Mun or Munism (also called Bongthingism) is the traditional polytheistic, animist, shamanistic or Bon བོན་, and syncretic religion of the Lepcha people. It predates the seventh century Lepcha conversion to Lamaistic Buddhism, and since that time, the Lepcha have practiced it together with Buddhism. Since the arrival of Christian missionaries in the nineteenth century, Mun traditions have been followed alongside that religion as well. The traditional religion permits incorporation of Buddha and Jesus Christ as deities, depending on household beliefs.

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  • Le mun, ou munisme ou bongthingisme, est la foi traditionnelle polythéiste, animiste, chamanique, et syncrétique des Lepchas, population vivant au sud de la chaîne himalayenne. La religion antidate la conversion des Lepchas au bouddhisme tibétain au VIIe siècle. Les Lepchas cependant pratiquèrent le mun indigène avec le bouddhisme. Depuis l'arrivée des missionnaires chrétiens au XIXe siècle, les traditions mun continuèrent à côté des croyances apprises. Le mun traditionnel permet l'incorporation de Bouddha et de Jésus-Christ en tant que divinités, selon les différentes croyances familiales. Plusieurs parmi les Lepchas furent convertis au christianisme par des missionnaires écossais du XIXe siècle, mais le bouddhisme et la foi mun traditionnelle gardèrent le rôle majeur dans la vie religieuse des Lepchas. Il existe des chrétiens Lepcha qui ont perdu la langue Lepcha et qui ignorent exprès les croyances traditionnelles du mun. La religion mun et sa prêtrise sont en déclin à cause de la conversion exclusive à d'autres religions, attribuée à la pression économique, car les pratiques traditionnelles coûtent extrêmement cher pour le pratiquant ordinaire. Le mun toutefois regagna l'intérêt des Lepchas contre l'empiètement écologique. La profondeur du sentiment mun parmi les Lepchas et la connexion de la foi à l'environnement se manifestèrent dans l'opposition au développement dans certaines régions vierges, telles que les rivières Rathong Chu et Teesta. (fr)
  • Mun or Munism (also called Bongthingism) is the traditional polytheistic, animist, shamanistic or Bon བོན་, and syncretic religion of the Lepcha people. It predates the seventh century Lepcha conversion to Lamaistic Buddhism, and since that time, the Lepcha have practiced it together with Buddhism. Since the arrival of Christian missionaries in the nineteenth century, Mun traditions have been followed alongside that religion as well. The traditional religion permits incorporation of Buddha and Jesus Christ as deities, depending on household beliefs. The exonym "Mun" derives from the traditional belief in spirits called mun or mung. Together with bongthing (also bungthing or bóngthíng), mun comprise a central element in the religion. These terms are also used to describe the shaman priesthood that officiates the respective spirits. The Mun religion and its priesthood are in decline. Conversion to other religions is attributed to economic pressure, as traditional practices are immensely expensive to the ordinary practitioner. It has, however, regained interest among Lepcha as ecological encroachment becomes a growing concern. The environment is so deeply intertwined with Mun beliefs that religious leaders have offered direct opposition to development in areas including the Rathong Chu and Teesta Rivers. (en)
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  • September 2019 (en)
dbp:reason
  • Unclear where "white" spirits reside (en)
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  • Le mun, ou munisme ou bongthingisme, est la foi traditionnelle polythéiste, animiste, chamanique, et syncrétique des Lepchas, population vivant au sud de la chaîne himalayenne. La religion antidate la conversion des Lepchas au bouddhisme tibétain au VIIe siècle. Les Lepchas cependant pratiquèrent le mun indigène avec le bouddhisme. Depuis l'arrivée des missionnaires chrétiens au XIXe siècle, les traditions mun continuèrent à côté des croyances apprises. Le mun traditionnel permet l'incorporation de Bouddha et de Jésus-Christ en tant que divinités, selon les différentes croyances familiales. (fr)
  • Mun or Munism (also called Bongthingism) is the traditional polytheistic, animist, shamanistic or Bon བོན་, and syncretic religion of the Lepcha people. It predates the seventh century Lepcha conversion to Lamaistic Buddhism, and since that time, the Lepcha have practiced it together with Buddhism. Since the arrival of Christian missionaries in the nineteenth century, Mun traditions have been followed alongside that religion as well. The traditional religion permits incorporation of Buddha and Jesus Christ as deities, depending on household beliefs. (en)
rdfs:label
  • Mun (religion) (en)
  • Mun (religion) (fr)
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