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Sole marks are sedimentary structures found on the bases of certain strata, that indicate small-scale (usually on the order of centimetres) grooves or irregularities. This usually occurs at the interface of two differing lithologies and/or grain sizes. They are commonly preserved as casts of these indents on the bottom of the overlying bed (like flute casts). This is similar to casts and molds in fossil preservation. Occurring as they do only at the bottom of beds, and their distinctive shapes, they can make useful way up structures and paleocurrent indicators.

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  • Sole markings
  • 底痕
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  • 底痕(ていこん、英: sole mark、ソールマーク)とは、主に砂岩層の底面にみられる堆積構造の一種。泥などの堆積物の表面につくられた溝の上に砂の粒子が堆積し、固結した後に砂岩層の底(sole)に付く模様のこと。層裏痕とも。 海底の底ではなく単層(地層)の底を指すが、海底にみられる何らかの痕跡を「底痕」と呼ぶこともあり、その命名者などが大勢いることからソールマークと称呼する場合が多い。水流のほか何らかに削られた跡をといい、運搬された粒子のほか何らかの物による跡を(英: tool mark)という。なお、水流により海底に直接刻まれた模様は漣痕といい、紛らわしいときはリップルマーク(漣痕と同義)と呼ぶ。
  • Sole marks are sedimentary structures found on the bases of certain strata, that indicate small-scale (usually on the order of centimetres) grooves or irregularities. This usually occurs at the interface of two differing lithologies and/or grain sizes. They are commonly preserved as casts of these indents on the bottom of the overlying bed (like flute casts). This is similar to casts and molds in fossil preservation. Occurring as they do only at the bottom of beds, and their distinctive shapes, they can make useful way up structures and paleocurrent indicators.
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  • Sole marks are sedimentary structures found on the bases of certain strata, that indicate small-scale (usually on the order of centimetres) grooves or irregularities. This usually occurs at the interface of two differing lithologies and/or grain sizes. They are commonly preserved as casts of these indents on the bottom of the overlying bed (like flute casts). This is similar to casts and molds in fossil preservation. Occurring as they do only at the bottom of beds, and their distinctive shapes, they can make useful way up structures and paleocurrent indicators. Sole markings are found most commonly in turbidite deposits, but are also often seen in modern river beds and tidal channels.
  • 底痕(ていこん、英: sole mark、ソールマーク)とは、主に砂岩層の底面にみられる堆積構造の一種。泥などの堆積物の表面につくられた溝の上に砂の粒子が堆積し、固結した後に砂岩層の底(sole)に付く模様のこと。層裏痕とも。 海底の底ではなく単層(地層)の底を指すが、海底にみられる何らかの痕跡を「底痕」と呼ぶこともあり、その命名者などが大勢いることからソールマークと称呼する場合が多い。水流のほか何らかに削られた跡をといい、運搬された粒子のほか何らかの物による跡を(英: tool mark)という。なお、水流により海底に直接刻まれた模様は漣痕といい、紛らわしいときはリップルマーク(漣痕と同義)と呼ぶ。
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