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Fermat's factorization method, named after Pierre de Fermat, is based on the representation of an odd integer as the difference of two squares: That difference is algebraically factorable as ; if neither factor equals one, it is a proper factorization of N. Each odd number has such a representation. Indeed, if is a factorization of N, then Since N is odd, then c and d are also odd, so those halves are integers. (A multiple of four is also a difference of squares: let c and d be even.)

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• Fermat's factorization method
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• Fermat's factorization method, named after Pierre de Fermat, is based on the representation of an odd integer as the difference of two squares: That difference is algebraically factorable as ; if neither factor equals one, it is a proper factorization of N. Each odd number has such a representation. Indeed, if is a factorization of N, then Since N is odd, then c and d are also odd, so those halves are integers. (A multiple of four is also a difference of squares: let c and d be even.)
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• Fermat's factorization method, named after Pierre de Fermat, is based on the representation of an odd integer as the difference of two squares: That difference is algebraically factorable as ; if neither factor equals one, it is a proper factorization of N. Each odd number has such a representation. Indeed, if is a factorization of N, then Since N is odd, then c and d are also odd, so those halves are integers. (A multiple of four is also a difference of squares: let c and d be even.) In its simplest form, Fermat's method might be even slower than trial division (worst case). Nonetheless, the combination of trial division and Fermat's is more effective than either.
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