A cleft sentence is a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. In spoken language, this focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation. In English, a cleft sentence can be constructed as follows: it + conjugated form of to be + X + subordinate clause * It's Joey (whom) we're looking for. * It's money that I love. * It was from John that she heard the news. * We didn't meet her until we arrived at the hotel. the cleft would be:

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  • A cleft sentence is a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. In spoken language, this focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation. In English, a cleft sentence can be constructed as follows: it + conjugated form of to be + X + subordinate clause where it is a cleft pronoun and X is usually a noun phrase (although it can also be a prepositional phrase, and in some cases an adjectival or adverbial phrase). The focus is on X, or else on the subordinate clause or some element of it. For example: * It's Joey (whom) we're looking for. * It's money that I love. * It was from John that she heard the news. Furthermore, one might also describe a cleft sentence as inverted. That is to say, it has its dependent clause in front of the main clause. So, rather than:Example: * We didn't meet her until we arrived at the hotel. the cleft would be: * It wasn't until we arrived at the hotel that (or when) we met her. (en)
  • Ein Spaltsatz (von engl. cleft sentence, franz. phrase clivée) ergibt sich, wenn ein Hauptsatz in eine Konstruktion aus Haupt- (Kopulasatz) und Nebensatz (Relativsatz) transformiert wird, um eine Nominalphrase (NP) mit einem (kontrastiven) Fokus bzw. einer Emphase zu belegen. Die Satzspaltung ist ein syntaktisches Vorgehen der Fokussierung. Aber nicht in jeder Sprache ist das Vorgehen grammatikalisiert oder eben nur bis zu einem Grade grammatikalisiert. Einige Sprachen, so das Latein verfügen überhaupt nicht über ein solches Vorgehen und das Deutsche nur ansatzweise. In der deutschen Sprache werden eher passivische Konstruktionen verwendet. Im Englischen ist der Spaltsatz sehr verbreitet, ebenso in vielen romanischen Sprachen, dabei ist er im Französischen völlig grammatikalisiert. Letztere romanische Sprache folgt demnach auch konsequent diesen Schritt zur Hervorhebung einzelner Satzelemente, während etwa dem Italienischen, dem Spanischen und auch dem Portugiesischen noch weitere Möglichkeiten zur Verfügung stehen. (de)
  • La frase scissa è un costrutto che mette in evidenza una parte dell'enunciato: «Sono io che ringrazio te». Il procedimento di messa in rilievo causa una separazione fra reggente e subordinata. Come altre forme di frasi segmentate (ad esempio, quelle con dislocazione), le frasi scisse servono ad articolare in modo particolare tema e rema. Altri esempi: È che non posso venire.Non è che avessi davvero giocattoli a quei tempi. (it)
  • 分裂文(ぶんれつぶん、英語:Cleft sentence)とは、単文の中のある成分(主語、目的語、その他)を強調するために抜き出し、コピュラ文を主節とする複文に変換した形の文をいう。 日本語の例を挙げれば「あいつが花瓶を割った」という代わりに「花瓶を割ったのは(が)あいつだ」という文である。 英語などSVO型語順を持つ言語では、主節の動詞をなるべく前に置くことが好まれるため、例えば * We're looking for Joey.「私たちはジョーイを探している」 を言い換えて、 * Who we're looking for is Joey.「私たちが探しているのはジョーイだ」 というよりも、さらにダミー主語のItを用いて従属節を後に置いた * It is Joey that we're looking for. という方が一般的な語順となる。そこで後者を、文が2つの部分に分かれているという特徴から分裂文と呼び、前者を擬似分裂文(ぎじぶんれつぶん、Pseudo-cleft sentence)と呼ぶ。つまり英語では it + be動詞 + X + 従属節 という形が分裂文、 従属節 + be動詞 + X という形が擬似分裂文である。ここでXは名詞句、前置詞句、形容詞句や副詞句である。焦点はXに、もしくは(特に真正の分裂文で)従属節またはその一部に置かれる(発話では強調される)。日本語では分裂文と擬似分裂文に当たる区別は特にない。 (ja)
  • 분열문 (分裂文, cleft sentence)이란, 문장에서 특정한 어구를 강조하기 위해 사용하는 구문을 말한다. 분열문은 '~것' 이라 표현되며, 강조하기 위한 의도로 분리한 문장으로 전제를 유발한다. (ko)
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  • La frase scissa è un costrutto che mette in evidenza una parte dell'enunciato: «Sono io che ringrazio te». Il procedimento di messa in rilievo causa una separazione fra reggente e subordinata. Come altre forme di frasi segmentate (ad esempio, quelle con dislocazione), le frasi scisse servono ad articolare in modo particolare tema e rema. Altri esempi: È che non posso venire.Non è che avessi davvero giocattoli a quei tempi. (it)
  • 분열문 (分裂文, cleft sentence)이란, 문장에서 특정한 어구를 강조하기 위해 사용하는 구문을 말한다. 분열문은 '~것' 이라 표현되며, 강조하기 위한 의도로 분리한 문장으로 전제를 유발한다. (ko)
  • Ein Spaltsatz (von engl. cleft sentence, franz. phrase clivée) ergibt sich, wenn ein Hauptsatz in eine Konstruktion aus Haupt- (Kopulasatz) und Nebensatz (Relativsatz) transformiert wird, um eine Nominalphrase (NP) mit einem (kontrastiven) Fokus bzw. einer Emphase zu belegen. (de)
  • A cleft sentence is a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. In spoken language, this focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation. In English, a cleft sentence can be constructed as follows: it + conjugated form of to be + X + subordinate clause * It's Joey (whom) we're looking for. * It's money that I love. * It was from John that she heard the news. * We didn't meet her until we arrived at the hotel. the cleft would be: (en)
  • 分裂文(ぶんれつぶん、英語:Cleft sentence)とは、単文の中のある成分(主語、目的語、その他)を強調するために抜き出し、コピュラ文を主節とする複文に変換した形の文をいう。 日本語の例を挙げれば「あいつが花瓶を割った」という代わりに「花瓶を割ったのは(が)あいつだ」という文である。 英語などSVO型語順を持つ言語では、主節の動詞をなるべく前に置くことが好まれるため、例えば * We're looking for Joey.「私たちはジョーイを探している」 を言い換えて、 * Who we're looking for is Joey.「私たちが探しているのはジョーイだ」 というよりも、さらにダミー主語のItを用いて従属節を後に置いた * It is Joey that we're looking for. (ja)
rdfs:label
  • Spaltsatz (de)
  • Cleft sentence (en)
  • 分裂文 (ja)
  • Frase scissa (it)
  • 분열문 (ko)
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