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ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is a physics experiment aimed at studying neutrinos. It was located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). After completion of its operations there, it was refurbished at CERN for re-use in the same neutrino beam from Fermilab as the MiniBooNE, MicroBooNE and SBND experiments. The ICARUS detector was then broken down for transport and reassembled at Fermilab. In February 2020, scientists at Fermilab began cooling down ICARUS and filling it with 760 tons of liquid argon. Scientists hope to take the first measurements with the refurbished ICARUS later in 2020.

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  • ICARUS experiment
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  • ICARUS (englisch Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) ist ein Neutrinoobservatorium, also ein physikalisches Großexperiment zur Untersuchung von Neutrinos. Es wird in den Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) durchgeführt. Das Experiment benutzt die Weiterentwicklung eines von Carlo Rubbia 1977 vorgeschlagenen Teilchendetektortyps, der Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC). Er soll die Vorteile einer Blasenkammer mit einem elektronischen Ausleseverfahren verbinden.
  • ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is a physics experiment aimed at studying neutrinos. It was located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). After completion of its operations there, it was refurbished at CERN for re-use in the same neutrino beam from Fermilab as the MiniBooNE, MicroBooNE and SBND experiments. The ICARUS detector was then broken down for transport and reassembled at Fermilab. In February 2020, scientists at Fermilab began cooling down ICARUS and filling it with 760 tons of liquid argon. Scientists hope to take the first measurements with the refurbished ICARUS later in 2020.
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  • ICARUS (englisch Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) ist ein Neutrinoobservatorium, also ein physikalisches Großexperiment zur Untersuchung von Neutrinos. Es wird in den Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) durchgeführt. Das Experiment benutzt die Weiterentwicklung eines von Carlo Rubbia 1977 vorgeschlagenen Teilchendetektortyps, der Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC). Er soll die Vorteile einer Blasenkammer mit einem elektronischen Ausleseverfahren verbinden. Im Zuge des ICARUS-Programms wurden mehrere solcher Detektoren gebaut. 2010 wurde der ICARUS-T600-Detektor im LNGS mit 760 Tonnen Flüssigargon als größter Detektor dieser Art in Betrieb genommen. Zur Untersuchung von Neutrinooszillationen und damit zusammenhängenden Grundlagenfragen werden sowohl Neutrinos aus astronomischen Quellen als auch CNGS-Neutrinos (die auch vom OPERA-Experiment genutzt werden) gemessen. Die CNGS-Neutrinos kommen vom Super Proton Synchrotron des CERN aus einer Entfernung von ungefähr 730 km. Deswegen werden auch die Bezeichnungen CNGS1 (OPERA) und CNGS2 (ICARUS) benutzt. Die CNGS-Messungen wurden zusätzlich bedeutsam, als die OPERA-Gruppe im September und November 2011 die angebliche Messung überlichtschneller Neutrinos bekanntgab. Die ICARUS-Gruppe veröffentlichte daraufhin eine Studie, wonach das Energiespektrum der Neutrinos nicht mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit zu vereinbaren ist. Dies beruhte auf einer Arbeit von Cohen/Glashow (2011), nach der von überlichtschnellen Neutrinos intensive Bremsstrahlung im Sinne des Tscherenkow-Effekts ausgehen müsste (Vakuum-Tscherenkow-Effekt).Im März 2012 veröffentlichte die ICARUS-Gruppe auch eine direkte Messung der Geschwindigkeit von sieben CNGS-Neutrinos. Das Ergebnis stimmt im Rahmen der Messgenauigkeit mit der Lichtgeschwindigkeit überein. Im August 2012 wurde eine genauere Messung vorgelegt, die ebenfalls mit der Lichtgeschwindigkeit übereinstimmt. Für Details siehe Messungen der Neutrinogeschwindigkeit.
  • ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is a physics experiment aimed at studying neutrinos. It was located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). After completion of its operations there, it was refurbished at CERN for re-use in the same neutrino beam from Fermilab as the MiniBooNE, MicroBooNE and SBND experiments. The ICARUS detector was then broken down for transport and reassembled at Fermilab. In February 2020, scientists at Fermilab began cooling down ICARUS and filling it with 760 tons of liquid argon. Scientists hope to take the first measurements with the refurbished ICARUS later in 2020. The ICARUS program was initiated by Carlo Rubbia in 1977, who proposed a new type of neutrino detector.These are called Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr-TPC), which should combine the advantages of bubble chambers and electronic detectors, evolving previous detectors . In the course of the ICARUS program, such detectors of considerable capacity were proposed. After first runs at Pavia in 2001, the ICARUS T600 detector at Gran Sasso, filled with 760 tons of liquid argon, started operation in 2010. In order to study neutrino oscillations and various fundamental topics of modern physics, neutrinos of astronomic or solar sources, and CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam produced 730 km away by the Super Proton Synchrotron from CERN, have been detected through the reaction: The CNGS neutrinos are also studied by the OPERA experiment, therefore those experiments are also called CNGS1 (OPERA) and CNGS2 (ICARUS). The CNGS measurements also became important when the OPERA group announced in September and November 2011, that they have measured superluminal neutrinos (see faster-than-light neutrino anomaly). Shortly afterwards, the ICARUS collaboration published a paper in which they argued, that the energy distribution of the neutrinos is not compatible with superluminal particles. This conclusion was based on a theory of Cohen and Sheldon Lee Glashow.In March 2012, they published a direct neutrino velocity measurement based on seven neutrinos events. The result was in agreement with the speed of light and thus special relativity, and contradicts the OPERA result. In August 2012, another neutrino velocity measurement based on 25 neutrino events was published with increased accuracy and statistics, again in agreement with the speed of light, see measurements of neutrino speed. The ICARUS detector moved to Fermilab in July 2017 for a new neutrino experiment. As of February 2020, ICARUS is expected to start operations later in 2020.
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