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The evolution of color vision in primates is unique compared to most eutherian mammals. A remote vertebrate ancestor of primates possessed tetrachromacy, but nocturnal, warm-blooded, mammalian ancestors lost two of four cones in the retina at the time of dinosaurs. Most teleost fish, reptiles and birds are therefore tetrachromatic while most mammals are strictly dichromats, the exceptions being some primates and marsupials, who are trichromats, and many marine mammals, who are monochromats.

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  • Evolution of color vision in primates
  • 灵长目彩色视觉的演化
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  • 灵长目彩色视觉的演化相比于绝大多数真兽下纲哺乳类是独一无二的。灵长目的一种脊椎动物远祖拥有四色视觉, 然而夜行、恒温的哺乳类的祖先在恐龙时代丢失了视网膜中4种视锥细胞中的两种。绝大多数硬骨鱼,爬行类和鸟类因此是四色视觉者,然而所有哺乳类(除了部分灵长目和后兽下纲的例外之外)都是严格的者。 灵长目通过具有光谱峰值位于雪青色(短波,)、绿色(中波,M),和黄绿色(长波,L)波长的颜色光感受细胞(视锥细胞)实现。视蛋白是灵长类眼中的主要的光敏蛋白,且一个有机体的视蛋白序列决定了其视锥细胞的光谱敏感度。然而,不是所有灵长目都有三色视觉的能力。狭鼻小目(旧世界猴和猿)是常规的者,意味着雄性和雌性均拥有3种视蛋白(色素),分别对430nm、530nm和560nm的波长的光敏感。 作为对比,除了吼猴(Aotus)和夜猴属(Alouatta)的例外,所有的阔鼻类(新世界猴)都是等位基因的或多态的三色视觉者。
  • The evolution of color vision in primates is unique compared to most eutherian mammals. A remote vertebrate ancestor of primates possessed tetrachromacy, but nocturnal, warm-blooded, mammalian ancestors lost two of four cones in the retina at the time of dinosaurs. Most teleost fish, reptiles and birds are therefore tetrachromatic while most mammals are strictly dichromats, the exceptions being some primates and marsupials, who are trichromats, and many marine mammals, who are monochromats.
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  • The evolution of color vision in primates is unique compared to most eutherian mammals. A remote vertebrate ancestor of primates possessed tetrachromacy, but nocturnal, warm-blooded, mammalian ancestors lost two of four cones in the retina at the time of dinosaurs. Most teleost fish, reptiles and birds are therefore tetrachromatic while most mammals are strictly dichromats, the exceptions being some primates and marsupials, who are trichromats, and many marine mammals, who are monochromats. Primates achieve trichromacy through color photoreceptors (cone cells), with spectral peaks in the violet (short wave, S), green (middle wave, M), and yellow-green (long wave, L) wavelengths. Opsin is the primary photopigment in primate eyes, and the sequence of an organism's opsin proteins determines the spectral sensitivity of its cone cells. Not all primates, however, are capable of trichromacy. The catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes) are routine trichromats, meaning both males and females possess three opsins (pigments) sensitive to short-, medium-, and long wavelengths. In nearly all species of platyrrhines (New World monkeys) males and homozygous females are dichromats, while heterozygous females are trichromats, a condition known as allelic or polymorphic trichromacy. Among platyrrhines, the exceptions are Alouatta (consistent trichromats) and Aotus (consistent monochromats).
  • 灵长目彩色视觉的演化相比于绝大多数真兽下纲哺乳类是独一无二的。灵长目的一种脊椎动物远祖拥有四色视觉, 然而夜行、恒温的哺乳类的祖先在恐龙时代丢失了视网膜中4种视锥细胞中的两种。绝大多数硬骨鱼,爬行类和鸟类因此是四色视觉者,然而所有哺乳类(除了部分灵长目和后兽下纲的例外之外)都是严格的者。 灵长目通过具有光谱峰值位于雪青色(短波,)、绿色(中波,M),和黄绿色(长波,L)波长的颜色光感受细胞(视锥细胞)实现。视蛋白是灵长类眼中的主要的光敏蛋白,且一个有机体的视蛋白序列决定了其视锥细胞的光谱敏感度。然而,不是所有灵长目都有三色视觉的能力。狭鼻小目(旧世界猴和猿)是常规的者,意味着雄性和雌性均拥有3种视蛋白(色素),分别对430nm、530nm和560nm的波长的光敏感。 作为对比,除了吼猴(Aotus)和夜猴属(Alouatta)的例外,所有的阔鼻类(新世界猴)都是等位基因的或多态的三色视觉者。
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