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トランスヒューマニズム Трансгуманизм Transhumanism Transhumanismus بعد إنسانية Transhumanisme Transhumanizm Transumanismo Transhumanisme Transhumanismo Transumanesimo 超人类主义
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Le transhumanisme est un mouvement culturel et intellectuel international prônant l'usage des sciences et des techniques afin d'améliorer les caractéristiques physiques et mentales des êtres humains. Le transhumanisme considère certains aspects de la condition humaine tels que le handicap, la souffrance, la maladie, le vieillissement ou la mort subie comme inutiles et indésirables. Dans cette optique, les penseurs transhumanistes comptent sur les biotechnologies et sur d'autres techniques émergentes. Les dangers comme les avantages que présentent de telles évolutions préoccupent aussi le mouvement transhumaniste. Transhumanisme is een recente vorm van speculatieve filosofie die probeert om de door de natuur gestelde grenzen van het menselijke bestaan te doorbreken. El transhumanismo (abreviado como H+ o h+) es un movimiento cultural e intelectual internacional que tiene como eventual objetivo transformar la condición humana mediante el desarrollo y fabricación de tecnología ampliamente disponibles, que mejoren las capacidades humanas, tanto a nivel físico como psicológico o intelectual. Los pensadores transhumanistas estudian los posibles beneficios y peligros de las nuevas tecnologías que podrían superar las limitaciones humanas fundamentales, como también la tecnoética adecuada a la hora de desarrollar y usar esas tecnologías. Estos especulan sosteniendo que los seres humanos pueden llegar a ser capaces de transformarse en seres con extensas capacidades, merecedores de la etiqueta "posthumano". Trans-humanismo (abreviado com H+ ou h+) é um movimento internacional e intelectual que visa transformar a condição humana do desenvolvimento e criação de tecnologias amplamente disponíveis para aumentar consideravelmente as capacidades intelectuais, físicas e psicológicas humanas. Pensadores Trans-humanistas estudam os potenciais benefícios e perigos de tecnologias emergentes que poderiam superar limitações humanas fundamentais, bem como a ética do uso de tais tecnologias. A tese mais comum é que os seres humanos podem, eventualmente, ser capazes de se transformar em diferentes seres com habilidades tão grandemente expandidas a partir da condição natural de modo a merecer o rótulo de pós-humano. Transhumanismus (zusammengesetzt aus lateinisch trans ‚jenseits, über, hinaus‘ und humanus ‚menschlich‘) ist eine philosophische Denkrichtung, die die Grenzen menschlicher Möglichkeiten durch den Einsatz technologischer Verfahren erweitern will. Die Interessen und Werte der Menschheit werden als „Verpflichtung zum Fortschritt“ angesehen. Die Vertreter des Transhumanismus finden sich vor allem im angelsächsischen Raum. Es handelt sich dabei um eine lose und heterogene Verbindung von Vertretern unterschiedlicher soziokultureller Hintergründe und unterschiedlicher Disziplinen. Il transumanesimo (o transumanismo, a volte abbreviato con >H o H+ o H-plus) è un movimento culturale che sostiene l'uso delle scoperte scientifiche e tecnologiche per aumentare le capacità fisiche e cognitive e migliorare quegli aspetti della condizione umana che sono considerati indesiderabili, come la malattia e l'invecchiamento, in vista anche di una possibile trasformazione post umana. Трансгумани́зм (от лат. trans — сквозь, через, за и homo — человек) — философская концепция, а также международное движение, поддерживающие использование достижений науки и технологии для улучшения умственных и физических возможностей человека с целью устранения тех аспектов человеческого существования, которые трансгуманисты считают нежелательными — страданий, болезней, старения и даже смерти. Трансгуманисты изучают возможности и последствия применения таких технологий, опасности и преимущества их использования. Частью трансгуманизма является идея конвергенции биологических, информационных, когнитивных и нанотехнологий. トランスヒューマニズム(英: Transhumanism)は、新しい科学技術を用い、人間の身体と認知能力を進化させ、人間の状況を前例の無い形で向上させようという思想である。省略して>HやH+と書かれる場合もある。日本語では超人間主義などと訳される。 トランスヒューマニズムは人間の機能拡張やその他将来の科学技術の開発・使用により、将来起こりうることを研究する学問でもある。 超人类主义有时也被称为超人文主义或超人主义,过渡人文主义是一个经常被用来和人类增强类似的术语。它现在是一个国际性的文化智力运动,支持使用科学技术来增强 精神、体力、能力和资质,并用来克服人类状态不需要或不必要的方面,比如残疾、疾病、痛苦、老化和偶然死亡。 超人类主义思考者研究发展和使用人类增强技术以及其他以此目的的新兴技术可能性和后果。此外,这些强大的新技术带来的危险和好处,以及对人类生活状态的大改变,也是超人类主义运动的关心方向。 ما بعد الإنسانية Transhumanism (يختصر أحيانا ب >H أو H+) عبارة عن حركة فكرية ودولية تدعم استخدام العلوم والتكنولوجيا الجدية لتعزيز القدرة الإنسانية العقلية والفيزيائية وقدرة تحمله وحتى إلغاء ما يعتبر غير مرغوبا في معظم الأحيان مثل الغباء، المعاناة، المرض، اشيخوخة وأخيرا التخلص من الموت . (Not to be confused with Transgenderism.) Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international and intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of using such technologies. The most common transhumanist thesis is that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into different beings with abilities so greatly expanded from the natural condition as to merit the label of posthuman beings. Transhumanizm (czasem skracany do >H lub H+) – ideologia postulująca użycie nauki i techniki, w szczególności neurotechnologii, biotechnologii i nanotechnologii, do przezwyciężenia ludzkich ograniczeń i poprawy kondycji ludzkiej.
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(Not to be confused with Transgenderism.) Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international and intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of using such technologies. The most common transhumanist thesis is that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into different beings with abilities so greatly expanded from the natural condition as to merit the label of posthuman beings. The contemporary meaning of the term "transhumanism" was foreshadowed by one of the first professors of futurology, FM-2030, who taught "new concepts of the human" at The New School in the 1960s, when he began to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and worldviews "transitional" to posthumanity as "transhuman." This hypothesis would lay the intellectual groundwork for the British philosopher Max More to begin articulating the principles of transhumanism as a futurist philosophy in 1990 and organizing in California an intelligentsia that has since grown into the worldwide transhumanist movement. Influenced by seminal works of science fiction, the transhumanist vision of a transformed future humanity has attracted many supporters and detractors from a wide range of perspectives including philosophy and religion. Transhumanism has been characterized by one critic, Francis Fukuyama, as among the world's most dangerous ideas, to which Ronald Bailey countered that it is rather the "movement that epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative and idealistic aspirations of humanity." トランスヒューマニズム(英: Transhumanism)は、新しい科学技術を用い、人間の身体と認知能力を進化させ、人間の状況を前例の無い形で向上させようという思想である。省略して>HやH+と書かれる場合もある。日本語では超人間主義などと訳される。 トランスヒューマニズムは人間の機能拡張やその他将来の科学技術の開発・使用により、将来起こりうることを研究する学問でもある。 超人类主义有时也被称为超人文主义或超人主义,过渡人文主义是一个经常被用来和人类增强类似的术语。它现在是一个国际性的文化智力运动,支持使用科学技术来增强 精神、体力、能力和资质,并用来克服人类状态不需要或不必要的方面,比如残疾、疾病、痛苦、老化和偶然死亡。 超人类主义思考者研究发展和使用人类增强技术以及其他以此目的的新兴技术可能性和后果。此外,这些强大的新技术带来的危险和好处,以及对人类生活状态的大改变,也是超人类主义运动的关心方向。 ما بعد الإنسانية Transhumanism (يختصر أحيانا ب >H أو H+) عبارة عن حركة فكرية ودولية تدعم استخدام العلوم والتكنولوجيا الجدية لتعزيز القدرة الإنسانية العقلية والفيزيائية وقدرة تحمله وحتى إلغاء ما يعتبر غير مرغوبا في معظم الأحيان مثل الغباء، المعاناة، المرض، اشيخوخة وأخيرا التخلص من الموت . Transhumanisme is een recente vorm van speculatieve filosofie die probeert om de door de natuur gestelde grenzen van het menselijke bestaan te doorbreken. Il transumanesimo (o transumanismo, a volte abbreviato con >H o H+ o H-plus) è un movimento culturale che sostiene l'uso delle scoperte scientifiche e tecnologiche per aumentare le capacità fisiche e cognitive e migliorare quegli aspetti della condizione umana che sono considerati indesiderabili, come la malattia e l'invecchiamento, in vista anche di una possibile trasformazione post umana. Transhumanizm (czasem skracany do >H lub H+) – ideologia postulująca użycie nauki i techniki, w szczególności neurotechnologii, biotechnologii i nanotechnologii, do przezwyciężenia ludzkich ograniczeń i poprawy kondycji ludzkiej. El transhumanismo (abreviado como H+ o h+) es un movimiento cultural e intelectual internacional que tiene como eventual objetivo transformar la condición humana mediante el desarrollo y fabricación de tecnología ampliamente disponibles, que mejoren las capacidades humanas, tanto a nivel físico como psicológico o intelectual. Los pensadores transhumanistas estudian los posibles beneficios y peligros de las nuevas tecnologías que podrían superar las limitaciones humanas fundamentales, como también la tecnoética adecuada a la hora de desarrollar y usar esas tecnologías. Estos especulan sosteniendo que los seres humanos pueden llegar a ser capaces de transformarse en seres con extensas capacidades, merecedores de la etiqueta "posthumano". El significado contemporáneo del término transhumanismo fue forjado por uno de los primeros profesores de futurología, Fereidoun M. Esfandiary, conocido como FM-2030, que pensó en "los nuevos conceptos del humano" en La Nueva Escuela alrededor de 1960, cuando comenzó a identificar a las personas que adoptan tecnologías, estilos de vida y visiones del mundo transicionales a "posthumanas" como "transhumanos". Esta hipótesis se sostendría en los trabajos del filósofo británico Max More, quien empezaría a articular los principios del transhumanismo como una filosofía futurista en 1990, y a organizar en California un grupo intelectual que desde ese entonces creció en lo que hoy se llama el movimiento internacional transhumanista. Influenciado por trabajos y obras primarias de ciencia ficción, la visión transhumanista de una futura humanidad diferente ha atraído a muchos partidarios y detractores de una amplia gama de perspectivas. El transhumanismo ha sido descrito por Francis Fukuyama como «la idea más peligrosa del mundo», mientras que Ronald Bailey considera que es un «movimiento que personifica las más audaces, valientes, imaginativas e idealistas aspiraciones de la humanidad». Трансгумани́зм (от лат. trans — сквозь, через, за и homo — человек) — философская концепция, а также международное движение, поддерживающие использование достижений науки и технологии для улучшения умственных и физических возможностей человека с целью устранения тех аспектов человеческого существования, которые трансгуманисты считают нежелательными — страданий, болезней, старения и даже смерти. Трансгуманисты изучают возможности и последствия применения таких технологий, опасности и преимущества их использования. Частью трансгуманизма является идея конвергенции биологических, информационных, когнитивных и нанотехнологий. Le transhumanisme est un mouvement culturel et intellectuel international prônant l'usage des sciences et des techniques afin d'améliorer les caractéristiques physiques et mentales des êtres humains. Le transhumanisme considère certains aspects de la condition humaine tels que le handicap, la souffrance, la maladie, le vieillissement ou la mort subie comme inutiles et indésirables. Dans cette optique, les penseurs transhumanistes comptent sur les biotechnologies et sur d'autres techniques émergentes. Les dangers comme les avantages que présentent de telles évolutions préoccupent aussi le mouvement transhumaniste. Le terme « transhumanisme » est symbolisé par « H+ » (anciennement « >H ») et est souvent employé comme synonyme d'« amélioration humaine ». Bien que le premier usage connu du mot « transhumanisme » remonte à 1957, son sens actuel trouve son origine dans les années 1980, lorsque certains futurologues américains ont commencé à structurer ce qui est devenu le mouvement transhumaniste. Les penseurs transhumanistes prédisent que les êtres humains pourraient être capables de se transformer en êtres dotés de capacités telles qu'ils mériteraient l'étiquette de « posthumains ». Pour résumer la FAQ transhumaniste d'Humanity+ développée dans les années 1990, un des documents transhumanistes les plus reconnus, le transhumanisme est défini par Max More (en) comme suit : * La promotion de l'amélioration de la condition humaine à travers des technologies d'amélioration de la vie, ayant pour but l'élimination du vieillissement et l'augmentation des capacités intellectuelles, physiques ou psychologiques. * L'étude des bénéfices, dangers et de l'éthique du développement et de la mise en œuvre de ces technologies. Ainsi, le transhumanisme est parfois considéré comme un posthumanisme ou encore comme une forme d'activisme caractérisé par une grande volonté de changement et influencé par les idéaux posthumanistes. En France, ce mouvement est principalement représenté par l'Association française transhumaniste. Il existe des groupes de réflexion, comme Neohumanitas, en Suisse, qui encouragent la réflexion et la discussion sur les conséquences socio-éthiques de l'utilisation des biotechnologies sur l'être humain et qui abordent certains enjeux du transhumanisme. Un grand nombre d'approches transhumanistes différentes sont reflétées au sein même de ces différents groupes. La perspective transhumaniste d'une humanité transformée a suscité de nombreuses réactions, tant positives que négatives, émanant d'horizons de pensée très divers. Francis Fukuyama a ainsi déclaré, à propos du transhumanisme, qu'il s'agit de l'idée la plus dangereuse du monde, ce à quoi un de ses promoteurs, Ronald Bailey, répond que c'est, au contraire, le « mouvement qui incarne les aspirations les plus audacieuses, courageuses, imaginatives et idéalistes de l'humanité ». Transhumanismus (zusammengesetzt aus lateinisch trans ‚jenseits, über, hinaus‘ und humanus ‚menschlich‘) ist eine philosophische Denkrichtung, die die Grenzen menschlicher Möglichkeiten durch den Einsatz technologischer Verfahren erweitern will. Die Interessen und Werte der Menschheit werden als „Verpflichtung zum Fortschritt“ angesehen. Die Vertreter des Transhumanismus finden sich vor allem im angelsächsischen Raum. Es handelt sich dabei um eine lose und heterogene Verbindung von Vertretern unterschiedlicher soziokultureller Hintergründe und unterschiedlicher Disziplinen. Trans-humanismo (abreviado com H+ ou h+) é um movimento internacional e intelectual que visa transformar a condição humana do desenvolvimento e criação de tecnologias amplamente disponíveis para aumentar consideravelmente as capacidades intelectuais, físicas e psicológicas humanas. Pensadores Trans-humanistas estudam os potenciais benefícios e perigos de tecnologias emergentes que poderiam superar limitações humanas fundamentais, bem como a ética do uso de tais tecnologias. A tese mais comum é que os seres humanos podem, eventualmente, ser capazes de se transformar em diferentes seres com habilidades tão grandemente expandidas a partir da condição natural de modo a merecer o rótulo de pós-humano. O significado contemporâneo do termo trans-humanismo foi prenunciado por um dos primeiros professores de futurologia, FM-2030, que ensinou "novos conceitos do ser humano" na New School na década de 1960, quando começou a identificar as pessoas que adotam tecnologias, estilos de vida e visões de mundo "de transição" para a pós-humanidade como "transhumanos". Esta hipótese iria estabelecer a base intelectual para o filósofo britânico Max More para começar a articular os princípios do trans-humanismo como uma filosofia futurista em 1990 e organização intelectual na Califórnia que desde então tem crescido no movimento trans-humanista em todo o mundo . O ano de 1990 é visto como uma "mudança fundamental" na existência humana pela comunidade transhumana, como o primeiro estudo de terapia gênica, bebês projetados,, bem como o de aumento da mente World Wide Web, tudo surgindo naquele ano. Em muitos aspectos, pode-se argumentar as condições que eventualmente levam à Singularidade foram estabelecidas por esses eventos em 1990. Influenciado pelos trabalhos seminais da ficção científica, a visão trans-humanista de uma humanidade futura transformada tem atraído muitos adeptos e detratores de uma ampla gama de perspectivas, incluindo filosofias e religiões. O Trans-humanismo tem sido caracterizado por um crítico, Francis Fukuyama, como tendo os ideias mais perigosos do mundo, com Ronald Bailey respondendo que é um pouco o "movimento que simboliza as aspirações mais ousadas, corajosas, imaginativas e idealistas da humanidade".
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