About: Jacob Morenga

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Jacob Morenga, also Jakob, Jacobus, Marengo, and Marenga, known as the "black Napoleon", (1875 – 20 September 1907) was an important figure in Namibia, then the German colony of German South West Africa. He was chief leader in the insurrection against the German Empire which took place between 1904 and 1908, and was best known for forging an alliance between the rival Herero and Namaqua tribes. Morenga/Marengo was born to a Herero mother and Nama father and was educated by Christian missionaries and worked as a mineworker in South Africa.

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  • Jacobus Morenga (oder Jakobus, auch Jacob oder Jakob; und auch Marengo; * um 1875 in Südwestafrika, heutiges Namibia; † 19. September 1907 bei Eenzamheid), genannt der „schwarze Napoleon“, war einer der wichtigsten Anführer im Aufstand der Herero und Nama von 1904 bis 1908. Die Kriegsführung der Herero und Nama (bzw. Witbooi) unterschieden sich grundsätzlich voneinander: Während die Herero die offene Feldschlacht suchten, zogen die Nama (und Orlam) den verdeckten Kampf aus dem Hinterhalt vor und konnten so der deutschen Schutztruppe empfindliche Verluste beibringen. Diese führten in Berlin zu einer Regierungskrise und lösten eine Neuwahl des Reichstags aus – die sogenannte „Hottentotten-Wahl“ am 25. Januar 1907. Morenga gilt als einer der ersten modernen Guerillakämpfer. Er war in seinen letzten Lebensjahren für die Südwest- und Südafrikaner ein Volksheld und für die deutsche Kolonialmacht einer der Hauptfeinde. Kaiser Wilhelm II. persönlich setzte auf seinen Kopf 20.000 Mark Belohnung aus. Jakob Morenga fiel 1907 im Kampf gegen seine britischen Verfolger, die in diesem Fall mit den deutschen Militärs zusammenarbeiteten. (de)
  • Jakob Morenga (familia nomo ankaŭ literumata Jacobus, Jakobus kaj Jacob, familia nomo ankaŭ Marengo; naskiĝis ĉ. 1875 en Germana Sudokcidenta Afriko, la nuntempa Namibio; mortis la 19-an de septembro 1907 proksime al Eenzamheid, loko afrikanse nomata "soleco"), konata kiel la "nigra Napoleono", estis unu el la plej gravaj gvidantoj en la ribelo de hereroj kaj namoj de 1904 ĝis 1908. La militado de la hereroj kaj namoj diferencis unu de la alia: Dum la hereroj serĉis senkaŝan batalkampon, la namoj kaj orlamoj (inter alie la bondelzvartoj, kiuj ribelis jam en 1903) preferis sekretan batalon de embusko kaj tiel povis kaŭzi gravajn perdojn al la germana protekta trupo. Ĉi tio kaŭzis registaran krizon en Berlino kaj ekigis novan elekton de la nacia parlamento Reichstag - la tiel nomata "Hotentota elekto" la 25-an de januaro 1907. Morenga estas konsiderata unu el la unuaj modernaj gerilanoj. En la lastaj jaroj de sia vivo li estis popola heroo por la sudokcidentaj kaj sudaj afrikanoj kaj unu el la ĉefaj malamikoj de la germana kolonia potenco. Imperiestro Vilhelmo la 2-a persone proponis por lia mortigo premion de 20 000 regnaj markoj. Jakob Morenga falis en 1907 kontraŭbatalante siajn britajn persekutantojn, kiuj ĉi-kaze kunlaboris kun la germana militistaro. (eo)
  • Jacob Morenga, also Jakob, Jacobus, Marengo, and Marenga, known as the "black Napoleon", (1875 – 20 September 1907) was an important figure in Namibia, then the German colony of German South West Africa. He was chief leader in the insurrection against the German Empire which took place between 1904 and 1908, and was best known for forging an alliance between the rival Herero and Namaqua tribes. Morenga/Marengo was born to a Herero mother and Nama father and was educated by Christian missionaries and worked as a mineworker in South Africa. Before the Herero and Namaqua War of 1904–1907, Morenga had participated in smaller, more localized insurrections which were taking place across German South West Africa. Through these, Morenga (Morenga means Kings in Otjiherero) proved himself to be an able tactician. However, it was through his three years of leadership of the anti-German guerrilla forces that Morenga gained the majority of his reputation. It often proved difficult for Morenga to maintain proper control of his armies, as their preferred methods of attack differed fundamentally. The Herero sought direct and open combat with German forces, while the Namaqua preferred more guerrilla-like tactics. The group under Morenga planned their attacks from the hidden fortress of ǁKhauxaǃnas in southern Namibia. The diverse methods of attack used by Morenga's forces were enough to force a special election in the German Reichstag, due to the relatively heavy losses suffered by German troops. After more than 50 battles against German troops, Morenga was captured and imprisoned by South African police. However, he was released a short time later under the condition that he never return to German South West Africa again. Despite this, he again ventured into German South West Africa by crossing the Orange River. He soon began the task of assembling an army of native peoples to once again attack German troops. He gathered together the now-dispersed tribes of the Herero, Namaqua, and Witboois, leading them into battle against the German occupation. Morenga gained a reputation within the German army as a strategic genius and a noble fighter, earning him his nickname, "the Black Napoleon" (German: der schwarze Napoleon). In May 1906, after the climactic , Morenga was again forced to leave German South West Africa, fleeing to South Africa. He retreated to the Kalahari desert, where he planned further insurrections against German troops. However, Morenga was traced through cooperation between German troops and South African police, and was eventually shot and killed in a battle between his forces and the combined German-South African forces on 20 September 1907 at Eenzaamheid. Uwe Timm's 1973 novel revolves around Marenga's insurrection. (en)
  • Jakobus Morenga, noto anche come Jacob Marengo (1875 – , 20 settembre 1907), è stato un guerrigliero namibiano. Fu uno dei principali fautori dell'alleanza tra le etnie Herero e Nama, tradizionalmente rivali, nell'ambito delle rivolte avvenute tra il 1904 e il 1908 ad opera delle popolazioni locali contro le autorità coloniali dell'Africa Tedesca del Sud-Ovest. (it)
  • Якоб Моренга (нама Jakob Morenga; род. примерно в 1875 — 1907) — предводитель партизан племени нама во время восстания племён против немецкого колониального господства. (ru)
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  • Jakobus Morenga, noto anche come Jacob Marengo (1875 – , 20 settembre 1907), è stato un guerrigliero namibiano. Fu uno dei principali fautori dell'alleanza tra le etnie Herero e Nama, tradizionalmente rivali, nell'ambito delle rivolte avvenute tra il 1904 e il 1908 ad opera delle popolazioni locali contro le autorità coloniali dell'Africa Tedesca del Sud-Ovest. (it)
  • Якоб Моренга (нама Jakob Morenga; род. примерно в 1875 — 1907) — предводитель партизан племени нама во время восстания племён против немецкого колониального господства. (ru)
  • Jacobus Morenga (oder Jakobus, auch Jacob oder Jakob; und auch Marengo; * um 1875 in Südwestafrika, heutiges Namibia; † 19. September 1907 bei Eenzamheid), genannt der „schwarze Napoleon“, war einer der wichtigsten Anführer im Aufstand der Herero und Nama von 1904 bis 1908. (de)
  • Jakob Morenga (familia nomo ankaŭ literumata Jacobus, Jakobus kaj Jacob, familia nomo ankaŭ Marengo; naskiĝis ĉ. 1875 en Germana Sudokcidenta Afriko, la nuntempa Namibio; mortis la 19-an de septembro 1907 proksime al Eenzamheid, loko afrikanse nomata "soleco"), konata kiel la "nigra Napoleono", estis unu el la plej gravaj gvidantoj en la ribelo de hereroj kaj namoj de 1904 ĝis 1908. (eo)
  • Jacob Morenga, also Jakob, Jacobus, Marengo, and Marenga, known as the "black Napoleon", (1875 – 20 September 1907) was an important figure in Namibia, then the German colony of German South West Africa. He was chief leader in the insurrection against the German Empire which took place between 1904 and 1908, and was best known for forging an alliance between the rival Herero and Namaqua tribes. Morenga/Marengo was born to a Herero mother and Nama father and was educated by Christian missionaries and worked as a mineworker in South Africa. (en)
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  • Jakobus Morenga (de)
  • Jacob Morenga (en)
  • Jakob Morenga (eo)
  • Jakob Morenga (it)
  • Моренга, Якоб (ru)
  • Якоб Моренга (uk)
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