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Cereulide is a toxin produced by some strains of Bacillus cereus. It is a potent cytotoxin that destroys mitochondria. It also causes nausea and vomiting. Cereulide acts as ionophore with a high affinity to potassium cations. Exposure to cereulide causes loss of the membrane potential and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. The nausea and vomiting is believed to be caused by cereulide's binding and activation of 5-HT3 receptors, leading to increased afferent vagus nerve stimulation.

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  • Cereulide
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  • Cereulide is a toxin produced by some strains of Bacillus cereus. It is a potent cytotoxin that destroys mitochondria. It also causes nausea and vomiting. Cereulide acts as ionophore with a high affinity to potassium cations. Exposure to cereulide causes loss of the membrane potential and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. The nausea and vomiting is believed to be caused by cereulide's binding and activation of 5-HT3 receptors, leading to increased afferent vagus nerve stimulation.
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  • Cereulide.svg
IUPACName
  • cyclo[D-alanyl-N-oxa-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-oxa-D-leucyl-D-alanyl-N-oxa-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-oxa-D-leucyl-D-alanyl-N-oxa-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-oxa-D-leucyl]
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  • Cereulide is a toxin produced by some strains of Bacillus cereus. It is a potent cytotoxin that destroys mitochondria. It also causes nausea and vomiting. Cereulide acts as ionophore with a high affinity to potassium cations. Exposure to cereulide causes loss of the membrane potential and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. The nausea and vomiting is believed to be caused by cereulide's binding and activation of 5-HT3 receptors, leading to increased afferent vagus nerve stimulation. Cereulide is a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide resembling valinomycin; it contains three repeats of four amino acids: D-Oxy-Leu—D-Ala—L-Oxy-Val—L-Val. It is produced by a dedicated non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS) system in B. cereus. The spores of cereulide-producing strains of B. cereus are manyfold more heat resistant than spores of cereulide non-producers. The toxin has no loss of activity upon autoclaving, cooking, or baking.
alternative name
  • Cyclo(D-alanyl-3-methyl-L-2-hydroxybutanoyl-L-valyl-4-methyl-D-2-hydroxypentanoyl-D-alanyl-3-methyl-L-2-hydroxybutanoyl-L-valyl-4-methyl-D-2-hydroxypentanoyl-D-alanyl-3-methyl-L-2-hydroxybutanoyl-L-valyl-4-methyl-D-2-hydroxypentanoyl)
  • 1,7,13,19,25,31-Hexaoxa-4,10,16,22,28,34-hexaazacyclohexatriacontane, cyclic peptide derivate;
IUPAC name
  • cyclo[D-alanyl-N-oxa-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-oxa-D-leucyl-D-alanyl-N-oxa-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-oxa-D-leucyl-D-alanyl-N-oxa-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-oxa-D-leucyl]
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