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Choral synagogues (Yiddish: Khorshul‎) were built in Eastern Europe, from Hungary to Russia. These synagogues represented the ideas of Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah) and made certain reforms to the traditional Jewish customs (minhag). Often, they featured male choruses, conducted sermons in local languages (German, Russian, etc.), enforced order during services, decorated their interior, and placed pews facing eastern wall where the Torah ark was displayed (in traditionalist synagogues the bimah stood in the center of the room). However, the changes did not extend to religious beliefs and customs. Therefore, the differences between choral and traditional synagogues are more aesthetic.

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  • Dies ist eine Liste von Choral-Synagogen. Choral-Synagogen werden Synagogen fast ausschließlich im Russischen Kaiserreich genannt, die ab der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg gebaut wurden. Der Name kommt daher, dass ein Chor wesentlicher Bestandteil der Zeremonie ist. Außerdem gab es weitere Veränderungen gegenüber den traditionellen Synagogen, wie die Anordnung der Bima statt in der Mitte nahe dem Toraschrein. Diese Veränderungen waren aber nicht durchgängig in allen Choral-Synagogen. Als Erbauungsjahr wird das Jahr der Fertigstellung angegeben. Staat: (de)
  • Choral synagogues (Yiddish: Khorshul‎) were built in Eastern Europe, from Hungary to Russia. These synagogues represented the ideas of Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah) and made certain reforms to the traditional Jewish customs (minhag). Often, they featured male choruses, conducted sermons in local languages (German, Russian, etc.), enforced order during services, decorated their interior, and placed pews facing eastern wall where the Torah ark was displayed (in traditionalist synagogues the bimah stood in the center of the room). However, the changes did not extend to religious beliefs and customs. Therefore, the differences between choral and traditional synagogues are more aesthetic. Many of these synagogues were either demolished or confiscated and repurposed for other uses, particularly in the Soviet Union by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. During the German occupation in the Second World War, many were demolished by the Nazis or destroyed in battles and bombing raids. Some of the surviving synagogues were renovated and returned to the local Jewish communities, particularly after the fall of Communism and the collapse of the Soviet Union, while the others are used for other purposes or are in ruins. (en)
  • Хоральная синагога (идиш: хоршул) — разновидность синагог, которые строились в Восточной Европе, от Венгрии до России. Такие синагоги олицетворяли идеи еврейского просвещения (хаскала) и отчасти реформировали традиционные еврейские обычаи. В таких синагогах к концу XIX века вошло в моду канторское пение. Для усиления эффекта кантор пел в сопровождении небольшого мужского хора, обычно от четырёх до семи-восьми человек. По этой причине такие синагоги стали именовать «хоральными». Проповеди в хоральных синагогах часто проводились на местных языках (немецкий, русский и т. д.), украшали интерьер и размещали скамьи, обращённые к восточной стене, где находился ковчег (в традиционных синагогах бима стояла в центре зала). Однако эти изменения не распространялись на религиозные убеждения и обычаи. Поэтому различия между хоральными и традиционными синагогами носили скорее эстетический характер. (ru)
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  • Dies ist eine Liste von Choral-Synagogen. Choral-Synagogen werden Synagogen fast ausschließlich im Russischen Kaiserreich genannt, die ab der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg gebaut wurden. Der Name kommt daher, dass ein Chor wesentlicher Bestandteil der Zeremonie ist. Außerdem gab es weitere Veränderungen gegenüber den traditionellen Synagogen, wie die Anordnung der Bima statt in der Mitte nahe dem Toraschrein. Diese Veränderungen waren aber nicht durchgängig in allen Choral-Synagogen. Als Erbauungsjahr wird das Jahr der Fertigstellung angegeben. Staat: (de)
  • Choral synagogues (Yiddish: Khorshul‎) were built in Eastern Europe, from Hungary to Russia. These synagogues represented the ideas of Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah) and made certain reforms to the traditional Jewish customs (minhag). Often, they featured male choruses, conducted sermons in local languages (German, Russian, etc.), enforced order during services, decorated their interior, and placed pews facing eastern wall where the Torah ark was displayed (in traditionalist synagogues the bimah stood in the center of the room). However, the changes did not extend to religious beliefs and customs. Therefore, the differences between choral and traditional synagogues are more aesthetic. (en)
  • Хоральная синагога (идиш: хоршул) — разновидность синагог, которые строились в Восточной Европе, от Венгрии до России. Такие синагоги олицетворяли идеи еврейского просвещения (хаскала) и отчасти реформировали традиционные еврейские обычаи. (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Liste von Choral-Synagogen (de)
  • List of choral synagogues (en)
  • Sinagoga corale (it)
  • Synagoga Chóralna (pl)
  • Хоральная синагога (ru)
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