Silicon (14Si) has 23 known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable. The longest-lived radioisotope is 32Si, which is produced by cosmic ray spallation of argon. Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 150 years (with decay energy 0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta emission to 32P (which has a 14.28-day half-life) and then to 32S. After 32Si, 31Si has the second longest half-life at 157.3 minutes. All others have half-lives under 7 seconds.
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