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Difference is a key concept of philosophy, denoting the process or set of properties by which one entity is distinguished from another within a relational field or a given conceptual system. In the Western philosophical system, difference is traditionally viewed as being opposed to identity, following the Principles of Leibniz, and in particular, his Law of the identity of indiscernibles. In structuralist and poststructuralist accounts, however, difference is understood to be constitutive of both meaning and identity. In other words, because identity (particularly, personal identity) is viewed in non-essentialist terms as a construct, and because constructs only produce meaning through the interplay of differences (see below), it is the case that for both structuralism and poststructuralis

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  • Differenz (Philosophie)
  • Difference (philosophy)
  • 差異
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  • Das Wort Differenz (lat. differentia: Verschiedenheit, Unterschied) wird in unterschiedlichen philosophischen Theorien und Problemzusammenhängen unterschiedlich verwendet. Dabei haben sich verschiedentlich Kontinuitäten ergeben, also ähnliche Verwendungsweisen in ähnlichen Themenfeldern. Einige davon werden nachfolgend behandelt. Da Differenz oft als Gegenbegriff zu Identität gebraucht wird (was nicht identisch ist, ist verschieden), ergibt sich die Bedeutung des ersteren Ausdrucks oft aus dem Gebrauch, welcher von letzterem gemacht wird.
  • 差異(呉音:しゃい、漢音:さい)とは、ある物において、外の物と異なる(比べてみて同一ではないこと)点即ち、ある観点で同一の特徴を持つ事物の間にある自己を区別する別の特徴の事である。 類概念の中に区別を立てる時の差異を種差といい、スコラ哲学では差異を種差に基づく種的差異と同一種において個物を互いに区別する個的差異の二つに分類した。カントなどは同一性とともに事物を構成する範疇とせず、とした。 「言語には対立しかない」と美しくソシュールが『一般言語学講義』によれば述べているが、そのときに対立と同じ意味で差異性という語も用いている。対立によって言語は無から出現するのだが、彼はその無区分、無対立の状態のほうをも差異性と呼んでもいる。言語を生み出す差異と言語の前の無としての差異を、二つながら了解しておかなくてはならない。
  • Difference is a key concept of philosophy, denoting the process or set of properties by which one entity is distinguished from another within a relational field or a given conceptual system. In the Western philosophical system, difference is traditionally viewed as being opposed to identity, following the Principles of Leibniz, and in particular, his Law of the identity of indiscernibles. In structuralist and poststructuralist accounts, however, difference is understood to be constitutive of both meaning and identity. In other words, because identity (particularly, personal identity) is viewed in non-essentialist terms as a construct, and because constructs only produce meaning through the interplay of differences (see below), it is the case that for both structuralism and poststructuralis
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