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Control theory in sociology is the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate. Control theory can either be classified as centralized or decentralized or neither. Decentralized control is considered market control. Centralized control is considered bureaucratic control. Some types of control such as clan control are considered to be a mixture of both decentralized and centralized control. Hirschi (1969) identifies four elements of social bonds: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.

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  • Control theory (sociology)
  • Teoria do controle
  • Kontroll- och tillfällesstrukturteori
  • 控制理論 (社會學)
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  • A Teoria do Controle, enquanto extensão do campo da psicanálise, postula o comportamento humano como sendo direcionado pela função terapêutica da subjugação das ameaças de outros ou do meio que o cerca. É adquirido por produzir o controle de outros através de si próprio — uma vez estando sob controle, o outro deixará de ser uma ameaça.
  • Control theory in sociology is the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate. Control theory can either be classified as centralized or decentralized or neither. Decentralized control is considered market control. Centralized control is considered bureaucratic control. Some types of control such as clan control are considered to be a mixture of both decentralized and centralized control. Hirschi (1969) identifies four elements of social bonds: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
  • 社会学中的控制理論(Control theory)是指人的二個控制系統(內部控制及外在控制)和人自身偏離的傾向互動對抗的概念。控制理論也可以分為集權式(centralized)或分權式(decentralized),也有可能兩者都有或是都沒有。分權式控制也就是市场控制。集權式控制也就是官僚控制。像是部落控制(clan contro)之類的控制則是混合了集權式控制及分權式控制。 分權式控制或是市场控制一般是透過一些因素來維持的,像是价格、竞争及市場佔有率等。集權式控制或是官僚控制多半是透過企业行政或是分層技術來達到,像是訂定標準以及政策等。像部落控制就是混合式的控制,同時具有分權式控制及集權式控制的特點,一般是透過維護價值觀、信念、規範或是傳統來維持。 在1973年提出的抑制理論(Containment theory)其中提到大部份的情形下,人的行為不是由外在刺激所引發,而是因他心中最想得到或達成的想法所產生。依照控制理論,抑制理論较弱的社会系统會造成較多的越轨行為。 依照的論點,人是自私的,作決策時會以個人可以獲得最大利益為基礎。像工作就是一個例子,大部份的人都希望可以不工作,但為了要獲得食物、水、住屋及衣服,人仍然是工作。 赫胥(1969)指出了社會連結(social bond)的四個成份:依附、承諾、參與及信念。
  • Kontroll- och tillfällesstrukturteorierna är inom kriminologin ett ideologiskt konservativt alternativ till de progressiva konfliktteorierna som var mycket populära under 1960- och 1970-talen. I takt med att konfliktteorierna minskade sitt inflytande kom den radikala kriminologin att tappa mark. Efter andra hälften av 1970-talet vann kontroll- och tillfällesstrukturteorierna mark och ökad popularitet inom den kriminologiska debatten. Idag domineras kriminologin av den administrativa kriminologin som hämtar sin bas ur teorier om kontroll och tillfällesstruktur.
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  • Control theory in sociology is the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate. Control theory can either be classified as centralized or decentralized or neither. Decentralized control is considered market control. Centralized control is considered bureaucratic control. Some types of control such as clan control are considered to be a mixture of both decentralized and centralized control. Decentralized control or market control is typically maintained through factors such as price, competition, or market share. Centralized control such as bureaucratic control is typically maintained through administrative or hierarchical techniques such as creating standards or policies. An example of mixed control is clan control which has characteristics of both centralized and decentralized control. Mixed control or clan control is typically maintained by keeping a set of values and beliefs or norms and traditions. Containment theory, as developed by Walter Reckless in 1973, states that behavior is caused not by outside stimuli, but by what a person wants most at any given time. According to the control theory, weaker containing social systems result in more deviant behavior. Control theory stresses how weak bonds between the individuals and society free people to deviate or go against the norms, or the people who have weak ties would engage in crimes so they could benefit, or gain something that is to their own interest. This is where strong bonds make deviance more costly. Deviant acts appear attractive to individuals but social bonds stop most people from committing the acts. Deviance is a result from extensive exposure to certain social situations where individuals develop behaviors that attract them to avoid conforming to social norms. Social bonds are used in control theory to help individuals from going after these attractive deviations. According to Travis Hirschi, humans are selfish beings, who make decisions based on which choice will give the greatest benefit. A good example of control theory would be that people go to work. Most people do not want to go to work, but they do, because they get paid, to obtain food, water, shelter, and clothing. Hirschi (1969) identifies four elements of social bonds: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
  • A Teoria do Controle, enquanto extensão do campo da psicanálise, postula o comportamento humano como sendo direcionado pela função terapêutica da subjugação das ameaças de outros ou do meio que o cerca. É adquirido por produzir o controle de outros através de si próprio — uma vez estando sob controle, o outro deixará de ser uma ameaça.
  • Kontroll- och tillfällesstrukturteorierna är inom kriminologin ett ideologiskt konservativt alternativ till de progressiva konfliktteorierna som var mycket populära under 1960- och 1970-talen. I takt med att konfliktteorierna minskade sitt inflytande kom den radikala kriminologin att tappa mark. Efter andra hälften av 1970-talet vann kontroll- och tillfällesstrukturteorierna mark och ökad popularitet inom den kriminologiska debatten. Idag domineras kriminologin av den administrativa kriminologin som hämtar sin bas ur teorier om kontroll och tillfällesstruktur. Det gemensamma för kontrollteoriernas utgångspunkt är frågan Varför finns det lagliga människor?. Teorierna antar att alla har en "önskan" att begå brott och avvikande handlingar och att det finns en rationell grund för detta. Fokus ligger alltså inte på brottsligheten och dess orsaker utan på konformiteten och dess grund. Kontrollteoretikerna försöker finna svaret på är varför inte alla begår brott. Svaret på frågan skiljer sig något mellan de olika teorierna men de är överens om att de flesta avhåller sig från brottsligt beteende genom samhällets eller den egna kontrollen.
  • 社会学中的控制理論(Control theory)是指人的二個控制系統(內部控制及外在控制)和人自身偏離的傾向互動對抗的概念。控制理論也可以分為集權式(centralized)或分權式(decentralized),也有可能兩者都有或是都沒有。分權式控制也就是市场控制。集權式控制也就是官僚控制。像是部落控制(clan contro)之類的控制則是混合了集權式控制及分權式控制。 分權式控制或是市场控制一般是透過一些因素來維持的,像是价格、竞争及市場佔有率等。集權式控制或是官僚控制多半是透過企业行政或是分層技術來達到,像是訂定標準以及政策等。像部落控制就是混合式的控制,同時具有分權式控制及集權式控制的特點,一般是透過維護價值觀、信念、規範或是傳統來維持。 在1973年提出的抑制理論(Containment theory)其中提到大部份的情形下,人的行為不是由外在刺激所引發,而是因他心中最想得到或達成的想法所產生。依照控制理論,抑制理論较弱的社会系统會造成較多的越轨行為。 控制理論著重在个体和社会的弱連結如何讓人們偏離或是違背常規、或是因為其利益或是喜好而從事犯罪行為。在強連結的情形下,個體偏離常規要付較大的代價。偏離行為對個人有吸引力,但是社会連結讓人不會從事那些行為。偏離行為是個體長期暴露在特定社會情形下的結果,讓個人發展出不像和其他人可以遵守社會規範的情形。在控制理論中,會用社會連結來避免個人受哪些有吸引力的偏離所影響。 依照的論點,人是自私的,作決策時會以個人可以獲得最大利益為基礎。像工作就是一個例子,大部份的人都希望可以不工作,但為了要獲得食物、水、住屋及衣服,人仍然是工作。 赫胥(1969)指出了社會連結(social bond)的四個成份:依附、承諾、參與及信念。
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