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John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord of Skipton (8 April 1435 – 28 March 1461) was a Lancastrian military leader during the Wars of the Roses in England. The Clifford family was one of the most prominent families among the northern English nobility of the fifteenth century, and by the marriages of his sisters John Clifford had links to some very important families of the time, including the earls of Devon. He was orphaned at twenty years of age when his father was slain by partisans of the House of York at the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of St Albans in 1455. It was probably as a result of his father's death there that Clifford became one of the strongest supporters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, consort of King Henry VI, who ended up as effective leader of the La

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  • جون كليفورد، بارون دي كليفورد التاسع (بالإنجليزية: John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford)‏ كان قائداً لجيش لانكاستر في حرب الوردتين والداعم القوي للملكة مارغريت أنجو زوجة الملك هنري السادس. (ar)
  • John Clifford, 9. Baron de Clifford (* 8. April 1435 in , England; † 28. März 1461 in Ferrybridge) war ein englischer Adliger, der in den Rosenkriegen das Haus Lancaster anführte. (de)
  • John Clifford (8 avril 1435 – 28 mars 1461), 9e baron de Clifford et 9e seigneur de Skipton, est un membre de la famille Clifford. Il est un chef militaire anglais de la maison de Lancastre durant la guerre des Deux-Roses. (fr)
  • John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord of Skipton (8 April 1435 – 28 March 1461) was a Lancastrian military leader during the Wars of the Roses in England. The Clifford family was one of the most prominent families among the northern English nobility of the fifteenth century, and by the marriages of his sisters John Clifford had links to some very important families of the time, including the earls of Devon. He was orphaned at twenty years of age when his father was slain by partisans of the House of York at the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of St Albans in 1455. It was probably as a result of his father's death there that Clifford became one of the strongest supporters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, consort of King Henry VI, who ended up as effective leader of the Lancastrian faction. Clifford had already achieved prominence in the north where, as an ally of the son of the earl of Northumberland, he took part in a feud against the Neville family, the Percy's natural rivals in Yorkshire. This consisted of a series of armed raids, assaults and skirmishes, and included an ambush on one of the younger Nevilles' wedding party in 1453. Historians have seen a direct connection between his involvement in the local feud in the north with the Nevilles, and his involvement in the national struggle against the duke of York, whom the Nevilles were closely allied with in the late 1450s. Although this was supposedly a period of temporary peace between the factions, Clifford and his allies appear to have made numerous attempts to ambush the Neville and Yorkist lords. Armed conflict erupted again in 1459, and again Clifford was found on the side of the King and Queen. Clifford took part in the parliament that attainted the Yorkists – by now in exile – and he took a share of the profits from their lands, as well as being appointed to offices traditionally in their keeping. The Yorkist lords returned from exile in June 1460 and subsequently defeated a royal army at Northampton. As a result of the royalist defeat, Clifford was ordered to surrender such castles and offices as he had from the Nevilles back to them, although it is unlikely that he did so. In fact, he and his fellow northern Lancastrian lords merely commenced a campaign of destruction on Neville and Yorkist estates and tenantry, to such an extent that in December 1460, the duke of York and his close ally, the earl of Salisbury, raised an army and headed north to crush the Lancastrian rebellion. This winter campaign culminated in the Battle of Wakefield in the last days of the year, and was a decisive victory for the Lancastrian army, of which Clifford was by now an important commander. The battle resulted in the deaths of both York and Salisbury, but was probably most notorious for Clifford's slaying of Edmund, Earl of Rutland, York's seventeen-year old second son and the younger brother of the future King Edward IV. This may have resulted in Clifford's being nicknamed 'Butcher Clifford', although historians disagree as to how widely used by contemporaries this term was. Clifford accompanied the royal army on its march south early the next year, where, although wounded, he played a leading part in the second Battle of St Albans, and then afterwards with the Queen to the north. The Yorkist army, now under the command of Edward of York and Richard, Earl of Warwick, pursued the Lancastrians to Yorkshire and eventually defeated them at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461. Clifford though was not present; he had been slain in a skirmish with a Yorkist advance party the previous day. Following the coronation of the by-then victorious Edward IV, he was attainted and his lands confiscated by the Crown. (en)
  • 第9代クリフォード男爵ジョン・クリフォード(英語: John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford、1435年4月8日 - 1461年3月28日)は、イングランドの貴族で、薔薇戦争中のランカスター軍の指揮官であった。一時期ヘンリー6世の王妃マーガレット・オブ・アンジューの右腕として活躍した。 第8代クリフォード男爵(英語: Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford)の息子だったジョンは、1455年の第1次セント・オールバーンズの戦いで父親が戦死すると、男爵位を継承した。恐らく「父トマスの仇討ち」という動機に駆られて、ジョン・クリフォードはランカスター軍の最前線にやってきた。1460年のウェイクフィールドの戦いの戦後処理では、ヨーク派の首魁であるヨーク公リチャードの息子ラットランド伯エドムンド(17歳)の処刑を手配した。ヨーク公は戦闘で死亡した。 クリフォードは翌年のフェリブリッジの戦いの最中に、不注意にも鎧の喉当て(gorget)を外していた際、喉を射抜かれて戦死している。このおかげで息子ヘンリーは私権剥奪の目に遭っている(後に回復する)。 (ja)
  • João Clifford, 9.º barão de Clifford (ou barão Clifford) (8 de abril de 1435 – 28 de março de 1461) foi um chefe militar inglês da casa de Lencastre durante a guerra das Rosas. (pt)
  • John Clifford av Skipton-Craven, 9:e Lord Clifford, född 1435, död 1461, lancastrisk befälhavare som hade beordrat avrättningen av Edvard IV.s bror Edmund, earl av Rutland, efter slaget vid Wakefield. Edvard lät avrätta Lord Clifford efter slaget vid Towton. Denna artikel om en person med huvudsaklig anknytning till England saknar väsentlig information. Du kan hjälpa till genom att lägga till den. (sv)
  • Джон Клиффорд (англ. John Clifford; 8 апреля 1435 — 28 марта 1461) — 9-й барон де Клиффорд, барон Уэстморленд и Скиптон и наследственный верховный шериф Уэстморленда с 1455 года, английский землевладелец и военачальник, сын Томаса Клиффорда, 8-го барона де Клиффорда, и Джоан Дакр. Его основные владения располагались в Йоркшире, Нортамберленде, Камберленде и Уэстморленде. Барон Клиффорд принимал деятельное участие в войне Алой и Белой розы на стороне Ланкастеров. Во время битвы при Уэйкфилде убил графа Ратленда, второго сына Ричарда Йоркского, — из мести за отца, убитого в 1455 году Ричардом. За это он получил прозвище «Мясник» (англ. the Butcher). Клиффорд погиб в битве при Феррибридже, после чего его владения и титулы были конфискованы новым королём Эдуардом IV, старшим сыном Ричарда Йоркского, возвращены они были наследнику Джона только в 1485 году. Барон Клиффорд является персонажем исторической хроники Уильяма Шекспира «Генрих VI» (2-я и 3-я части). (ru)
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  • Arms of Clifford: Chequy or and azure, a fess gules (en)
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  • Joan Dacre (en)
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  • Margaret Bromflete (en)
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  • جون كليفورد، بارون دي كليفورد التاسع (بالإنجليزية: John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford)‏ كان قائداً لجيش لانكاستر في حرب الوردتين والداعم القوي للملكة مارغريت أنجو زوجة الملك هنري السادس. (ar)
  • John Clifford, 9. Baron de Clifford (* 8. April 1435 in , England; † 28. März 1461 in Ferrybridge) war ein englischer Adliger, der in den Rosenkriegen das Haus Lancaster anführte. (de)
  • John Clifford (8 avril 1435 – 28 mars 1461), 9e baron de Clifford et 9e seigneur de Skipton, est un membre de la famille Clifford. Il est un chef militaire anglais de la maison de Lancastre durant la guerre des Deux-Roses. (fr)
  • 第9代クリフォード男爵ジョン・クリフォード(英語: John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford、1435年4月8日 - 1461年3月28日)は、イングランドの貴族で、薔薇戦争中のランカスター軍の指揮官であった。一時期ヘンリー6世の王妃マーガレット・オブ・アンジューの右腕として活躍した。 第8代クリフォード男爵(英語: Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford)の息子だったジョンは、1455年の第1次セント・オールバーンズの戦いで父親が戦死すると、男爵位を継承した。恐らく「父トマスの仇討ち」という動機に駆られて、ジョン・クリフォードはランカスター軍の最前線にやってきた。1460年のウェイクフィールドの戦いの戦後処理では、ヨーク派の首魁であるヨーク公リチャードの息子ラットランド伯エドムンド(17歳)の処刑を手配した。ヨーク公は戦闘で死亡した。 クリフォードは翌年のフェリブリッジの戦いの最中に、不注意にも鎧の喉当て(gorget)を外していた際、喉を射抜かれて戦死している。このおかげで息子ヘンリーは私権剥奪の目に遭っている(後に回復する)。 (ja)
  • João Clifford, 9.º barão de Clifford (ou barão Clifford) (8 de abril de 1435 – 28 de março de 1461) foi um chefe militar inglês da casa de Lencastre durante a guerra das Rosas. (pt)
  • John Clifford av Skipton-Craven, 9:e Lord Clifford, född 1435, död 1461, lancastrisk befälhavare som hade beordrat avrättningen av Edvard IV.s bror Edmund, earl av Rutland, efter slaget vid Wakefield. Edvard lät avrätta Lord Clifford efter slaget vid Towton. Denna artikel om en person med huvudsaklig anknytning till England saknar väsentlig information. Du kan hjälpa till genom att lägga till den. (sv)
  • John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord of Skipton (8 April 1435 – 28 March 1461) was a Lancastrian military leader during the Wars of the Roses in England. The Clifford family was one of the most prominent families among the northern English nobility of the fifteenth century, and by the marriages of his sisters John Clifford had links to some very important families of the time, including the earls of Devon. He was orphaned at twenty years of age when his father was slain by partisans of the House of York at the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of St Albans in 1455. It was probably as a result of his father's death there that Clifford became one of the strongest supporters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, consort of King Henry VI, who ended up as effective leader of the La (en)
  • Джон Клиффорд (англ. John Clifford; 8 апреля 1435 — 28 марта 1461) — 9-й барон де Клиффорд, барон Уэстморленд и Скиптон и наследственный верховный шериф Уэстморленда с 1455 года, английский землевладелец и военачальник, сын Томаса Клиффорда, 8-го барона де Клиффорда, и Джоан Дакр. Его основные владения располагались в Йоркшире, Нортамберленде, Камберленде и Уэстморленде. Барон Клиффорд является персонажем исторической хроники Уильяма Шекспира «Генрих VI» (2-я и 3-я части). (ru)
rdfs:label
  • جون كليفورد (بارون دي كليفورد التاسع) (ar)
  • John Clifford, 9. Baron de Clifford (de)
  • John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford (en)
  • John Clifford (9e baron de Clifford) (fr)
  • ジョン・クリフォード (第9代クリフォード男爵) (ja)
  • João Clifford (pt)
  • Клиффорд, Джон, 9-й барон де Клиффорд (ru)
  • John Clifford, 9:e baron de Clifford (sv)
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  • John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford (en)
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