrata sulla libertà economica e sul pacifismo. Ebbe un forte sostegno sia dai cittadini nicaraguensi, che vedevano nel Fronte Sandinista un pericolo per l'economia (l'embargo americano poteva essere rimosso solo tramite l'elezione della Chamorro), che dall'Amministrazione Bush, che lo riteneva un baluardo di opposizione al comunismo e ai movimenti rivoluzionari dell'America Latina, soprattutto di matrice guevarista-castrista e antiamericana. Alle elezioni del 1990, Violeta Chamorro vinse con il 55% dei voti contro il 41% di Daniel Ortega. Durante il governo Chamorro ci furono pochi progressi e molti contrasti interni, ma i vantaggi furono la fine della guerra dei Contras e la rimozione dell'embargo americano, nonché l'apertura al libero mercato. Col il suo scioglimento avvenuto tra la metà degli anni '90, quasi tutti i partiti si fusero nel . (it)
  • Unión Nacional Opositora (UNO), Nationella oppositionsförbundet, var en bred oppositionsallians som i det nicaraguanska presidentvalet 1990 lyckades besegra Daniel Ortega och ersätta honom med sin egen kandidat Violeta Barrios de Chamorro. UNO, som hade sitt ursprung i den antisandinistiska Nicaraguanska Demokratiska koordinationsgruppen (bildad 1982), bestod av 14 medlemspartier. * Fyra av dessa var högerpartier: , , och Partido Liberal Constitucionalista. * Sju var mittenpartier: , , , , , och . * Tre var vänsterpartier: , Partido Socialista Nicaragüense och . Det heterogena förbundet upplöstes i mitten av 1990-talet, efter intern splittring och handlingsförlamning. (sv)
  • Национальный союз оппозиции (исп. Unión Nacional Opositora; UNO) — коалиция политических партий Никарагуа, отстранившая от власти сандинистов на выборах 1990 года. Объединял широкий спектр политических сил, от консерваторов до коммунистов. Возглавлялся Виолеттой Барриос де Чаморро. (ru)
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  • La Unión Nacional Opositora (UNO) fue una coalición de partidos políticos de Nicaragua liderada por Violeta Barrios, que se formó en 1989 para derrotar al presidente Daniel Ortega Saavedra y su partido, el Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN), en las elecciones del 25 de febrero de 1990. Tomó el nombre de la antigua Unión Nacional Opositora que había liderado durante 1966 y 1967 el difunto marido de Barrios, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, y que se enfrentó electoralmente al dictador Anastasio Somoza Debayle. (es)
  • Uni Oposisi Nasional (Unión Nacional Opositora—UNO) adalah sebuah kartel serangkaian besar partai-partai oposisi yang dibentuk untuk bersaing dengan presiden Nicaragua Daniel Ortega dalam . Kandidatnya Violeta Chamorro kemudian memenangkan persaingan tersebut. UNO bermula pada Kelompok Kerja Sama Demokrat Nicaragua (—CDN), yang dibentuk pada 1982 oleh kelompok-kelompok oposisi yang berbeda. Pada masa pemilihan, dari empat belas partai politik koalisi UNO, empat dianggap konservatisme, tujuh dikarakteristikkan sebagai partai sentris, dan tiga - termasuk - yang biasanya memegang paham kiri jauh dari spektrum politik. (in)
  • Национальный союз оппозиции (исп. Unión Nacional Opositora; UNO) — коалиция политических партий Никарагуа, отстранившая от власти сандинистов на выборах 1990 года. Объединял широкий спектр политических сил, от консерваторов до коммунистов. Возглавлялся Виолеттой Барриос де Чаморро. (ru)
  • Union nationale de l'opposition (en espagnol: Unión Nacional Opositora, UNO ; en anglais: National Opposition Union (NOU)) était une vaste coalition nicaraguayenne de partis d’opposition formée pour s’opposer au Front sandiniste de libération nationale (FSLN) du président Daniel Ortega lors des élections de 1990. Sa candidate Violeta Chamorro a finalement remporté l'élection présidentielle. L’UNO trouve son origine dans le Groupe de coordination démocratique nicaraguayen (Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense- CDN), qui avait été formé en 1982 par différents partis d’opposition. (fr)
  • National Opposition Union (Spanish: Unión Nacional Opositora, UNO) was a Nicaraguan wide-range coalition of opposition parties formed to oppose president Daniel Ortega's Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) in the 1990 election. Its candidate Violeta Chamorro eventually won the race. UNO traced its origins back to the Nicaraguan Democratic Coordinating Group (Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense—CDN), which was formed in 1982 by different opposition groups. At the time of the election, of the UNO coalition's fourteen political parties, four were considered conservative, seven could be characterised as centrist parties, and three – including Nicaragua's Communists – had traditionally been on the far left of the political spectrum. (en)
  • L'Unione Nazionale d'Opposizione (Unión Nacional Opositora - UNO) era una vasta coalizione unita dalla comune opposizione al Fronte Sandinista di Liberazione Nazionale ed al suo leader, Daniel Ortega La coalizione raggruppava ben 14 partiti: 4 di orientamento conservatore o liberalconservatore, 8 di carattere centrista e 2 di sinistra. Nonostante i malumori interni, la coalizione riuscì a vincere le elezioni nel 1990, grazie ad una campagna incentrata sulla libertà economica e sul pacifismo. Ebbe un forte sostegno sia dai cittadini nicaraguensi, che vedevano nel Fronte Sandinista un pericolo per l'economia (l'embargo americano poteva essere rimosso solo tramite l'elezione della Chamorro), che dall'Amministrazione Bush, che lo riteneva un baluardo di opposizione al comunismo e ai movimenti (it)
  • Unión Nacional Opositora (UNO), Nationella oppositionsförbundet, var en bred oppositionsallians som i det nicaraguanska presidentvalet 1990 lyckades besegra Daniel Ortega och ersätta honom med sin egen kandidat Violeta Barrios de Chamorro. UNO, som hade sitt ursprung i den antisandinistiska Nicaraguanska Demokratiska koordinationsgruppen (bildad 1982), bestod av 14 medlemspartier. * Fyra av dessa var högerpartier: , , och Partido Liberal Constitucionalista. * Sju var mittenpartier: , , , , , och . * Tre var vänsterpartier: , Partido Socialista Nicaragüense och . (sv)
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  • National Opposition Union (en)
  • Unión Nacional Opositora (1989) (es)
  • Union nationale de l'opposition (fr)
  • Uni Oposisi Nasional (in)
  • Unione Nazionale d'Opposizione (it)
  • Unión Nacional Opositora (sv)
  • Национальный союз оппозиции (Никарагуа) (ru)
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