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Master and Servant Acts or Masters and Servants Acts were laws designed to regulate relations between employers and employees during the 18th and 19th centuries. An 1823 United Kingdom Act described its purpose as "the better regulations of servants, labourers and work people". This particular Act greatly influenced industrial relations and employment law in the United States, Australia (an 1845 Act), Canada (1847), New Zealand (1856) and South Africa (1856). These Acts are generally regarded as heavily biased towards employers, designed to discipline employees and repress the "combination" of workers in trade unions.

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  • Master and Servant Acts or Masters and Servants Acts were laws designed to regulate relations between employers and employees during the 18th and 19th centuries. An 1823 United Kingdom Act described its purpose as "the better regulations of servants, labourers and work people". This particular Act greatly influenced industrial relations and employment law in the United States, Australia (an 1845 Act), Canada (1847), New Zealand (1856) and South Africa (1856). These Acts are generally regarded as heavily biased towards employers, designed to discipline employees and repress the "combination" of workers in trade unions. The law required the obedience and loyalty from servants to their contracted employer, with infringements of the contract punishable before a court of law, often with a jail sentence of hard labour. It was used against workers organising for better conditions from its inception until well after the first United Kingdom Trade Union Act 1871 was implemented, which secured the legal status of trade unions. Until then, a trade union could be regarded as illegal because of being "in restraint of trade". A 2013 study found evidence suggesting that "Master and Servant law allowed workers to insure themselves against labor market risk by allowing them to credibly commit to stay with an employer despite a higher outside wage; when employees did breach their contracts in hope of higher wages, employers used prosecution to retain labor. The elimination of penal sanctions for breach of contract in 1875 was associated with shorter contracts and higher, but more volatile, wages." (en)
  • Dans l'histoire de la common law et du droit du travail, le droit du maître et du serviteur (anglais: Law of Master and Servant) est le modèle dominant de la conception des relations industrielles en droit du travail anglais au XVIIIe siècle et au XIXe siècle. Ce cadre jurisprudentiel de common law fondait le règlement des litiges ouvriers à cette époque. De plus, la common law de l'époque se trouve confirmée par des lois statutaires anglaises ou coloniales comme les Master and Servant Acts (Lois sur le maître et le serviteur), adoptées entre 1823 et 1856, qui exigent la loyauté et l'obéissance des ouvriers envers leurs patrons industriels. Il s'agit du cadre légal rigide contre lequel se sont battues les premières organisations ouvrières au moment où le syndicalisme apparaît pour la première fois dans l'histoire. (fr)
  • Master and Servant Act kallades i engelsktalande länder de lagar som reglerade arbetsgivarens förhållande till tjänstefolket under delar av 1700- och 1800-talen. Lagarna blev omoderna vid 1800-talets mitt, då fackföreningar tilläts i Storbritannien 1871. Australien införde så sent som 1902 en ny variant av sin lag. (sv)
  • 主人與僕役法(英語:Master and Servant Act),是1800年代至1900年代的西方法律,規管勞方和资方关系。 1823年,英國法案規定此等勞動法中的主人與僕役合約關係。美國和澳洲在1845年、加拿大在1847年、新西蘭在1856年及南非在1856年也有此等勞役法立法,內容相當有利僱主,規定僱員要對主人忠誠及服從,不准參與或成立工會之類的工人組織,因為當局認為工人結社將防害商業經濟的發展,是刑事罪行。《主人與僕役法》又規定,犯此法者將被處罰做苦工。以上此等法律在1870年代開始被取代,由一條1871年的英國工會法開始。 (zh)
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  • Master and Servant Act kallades i engelsktalande länder de lagar som reglerade arbetsgivarens förhållande till tjänstefolket under delar av 1700- och 1800-talen. Lagarna blev omoderna vid 1800-talets mitt, då fackföreningar tilläts i Storbritannien 1871. Australien införde så sent som 1902 en ny variant av sin lag. (sv)
  • 主人與僕役法(英語:Master and Servant Act),是1800年代至1900年代的西方法律,規管勞方和资方关系。 1823年,英國法案規定此等勞動法中的主人與僕役合約關係。美國和澳洲在1845年、加拿大在1847年、新西蘭在1856年及南非在1856年也有此等勞役法立法,內容相當有利僱主,規定僱員要對主人忠誠及服從,不准參與或成立工會之類的工人組織,因為當局認為工人結社將防害商業經濟的發展,是刑事罪行。《主人與僕役法》又規定,犯此法者將被處罰做苦工。以上此等法律在1870年代開始被取代,由一條1871年的英國工會法開始。 (zh)
  • Master and Servant Acts or Masters and Servants Acts were laws designed to regulate relations between employers and employees during the 18th and 19th centuries. An 1823 United Kingdom Act described its purpose as "the better regulations of servants, labourers and work people". This particular Act greatly influenced industrial relations and employment law in the United States, Australia (an 1845 Act), Canada (1847), New Zealand (1856) and South Africa (1856). These Acts are generally regarded as heavily biased towards employers, designed to discipline employees and repress the "combination" of workers in trade unions. (en)
  • Dans l'histoire de la common law et du droit du travail, le droit du maître et du serviteur (anglais: Law of Master and Servant) est le modèle dominant de la conception des relations industrielles en droit du travail anglais au XVIIIe siècle et au XIXe siècle. Ce cadre jurisprudentiel de common law fondait le règlement des litiges ouvriers à cette époque. De plus, la common law de l'époque se trouve confirmée par des lois statutaires anglaises ou coloniales comme les Master and Servant Acts (Lois sur le maître et le serviteur), adoptées entre 1823 et 1856, qui exigent la loyauté et l'obéissance des ouvriers envers leurs patrons industriels. Il s'agit du cadre légal rigide contre lequel se sont battues les premières organisations ouvrières au moment où le syndicalisme apparaît pour la premi (fr)
rdfs:label
  • Droit du maître et du serviteur (fr)
  • Master and Servant Act (en)
  • Master and Servant Act (sv)
  • 主人與僕役法 (zh)
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