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Zhang Tianxi (Chinese: 張天錫; 346–406), original courtesy name Gongchungu (公純嘏), later Chungu (純嘏), nickname Duhuo (獨活), formally Duke Dao of Xiping (西平悼公), was the last ruler of the Chinese state Former Liang. He was the youngest son of Zhang Jun (Duke Zhongcheng), and he seized the throne from his nephew Zhang Xuanjing (Duke Jingdao) in 363. During his reign, he claimed vassal status with regard to both Jin Dynasty (266–420) and Former Qin, but eventually, under Former Qin pressure to completely submit, he tried to resist militarily, but could not and surrendered in 376, ending Former Liang. He became a Former Qin official (with the title Marquess of Guiyi (歸義侯)), but after Former Qin's failed attempt to conquer Jin in 383 at the Battle of Fei River, he fled to Jin. Although the Jin imperi

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  • 張天錫
  • 장천석
  • Zhang Tianxi
  • Чжан Тяньси
  • Чжан Тяньсі
  • 張天錫 (前涼)
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  • 張 天錫(ちょう てんしゃく、346年 - 406年)は、五胡十六国時代の前涼の第9代君主。字は純嘏。小名は独活。第4代君主張駿の末子。母は劉美人。
  • Чжан Тяньси́ (кит. трад. 張天錫, упр. 张天锡, пиньинь Zhāng Tiānxí, 346-406), взрослое имя Чуньху́ (кит. трад. 純嘏) — последний правитель государства Ранняя Лян.
  • 張天錫(346年-406年),字純嘏,本字公純嘏,因被人嘲笑是三字而自行改字,小名獨活,安定烏氏人。中國十六國時期前涼政權的最後一位君主。張天錫為前涼文王張駿少子,前涼桓王張重華之弟。張天錫在位時前秦國力強盛,雖曾主動斷絕與前秦關係,但最終仍逼於軍事力量而再度稱藩。及後張天錫反抗前秦徵召入朝的命令並射殺使者,前秦大軍遂攻伐前涼,張天錫不敵投降,前涼國於是滅亡。淝水之戰後張天錫南歸東晉,並在東晉終老。
  • Чжан Тяньсі (кит. трад.: 張天錫; піньїнь: Zhāng Tianxi; 346-406) — останній правитель Ранньої Лян періоду Шістнадцяти держав.
  • Zhang Tianxi (Chinese: 張天錫; 346–406), original courtesy name Gongchungu (公純嘏), later Chungu (純嘏), nickname Duhuo (獨活), formally Duke Dao of Xiping (西平悼公), was the last ruler of the Chinese state Former Liang. He was the youngest son of Zhang Jun (Duke Zhongcheng), and he seized the throne from his nephew Zhang Xuanjing (Duke Jingdao) in 363. During his reign, he claimed vassal status with regard to both Jin Dynasty (266–420) and Former Qin, but eventually, under Former Qin pressure to completely submit, he tried to resist militarily, but could not and surrendered in 376, ending Former Liang. He became a Former Qin official (with the title Marquess of Guiyi (歸義侯)), but after Former Qin's failed attempt to conquer Jin in 383 at the Battle of Fei River, he fled to Jin. Although the Jin imperi
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