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The German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine were fought by the Roman Emperor Constantine I against the neighbouring Germanic peoples, including the Franks, Alemanni and Goths, as well as the Sarmatian Iazyges, along the whole Roman northern defensive system to protect the empire's borders, between 306 and 336.

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dbo:abstract
  • The German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine were fought by the Roman Emperor Constantine I against the neighbouring Germanic peoples, including the Franks, Alemanni and Goths, as well as the Sarmatian Iazyges, along the whole Roman northern defensive system to protect the empire's borders, between 306 and 336. After becoming controller of the western provinces along the Rhine limes (in 306) following the death of his father Constantius Chlorus (Augustus of the west) in 306, Constantine initially concentrated his forces on defending this area of the frontier against the Franks and Alemanni, making Augusta Treverorum his first capital for this purpose. Having defeated the usurper Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, all Italia passed under Constantine's control and he thus became the sole Augustus of the West. In February 313, Constantine (who had spent the winter in Rome) formed an alliance with the Emperor of the East, Licinius, reinforced by Licinius' marriage to Constantine's sister, Flavia Julia Constantia. However, this alliance survived for only a few years, before the two Augusti came into conflict in 316. Constantine defeated Licinius, who was forced to cede Illyricum to Constantine, but not Thrace. Constantine advanced ever further east with his territorial acquisitions, now having to defend the important strategic region of the limes sarmaticus (from 317). In the following years, Constantine mostly occupied himself in the central section of the Danubian Limes, mostly fighting against the Sarmatians in Pannonia, residing at Sirmium almost continuously until 324 (when he moved against Licinius once more), making it his capital along with Serdica. At this time Constantine also demonstrated a very active military bent, travelling along the whole of the limites of his newly acquired territory. From 320 he appointed his eldest son, Crispus, Praetorian prefect, with military command of Gaul. When he learnt that an army of Goths had crossed the Danube to raid Roman territory in Moesia Inferior and Thrace, which belonged to Emperor Licinius, he left his general headquarters in Thessalonica and marched against them (323). The fact that he had trespassed into a part of the empire which was not under his control unleashed the final phase of the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, which ended with the complete defeat of Licinius and the consecration of Constantine as the sole Roman Emperor. The final period of Constantine's reign, until his death (337), saw the Christian Emperor consolidate the entire defensive system on the Rhine and Danube, obtaining important military successes and reasserting control over a large part of the territory that the Romans had abandoned under Gallienus and Aurelian: the Agri Decumates from the Alemanni, the area south of the Tisza from the Sarmatians, as well as Oltenia and Wallachia from the Goths. (en)
  • Las campañas germanas y sármatas de Constantino fueron una serie de expediciones comandadas por el emperador Constantino el Grande contra sus vecinos germanos (francos, alamanes y godos) y sármatas (yázigas) a lo largo de los limes fronterizos septentrionales del Imperio romano entre los años 306 y 336. (es)
  • Les campagnes de Constantin Ier contre les Germains et les Sarmates sont une suite d'opérations militaires de l'Antiquité tardive. Elles opposent, pendant trois décennies, l'Empire romain, dirigé par Constantin Ier, aux peuples germaniques situés aux confins septentrionaux de l'Empire : les Francs, les Alamans et les Goths, et les Iazyges, branche occidentale des Sarmates. Ces campagnes, qui ont pour théâtre opérationnel le limes, ont pour but de protéger les frontières de l'empire, de 306 à 336 apr. J.-C. Une fois arrivé à la tête des provinces à l'Ouest du limes du Rhin (en 306), à la suite de la mort de son père Constance Chlore, Constantin concentre ses premiers efforts dans la lutte pour défendre cette partie de la frontière contre les tribus germaniques des Francs et les Alémans, faisant d'Augusta Treverorum (Trèves) sa première capitale. Avec la victoire sur l'usurpateur Maxence (bataille du pont Milvius, à Rome, en 312) toute l'Italie passe aussi sous son contrôle, faisant de Constantin l'unique auguste en Occident. En février 313, Constantin (qui a passé l'hiver à Rome), établit une alliance avec Licinius, renforcée par le mariage de ce dernier avec Flavia Julia Constantia, sœur de Constantin. Mais cette alliance ne dure que quelques années, puisque dès 316 les deux Augustes sont en conflit. Constantin prend le dessus sur Licinius, contraint de céder l'Illyrie mais conservant la Thrace. Constantin progresse avec des acquisitions territoriales toujours plus à l'est, se retrouvant alors à devoir défendre l'important limes sarmaticus (à partir de 317). Durant les années suivantes Constantin concentre ses efforts le long du limes danubiano, combattant surtout les Sarmates aux confins de la Pannonie, séjournant à Sirmium presque sans interruption jusqu'en 324 (année où son armée marche à nouveau contre Licinio), en faisant sa capitale aux côtés de Sardica.Au cours de ces années, Constantin fait encore preuve d'une grande activité militaire, parcourant entièrement les frontières des territoires récemment acquis. En 320 il nomme son fils aîné, Crispus, déjà préfet du prétoire, à la tête des troupes en Gaule. En apprenant qu'une armée de Goths a traversé le Danube pour dévaster le territoire romain de Mésie et la Thrace, appartenant à son rival Licinius, il quitte son quartier général de Thessalonique et s'apprête à marcher contre eux (en 323). Le fait de franchir la frontière de fait, attaquant ses ennemis dans une partie de l'Empire romain qui n'était pas sous sa juridiction, déclenche la dernière phase de la guerre de la tétrarchie entre les deux Augustes, qui se solde par la défaite finale de Licinius et la consécration de Constantin comme unique empereur. Durant la phase ultime de son règne, jusqu'à sa mort (survenue en 337), l'empereur chrétien consolide les limes, le long du Rhin et du Danube et obtient d'importants succès militaires qui le mènent à contrôler d'importantes parties des territoires anciennement romains abandonnés sous Gallien et Aurélien : de l'Alémanie à la Sarmatie et à la Gothie. Constantin continue à utiliser ses résidences de Serdica, Sirmium et Tessalonica, plutôt que la capitale de Dioclétien, Nicomedia. (fr)
  • Le campagne germanico-sarmatiche di Costantino furono combattute dall'imperatore romano Costantino I contro le vicine popolazioni germaniche di Franchi, Alamanni e Goti, oltre a quelle sarmatiche degli Iazigi, lungo l'intero sistema difensivo settentrionale a protezione dei confini imperiali, tra il 306 ed il 336. Vale la pena ricordare che, una volta giunto alla guida delle province occidentali del limes renano (nel 306), in seguito alla morte del padre Costanzo Cloro (Augusto d'Occidente), concentrò i suoi sforzi iniziali nel combattere e difendere questo tratto di frontiera contro le popolazioni germaniche di Franchi ed Alemanni, facendo così di Augusta Treverorum la sua prima capitale. Sconfitto l'usurpatore Massenzio nel 312 grazie alla determinante battaglia a Roma presso il ponte Milvio, anche tutta l'Italia passò sotto il suo controllo, e Costantino divenne così unico augusto in Occidente. Nel febbraio del 313 Costantino I (che aveva trascorso l'inverno a Roma), strinse un'alleanza con Licino, rafforzata dal matrimonio di quest'ultimo con la sorella del primo, Flavia Giulia Costanza. Ma quest'alleanza durò solo pochi anni, poiché già nel 316 i due augusti entrarono in conflitto. Costantino ebbe la meglio su Licinio, che fu costretto a cedere a Costantino l'Illirico, non invece la Tracia. Costantino avanzava con i suoi possedimenti territoriali sempre più verso est, trovandosi ora a dover difendere anche l'importante settore strategico del limes sarmaticus (dal 317). Negli anni successivi Costantino si concentrò maggiormente lungo il medio limes danubiano, combattendo soprattutto contro i Sarmati del tratto di limes pannonicus, soggiornando spesso a Sirmium quasi ininterrottamente fino al 324 (anno in cui le sue armate mossero contro Licinio), facendone la propria capitale insieme a Serdica Nel corso di questi anni, Costantino si dimostrò ancora una volta molto attivo militarmente, viaggiando lungo l'intero limes dei territori appena acquisiti. Poi dal 320 affidò al figlio primogenito, Crispo, affiancato da un prefetto, il comando militare della Gallia. Quando seppe che un esercito di Goti aveva attraversato il Danubio per devastare i territori romani di Mesia inferiore e Tracia, che appartenevano all'altro augusto Licinio, lasciò il suo quartier generale di Tessalonica e si apprestò a marciare contro di loro (nel 323). Il fatto però di aver sconfinato, attaccando il nemico nella parte d'impero romano non di sua competenza, scatenò l'ultima fase della guerra civile tra i due augusti, che portò alla sconfitta definitiva di Licinio ed alla consacrazione di Costantino quale unico Imperatore romano. L'ultima fase del suo regno, fino alla morte (avvenuta nel 337), vide l'imperatore cristiano consolidare l'intero sistema difensivo lungo i tratti renano e danubiano ed ottenendo importanti successi militari che portarono a "controllare" buona parte di quei territori ex-romani, che erano stati abbandonati da Gallieno ed Aureliano: dall'Alamannia (Agri decumates), alla Sarmatia (piana meridionale del Tibisco, ovvero il Banato) fino alla Gothia (Oltenia e Valacchia). E sempre a partire da questi anni, Costantino continuò ad utilizzare quali sue residenze imperiali preferite Serdica, Sirmium e Tessalonica, oltre alla dioclezianea Nicomedia. (it)
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  • Roman victory and reconquest of all the territory occupied at the time ofTrajan
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  • Emperor Constantine I (en)
dbp:captionLeft
  • CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate head facing right, with armoured bust; (en)
  • CONST-ANTINVS AVG, laureate and helmeted head facing right, with an armoured bust;; (en)
  • CONSTAN-TINUS PR AVG, laureate head facing right; (en)
  • CONSTAN-TINVS AG, laureate head facing right; (en)
  • IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head facing right with armoured bust covered in drapery; (en)
  • FL IVL CRISPVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate head facing right; (en)
  • IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureated head looking right with armoured bust; (en)
  • IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, laureate and helmeted head facing right, with armoured bust; (en)
dbp:captionRight
  • MARTI PATRI CONSERVATORI , Mars on his feet, turning to the right, holding a lance and a shield in his hands, S A on the sides and P TR underneath. (en)
  • ALEMANNIA DEVICTA , facing Victory, holding a trophy and a palm, with a prisoner seated at her feat; in the exergue is written SIRM). (en)
  • VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP , two Victories standing facing each other, holding a shield bearing the inscription VOT/PR on two lines on top of an altar with a *; in exergue P T (en)
  • VIRTUS EXERCIT , labarum inscribed VOT/XX in two lines; two bound prisoners facing away from each other; ST in the exergue. (en)
  • SARMATIA DEVICTA , Victory facing, holds a trophy and a palm, with a prisoner seated at her feet; in the exergue P LON. (en)
  • ALEMANNIA DEVICTA , facing Victory holding a trophy and a palm, with a prisoner seated at her feat; in the exergue is written SIRM). (en)
  • MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI , Mars looking to the right and holding a lance and a shield in his hands; T F on the sides and P TR in the exergue. (en)
  • GAVDIVM ROMANORUM , Alemannia seated, mourning, below a military trophy; ALEMANNIA in exergue. (en)
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  • Germanic and Sarmatian peoples (en)
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  • German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine (en)
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  • 306 (xsd:integer)
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  • Rhine and Danube Limes (en)
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  • Roman victory and reconquest of all the territory occupied at the time of Trajan (en)
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  • Many people, amounting to some hundreds of thousands of armed (en)
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  • Las campañas germanas y sármatas de Constantino fueron una serie de expediciones comandadas por el emperador Constantino el Grande contra sus vecinos germanos (francos, alamanes y godos) y sármatas (yázigas) a lo largo de los limes fronterizos septentrionales del Imperio romano entre los años 306 y 336. (es)
  • The German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine were fought by the Roman Emperor Constantine I against the neighbouring Germanic peoples, including the Franks, Alemanni and Goths, as well as the Sarmatian Iazyges, along the whole Roman northern defensive system to protect the empire's borders, between 306 and 336. (en)
  • Les campagnes de Constantin Ier contre les Germains et les Sarmates sont une suite d'opérations militaires de l'Antiquité tardive. Elles opposent, pendant trois décennies, l'Empire romain, dirigé par Constantin Ier, aux peuples germaniques situés aux confins septentrionaux de l'Empire : les Francs, les Alamans et les Goths, et les Iazyges, branche occidentale des Sarmates. Ces campagnes, qui ont pour théâtre opérationnel le limes, ont pour but de protéger les frontières de l'empire, de 306 à 336 apr. J.-C. (fr)
  • Le campagne germanico-sarmatiche di Costantino furono combattute dall'imperatore romano Costantino I contro le vicine popolazioni germaniche di Franchi, Alamanni e Goti, oltre a quelle sarmatiche degli Iazigi, lungo l'intero sistema difensivo settentrionale a protezione dei confini imperiali, tra il 306 ed il 336. (it)
rdfs:label
  • Campañas germanas y sármatas de Constantino (es)
  • German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine (en)
  • Campagnes de Constantin Ier contre les Germains et les Sarmates (fr)
  • Campagne germanico-sarmatiche di Costantino (it)
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  • German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine (en)
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