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Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill or subdue their prey. Although some species of venomous and mildly venomous snakes do use constriction to subdue their prey, most snakes which use constriction lack venom. The snake initially strikes at its prey and holds on, pulling the prey into its coils or, in the case of very large prey, pulling itself onto the prey. The snake will then wrap one or two loops around the prey, forming a constriction coil. The snake will monitor the prey's heartbeat to ascertain when it is dead.

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  • Škrtiči
  • Konstriktion
  • Constriction
  • Sufoko (serpentoj)
  • Constricción
  • Constriction
  • Constrição
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  • Škrtiči je obecný název pro velké hady s velice silným svalstvem. Jsou to aktivní lovci s vyvinutými reflexy. Do své kořisti se zakousnou, omotají ji svým tělem a pevně ji sevřou, až se nemůže nadechnout a může jen vydechovat, což vede k udušení. Je však běžné, že oběť dříve umře na zástavu srdce nebo poškození vnitřních orgánů. Jakmile je kořist mrtvá, had začne povolovat a kořist vcelku sežere. Nejčastěji škrtiči loví savce, ptáky a plazy, někdy i obojživelníky, které požívají zaživa. Mezi zástupce patří například krajta tygrovitá, anakonda velká, hroznýš královský, užovka červená nebo psohlavec zelený.
  • La constriction est une utilisée par certains serpents pour tuer leur proie. Elle consiste pour le serpent à immobiliser la proie en enroulant son corps autour et dans le but de l'étreindre. Ceci provoque une coupure du (es), ce qui entraîne une perte de connaissance et un arrêt cardiaque. La plupart des espèces utilisant cette technique sont des serpents non (es) et sont qualifiées de serpents constricteurs, comme les anacondas, les boas ou les pythons.
  • Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill or subdue their prey. Although some species of venomous and mildly venomous snakes do use constriction to subdue their prey, most snakes which use constriction lack venom. The snake initially strikes at its prey and holds on, pulling the prey into its coils or, in the case of very large prey, pulling itself onto the prey. The snake will then wrap one or two loops around the prey, forming a constriction coil. The snake will monitor the prey's heartbeat to ascertain when it is dead.
  • La constricción es un método de estrangulamiento utilizado por varias especies de serpientes para matar a sus presas. Aunque algunas especies de serpientes venenosas y levemente venenosas usan constricción para someter a sus presas, la mayoría de las serpientes que utilizan la constricción carecen de veneno.​ Inicialmente, la serpiente ataca a su presa y se aferra, traccionando a la presa en sus anillos o, en el caso de presas muy grandes, traccionándose a sí misma en la presa. La serpiente luego envuelve una o dos bobinas alrededor de la presa.
  • Constrição é um método de abate de presas usado por vários espécies de serpentes. Apesar de também ser usado por algumas serpentes peçonhentas para imobilizar suas presas, a maioria das serpentes que constrigem não são peçonhentas. Ao contrário do mito, as serpentes não sufocam a presa ou quebram seus ossos. Um estudo sobre a constrição em jiboias mostrou que a constrição interrompe o fluxo sanguíneo (e, consequentemente, o fluxo de oxigênio), necessário para órgãos vitais como o coração e o cérebro, levando à morte em pouco tempo.
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  • Škrtiči je obecný název pro velké hady s velice silným svalstvem. Jsou to aktivní lovci s vyvinutými reflexy. Do své kořisti se zakousnou, omotají ji svým tělem a pevně ji sevřou, až se nemůže nadechnout a může jen vydechovat, což vede k udušení. Je však běžné, že oběť dříve umře na zástavu srdce nebo poškození vnitřních orgánů. Jakmile je kořist mrtvá, had začne povolovat a kořist vcelku sežere. Nejčastěji škrtiči loví savce, ptáky a plazy, někdy i obojživelníky, které požívají zaživa. Mezi zástupce patří například krajta tygrovitá, anakonda velká, hroznýš královský, užovka červená nebo psohlavec zelený.
  • Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill or subdue their prey. Although some species of venomous and mildly venomous snakes do use constriction to subdue their prey, most snakes which use constriction lack venom. The snake initially strikes at its prey and holds on, pulling the prey into its coils or, in the case of very large prey, pulling itself onto the prey. The snake will then wrap one or two loops around the prey, forming a constriction coil. The snake will monitor the prey's heartbeat to ascertain when it is dead. Contrary to myth, the snake does not crush the prey, or break its bones. However, several natural observations exist involving wild Anacondas that show broken bones in large prey. Also, contrary to previous belief, the snake does not cause suffocation by constricting the victim;  instead, a study of death caused by boa constrictors showed that constriction "shuts off" blood flow (and therefore oxygen) needed by vital organs such as the heart and brain, leading to unconsciousness within seconds and cardiac arrest shortly thereafter. Further, multiple species of snakes have been shown to constrict with pressures higher than those shown to induce cardiac arrest. In conjunction with observations of oral and nasal hemorrhaging in prey, constriction pressures are also thought to interfere with neural processing by forcing blood towards the brain. In other words, constriction can work by different mechanisms at varying pressures. It likely interferes with breathing at low pressures, can interrupt blood flow and overwhelm the prey's usual blood pressure and circulation at moderate pressures, and can interfere with neural processing and damage tissues at high pressures. During constriction events where the prey's heart is impeded, arterial pressure drops while venous pressure increases, and blood vessels begin to close. The heart does not have enough strength to pump against the pressure and blood flow stops. Internal organs with high metabolic rates, including the brain, liver, and heart, begin to stop functioning and die due to ischemia, a loss of oxygen and glucose. There is evidence that boa constrictors have more difficulty killing ectotherms—animals like lizards and snakes that rely on external heat to regulate their body temperatures. A boa constrictor was observed attacking a spinytail iguana for an hour, and the iguana survived. As this is comparatively recent research (2015), it is possible that other constrictors kill in other ways. It had previously been accepted that constrictors used their body to hold the prey tight and prevent the prey from drawing air into its lungs, resulting in death from asphyxia, or that the pressure of constriction causes a rise in the pressure in the prey's body cavity greater than the heart can counter, resulting in immediate cardiac arrest; data from earlier studies had also indicated that snakes can exert enough pressure for these to be plausible. Certain groups of snakes have characteristic patterns of constriction, including the number of coils they use and the orientation of the coils. Venomous snakes that also use constriction include the mussuranas (ophiophagous South American mildly venomous rear-fanged colubrids which use constriction to subdue snakes including pit vipers), the western terrestrial garter snake (North American colubrid which is an inefficient constrictor and, like most Thamnophis garter snakes, mildly venomous), some species of Boiga snakes (Asian and Australian rear-fanged colubrids) including the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), some species of Australian elapids (including some of the venomous Pseudonaja brown snakes and one Australian coral snake Simoselaps), and a few Australian colubrids.
  • La constricción es un método de estrangulamiento utilizado por varias especies de serpientes para matar a sus presas. Aunque algunas especies de serpientes venenosas y levemente venenosas usan constricción para someter a sus presas, la mayoría de las serpientes que utilizan la constricción carecen de veneno.​ Inicialmente, la serpiente ataca a su presa y se aferra, traccionando a la presa en sus anillos o, en el caso de presas muy grandes, traccionándose a sí misma en la presa. La serpiente luego envuelve una o dos bobinas alrededor de la presa. Contrariamente al mito, la serpiente no aplasta la presa, ni rompe sus huesos. Tradicionalmente, se ha pensado que las serpientes tienen suficiente fuerza como para evitar que entre aire en los pulmones de la presa, lo que resulta en la muerte por asfixia. Sin embargo, algunos elementos de presa parecen morir más rápido de lo que sería posible a través de la asfixia, por lo que también se ha sugerido que la presión de constricción provoca un aumento de la presión en la cavidad del cuerpo de la presa mayor que el corazón puede contrarrestar, resultando en un paro cardiaco inmediato.​ Esta nueva hipótesis aún no ha sido confirmada, pero los datos indican que las serpientes pueden ejercer suficiente presión como para que este mecanismo sea plausible.​ Ciertos grupos de serpientes tienen patrones característicos de constricción, incluyendo el número de bobinas que utilizan y la orientación de dichas bobinas.​ Entre las serpientes venenosas que también usan constricción se incluyen las musuranas (culebras ophiophagous sudamericanas de colmillos-posteriores medianamente venenosas que usan constricción para someter a las serpientes incluyendo víboras), la (colúbrido de América del Norte, que es una constrictora ineficiente y, como la mayoría de las serpientes Thamnophis sirtalis, medianamente venenosas),​​ algunas especies de serpientes Boiga (colúbridos de colmillos-posteriores de Asia y Australia), incluyendo la serpiente marrón de árbol (Boiga irregularis),​​​ y algunas especies de elapids australianas, incluyendo algunas de las serpientes venenosas marrones del género Pseudonaja y una serpiente coral australiana del género Simoselaps, y algunos colúbridos australianos.​
  • La constriction est une utilisée par certains serpents pour tuer leur proie. Elle consiste pour le serpent à immobiliser la proie en enroulant son corps autour et dans le but de l'étreindre. Ceci provoque une coupure du (es), ce qui entraîne une perte de connaissance et un arrêt cardiaque. La plupart des espèces utilisant cette technique sont des serpents non (es) et sont qualifiées de serpents constricteurs, comme les anacondas, les boas ou les pythons.
  • Constrição é um método de abate de presas usado por vários espécies de serpentes. Apesar de também ser usado por algumas serpentes peçonhentas para imobilizar suas presas, a maioria das serpentes que constrigem não são peçonhentas. Ao contrário do mito, as serpentes não sufocam a presa ou quebram seus ossos. Um estudo sobre a constrição em jiboias mostrou que a constrição interrompe o fluxo sanguíneo (e, consequentemente, o fluxo de oxigênio), necessário para órgãos vitais como o coração e o cérebro, levando à morte em pouco tempo. Serpentes peçonhentas que utilizam a constrição para matar suas presas incluem a muçurana, algumas espécies do gênero Boiga, alguns elapídeos e colubrídeos australianos, entre outros.
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