About: 1923 Constitution of Romania     Goto   Sponge   NotDistinct   Permalink

An Entity of Type : yago:LegalDocument106479665, within Data Space : dbpedia.org associated with source document(s)
QRcode icon
http://dbpedia.org/describe/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdbpedia.org%2Fresource%2F1923_Constitution_of_Romania

The 1923 Constitution of Romania, also called the Constitution of Union, was intended to align the organisation of the state on the basis of universal male suffrage and the new realities that arose after the Great Union of 1918. Four draft constitutions existed: one belonging to the National Liberal Party, written with contributions from Ion I. C. Brătianu; one composed by R. Boilă at Cluj, under the influence of the Romanian National Party; one by Constantin Stere, representing the views of the Peasants' Party; and a fourth by C. Berariu. Except for Stere's proposal, which involved a unicameral legislature, proportional representation and popular consultation through the plebiscite, the other three were inspired (when it came to political organisation) by the 1866 Constitution. The Libera

AttributesValues
rdf:type
rdfs:label
  • 1923 Constitution of Romania
  • Constitution roumaine de 1923
  • Costituzione della Romania del 1923
rdfs:comment
  • La Constitution roumaine de 1923, parfois appelée Constitution d'Union, est la Constitution de la Roumanie de 1923 à 1938. Elle a pour but de faire correspondre l'organisation de l'État avec le suffrage universel masculin et les nouvelles réalités issues de la Grande Union de 1918.
  • The 1923 Constitution of Romania, also called the Constitution of Union, was intended to align the organisation of the state on the basis of universal male suffrage and the new realities that arose after the Great Union of 1918. Four draft constitutions existed: one belonging to the National Liberal Party, written with contributions from Ion I. C. Brătianu; one composed by R. Boilă at Cluj, under the influence of the Romanian National Party; one by Constantin Stere, representing the views of the Peasants' Party; and a fourth by C. Berariu. Except for Stere's proposal, which involved a unicameral legislature, proportional representation and popular consultation through the plebiscite, the other three were inspired (when it came to political organisation) by the 1866 Constitution. The Libera
  • La Costituzione della Romania del 1923 dal 29 marzo 1923 (anche conosciuta come incompleta e incoretta "Costituzione del 1923" - perché nelle costituzioni sono sempre specificate il giorno, il mese e l'anno di entrata in vigore) è la Costituzione adottata dopo la Grande Unione. Fu in vigore fino all'adozione della e poi (con restrizioni) tra il 1944 e il 1947. Questa costituzione legittimò il principio della separazione dei poteri statali:
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
dct:subject
Wikipage page ID
Wikipage revision ID
Link from a Wikipage to another Wikipage
Link from a Wikipage to an external page
sameAs
dbp:wikiPageUsesTemplate
purpose
  • Replace the 1866 Constitution
has abstract
  • La Constitution roumaine de 1923, parfois appelée Constitution d'Union, est la Constitution de la Roumanie de 1923 à 1938. Elle a pour but de faire correspondre l'organisation de l'État avec le suffrage universel masculin et les nouvelles réalités issues de la Grande Union de 1918.
  • La Costituzione della Romania del 1923 dal 29 marzo 1923 (anche conosciuta come incompleta e incoretta "Costituzione del 1923" - perché nelle costituzioni sono sempre specificate il giorno, il mese e l'anno di entrata in vigore) è la Costituzione adottata dopo la Grande Unione. Fu in vigore fino all'adozione della e poi (con restrizioni) tra il 1944 e il 1947. Elaborata nel 1923, il progetto di Costituzione fu sottoposto al dibattito parlamentare. Dopo essere stata approvata dal Parlamento, è stata visionata e promulgata da Re Ferdinando I, il 28 marzo 1923, pubblicata nel Monitorul Oficial n 282 del 29 marzo 1923 la data in cui è entrata in vigore. Secondo la Costituzione del 1923, la Romania era una monarchia costituzionale, uno stato nazionale, unitario, indivisibile, con un territorio inalienabile. La Costituzione dell'unificazione, come viene chiamata, conferma la Grande Romania e si basa sulla , dimostra il fatto che dei 138 articoli, 78 sono stati conservati da quella del 1866. Re Ferdinando I (1914-1927) è l'elemento chiave della vita politica. Ha esercitato il potere esecutivo, nominato e revocato i ministri, confermato e promulgato le leggi, era il capo dell'esercito, aveva il diritto di veto, di essere in grado di coniare, di decorare, di concedere l'amnistia e il perdono, di convocare e sciogliere il Parlamento, concludere trattati (che si sono resi disponibili dopo che sono stati approvati dal Parlamento). Il Parlamento costituiva il potere legislativo all'interno del regime democratico. Era bicamerale (Senato e Assemblea dei Deputati) e aveva lo scopo di approvare leggi, di abrogare e di avere il controllo sulle attività di governo. Questa costituzione legittimò il principio della separazione dei poteri statali: * potere legislativo - esercitato collettivamente dalle Assemblee Legislative (Senato e Assemblea dei Deputati) e dal Re; * potere esecutivo - affidato al Re, che lo esercita "in modo regolare attraverso la Costituzione" (attraverso il governo formato dal partito o dall'alleanza che vince le elezioni parlamentari). La formula sintetica che esprimeva questo principio, ampiamente conosciuto dal pubblico, era il re che regnava, non governando. * potere giudiziario - assegnato all'Alta Corte di Cassazione e Giustizia e ai tribunali. Questa costituzione ha rafforzato la Grande Unione, ha creato la vita politica democratica della Romania fino al 1938, quando ha adottato la tramite plebiscito. Dal momento che la era un documento meno democratico rispetto a quella del 1923 (elaborata sotto la pressione politica dell'aumento del totalitarismo nazista e sovietico in tutta Europa), dopo gli eventi del 23 agosto 1944, Re Michele ha ripristinato la Costituzione del 1923. Dal punto di vista legale, era in vigore (con molte restrizioni e violazioni di fatto, generate dall'occupazione militare sovietica e dal continuo aumento dell'influenza politica dei comunisti) al colpo di Stato del 30 dicembre 1947, quando il Partito Comunista Rumeno, aiutato dagli occupanti, ha ottenuto, attraverso ricatti e minacce di forza, la firma del re su un atto illegale di abdicazione. Quella stessa sera, attraverso una sessione di scrutinio dell'Assemblea dei Deputati (che era in festa parlamentare, gli eletti non erano nemmeno presenti, ma lasciati nei distretti territoriali!) i comunisti hanno dato un'apparenza di legalità al colpo di Stato, "smantellando" non solo l'istituzione della monarchia, ma anche la Costituzione in vigore. Seguì un periodo di vuoto costituzionale, fino all'adozione della Costituzione totalitaria della Repubblica Popolare Rumena, che ebbe luogo il 13 aprile 1948.
  • The 1923 Constitution of Romania, also called the Constitution of Union, was intended to align the organisation of the state on the basis of universal male suffrage and the new realities that arose after the Great Union of 1918. Four draft constitutions existed: one belonging to the National Liberal Party, written with contributions from Ion I. C. Brătianu; one composed by R. Boilă at Cluj, under the influence of the Romanian National Party; one by Constantin Stere, representing the views of the Peasants' Party; and a fourth by C. Berariu. Except for Stere's proposal, which involved a unicameral legislature, proportional representation and popular consultation through the plebiscite, the other three were inspired (when it came to political organisation) by the 1866 Constitution. The Liberals came to power in 1922 and managed to push through their own draft, which was approved 247-8 (with two abstentions) in the Chamber of Deputies on March 26, 1923, and the next day in the Senate, 137-2 (with two abstentions). It was published in Monitorul Oficial and came into force on March 29. The constitution had eight titles and 138 articles, of which 76 came in their entirety from its predecessor. It enshrined the principles of popular sovereignty (exercised through representatives), separation of powers in the state, rule of law and decentralisation. Rights and freedoms for all citizens were recognised, regardless of ethnicity, language, religion or social class; the right to own property was guaranteed and, for the first time, the nationalisation of mineral deposits was provided for. The Kingdom of Romania was defined as a “unitary and indivisible national state”, with an inalienable territory. The state guaranteed freedom of expression and assembly, of conscience and of religion, and declared that “as the Romanian Orthodox Church is the religion of the great majority of Romanians it is the dominant church in the Romanian State, while the Greek-Catholic Church has primacy before other faiths”. Regarding state organisation, legislative power was entrusted to Parliament (Senate and Assembly of Deputies) and the King; executive power to the King, who delegated it to the Council of Ministers; and judicial power to the central and local judicial organs. The right to vote was expanded beyond the 1866 regulations: it was universal for all males, equal, direct, compulsory and secret, based on majority representation. The Assembly of Deputies was elected through universal suffrage, while the Senate comprised members elected by different electoral bodies (the Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture and Labour, and professors, all divided into separate colleges), and members by right: the heir to the throne; Metropolitan bishops; diocesan bishops of the Orthodox and Greek-Catholic churches; heads of state-recognised religious bodies; the president of the Romanian Academy; former presidents of the Council of Ministers; former ministers with at least six years’ seniority; former presidents of either legislative chamber who held this function for at least eight ordinary sessions; former senators and deputies elected to at least ten legislatures, irrespective of their duration; former presidents of the High Court of Cassation and Justice; reserve and retired generals; former presidents of the National Assemblies at Chişinău, Cernăuţi and Alba Iulia, which proclaimed their respective provinces’ union with Romania in 1918. A special section discussing the King provides that the throne should remain with the House of Hohenzollern, “from male to male in order of primogeniture and with the perpetual exclusion of women and their descendants”. The King's person was declared inviolable. As with the 1866 document, while the king was vested with executive power, he was not personally responsible for exercising it. Rather, responsibility rested with the ministers; all acts of the sovereign had to be countersigned by a minister, who then became responsible for it. Although the constitution was very advanced and democratic in many respects, it also contained imperfections in the functioning of state institutions that made it easy to subvert democracy. For instance, the King appointed the president of the Council of Ministers, who then organised elections. The government was thus in a position to ensure that its party won a majority in the legislature. In a well-functioning democracy, a government represents the will of parliament and not vice versa, as generally happened in the interwar period. The 1923 Constitution was abrogated when its February 1938 successor came into force. It was then partly revived after the King Michael Coup of August 23, 1944, and definitively abrogated when Romania became a republic on December 30, 1947. During this latter period, in July 1946, the Senate was abolished—the only significant modification to the document.
date created
date ratified
document name
  • Constitution of Romania
signers
prov:wasDerivedFrom
page length (characters) of wiki page
is foaf:primaryTopic of
is Link from a Wikipage to another Wikipage of
Faceted Search & Find service v1.17_git51 as of Sep 16 2020


Alternative Linked Data Documents: PivotViewer | iSPARQL | ODE     Content Formats:       RDF       ODATA       Microdata      About   
This material is Open Knowledge   W3C Semantic Web Technology [RDF Data] Valid XHTML + RDFa
OpenLink Virtuoso version 08.03.3319 as of Dec 29 2020, on Linux (x86_64-centos_6-linux-glibc2.12), Single-Server Edition (61 GB total memory)
Data on this page belongs to its respective rights holders.
Virtuoso Faceted Browser Copyright © 2009-2021 OpenLink Software