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Old Calendarists Starokalendarzowcy Paleoimerologhiti Ortodoxos veterocalendaristas Orthodoxes vieux-calendaristes Altkalendarier Старостильные церкви
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Правосла́вные старости́льные це́ркви — христианские православные церкви, использующие в богослужении юлианский календарь. Название применяется к неканоническим православным юрисдикциям тех стран, где, канонические православные церкви перешли на новоюлианский календарь, а отколовшиеся от них по «календарному вопросу» церкви считаются всеми поместными Православными церквами (в том числе и продолжающими служить по старому стилю) неканоническими и схизматическими. В тех же странах (Россия, Сербия, Грузия и др.), в которых юлианский календарь используют канонические церкви, термин «старостильный» не применяется. Con il termine Paleoimerologhiti (dal greco "paleon" e "imerologhion" ossia "vecchio calendario") o vetero-calendaristi si indicano - talora con accento dispregiativo - quei cristiani ortodossi che: * Non hanno accettato la modifica del tradizionale calendario ecclesiastico giuliano-costantiniano verso una variante del calendario gregoriano definito calendario giuliano rivisto o calendario di Milankovic (condizione applicabile alle maggiori chiese ortodosse). * Ritengono gravemente colpevoli le chiese che hanno accettato la modifica del calendario e perciò ritengono indispensabile costituirsi in chiesa autonoma non solo dalle chiese che hanno accettato il nuovo calendario ma anche dalle chiese che pur mantenendo il vecchio calendario non condannano vigorosamente le chiese neo-calendar On appelle Orthodoxes vieux-calendaristes, Vieux-calendaristes, Vétéro-calendaristes ou Paléoïmérologites les Orthodoxes en désaccord avec plusieurs Églises orthodoxes, notamment avec l'Église orthodoxe de Constantinople, l'Église orthodoxe de Grèce, l'Église orthodoxe roumaine et l'Église orthodoxe bulgare, sur l'abandon du calendrier julien par ces Orthodoxes lors d'un synode partiellement pan-orthodoxe qui eut lieu en mai 1923 à Constantinople . Als Altkalendarier (griech.: Παλαιοημερολογίτες) bezeichnet man in der orthodoxen Kirche: * Diejenigen Teilkirchen, die bis heute für alle kirchlichen Feiertage am julianischen Kalender festhalten, z. B. die russische, weißrussische, ukrainische, serbische, mazedonische, georgische und jerusalemitische Kirche, sowie die Klöster auf dem Berge Athos. Sie begehen alle festliegenden Feiertage wie zum Beispiel Weihnachten im Zeitraum der Jahre 1900 bis 2100 jeweils 13 Tage später als die westlichen Kirchen und die orthodoxen Neukalendarier. * Splittergruppen, die sich aus Protest gegen den neuen Kalender im frühen 20. Jahrhundert von den neukalendarischen Teilkirchen getrennt haben. Vor allem in Griechenland gibt es bis heute mehrere solche Gruppen, die sich gegenseitig meist nicht anerkenn Ortodoxos Viejo-calendaristas (del griego παλαιοημερολογίτης, paleoimerologitis), se les conoce con este nombre o como genuinos cristianos ortodoxos (Γνησίων Ορθοδόξων Χριστιανών), a una rama de miembros de la Iglesia ortodoxa, que desde 1924 han puesto en manifiesto, el desacuerdo con las jurisdicciones y cuerpos de la Iglesia ortodoxa, que posterior de dicha fecha, abandonaron el uso del calendario eclesiástico original de fundamento juliano o del Calendario de Julio Cesar, para pasar al uso del calendario conocido como gregoriano (aprobado originalmente dentro la Iglesia católica romana, por el Papa Gregorio XIII). Esta Iglesias ortodoxas y sus fieles, por consiguiente, no aceptan la comunión con las sedes patriarcales de la Iglesia ortodoxa que adoptaron a dicho "nuevo calendario" ni d An Old Calendarist is any Orthodox Christian or any Eastern Orthodox Church body which uses the historic Julian calendar (called "Old Style Calendar" or "Church calendar" or "Old Calendar"), and whose Church body is not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar. The "Old Calendarists" (who are also sometimes styled "Old Calendar") are to be distinguished from Eastern Orthodox Christians or Eastern Orthodox Church bodies which are on the Old Calendar. The latter use the historic Julian calendar cited above, but are in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar (the Revised Julian calendar). Thus, to be "Old Calendarist" or "Old Calendar" is not the same thing as being "on the Old Calendar". The Russian Orthodox Church, for instance Starokalendarzowcy (gr. Παλαιοημερολογίτες, Paleoimerologites) – grupy wiernych greckiego Kościoła prawosławnego oraz patriarchatu Konstantynopolitańskiego, sprzeciwiające się reformom kalendarza liturgicznego – zaadaptowania kalendarza gregoriańskiego jako neojuliańskiego w miejsce dotychczasowego juliańskiego – dokonanym przez prawosławne władze kościelne.
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Правосла́вные старости́льные це́ркви — христианские православные церкви, использующие в богослужении юлианский календарь. Название применяется к неканоническим православным юрисдикциям тех стран, где, канонические православные церкви перешли на новоюлианский календарь, а отколовшиеся от них по «календарному вопросу» церкви считаются всеми поместными Православными церквами (в том числе и продолжающими служить по старому стилю) неканоническими и схизматическими. В тех же странах (Россия, Сербия, Грузия и др.), в которых юлианский календарь используют канонические церкви, термин «старостильный» не применяется. В Финляндии старостильниками называют членов Патриарших приходов Московского Патриархата. Там с середины 1920-х годов действует несколько русских православных приходов не подчиняющихся Православной Церкви Финляндии, и признающих русскую юрисдикцию (до 1945 года юрисдикцию митрополита Евлогия (Георгиевского) и одновременно Синода РПЦЗ, позже их принял Московский Патриархат). Con il termine Paleoimerologhiti (dal greco "paleon" e "imerologhion" ossia "vecchio calendario") o vetero-calendaristi si indicano - talora con accento dispregiativo - quei cristiani ortodossi che: * Non hanno accettato la modifica del tradizionale calendario ecclesiastico giuliano-costantiniano verso una variante del calendario gregoriano definito calendario giuliano rivisto o calendario di Milankovic (condizione applicabile alle maggiori chiese ortodosse). * Ritengono gravemente colpevoli le chiese che hanno accettato la modifica del calendario e perciò ritengono indispensabile costituirsi in chiesa autonoma non solo dalle chiese che hanno accettato il nuovo calendario ma anche dalle chiese che pur mantenendo il vecchio calendario non condannano vigorosamente le chiese neo-calendariste. L'aggiornamento del calendario giuliano fu promosso agli inizi del XX secolo in Grecia, poi in Romania e altrove dietro le spinte del Patriarca di Costantinopoli Melezio IV Metaxakis. Questi, ispirato da ideali massoni di unificazione religiosa sulla base del deismo illuminista (era stato iniziato in Massoneria quando era Metropolita di Kition nell'isola di Cipro) intendeva promuovere nella Chiesa ortodossa tutta una serie di modifiche in senso modernista per mettere al passo coi tempi una chiesa che giudicava arretrata ed aveva come modello le chiese occidentali, in particolare quella anglicana. Secondo diversi vescovi e molti cristiani ortodossi questa modifica del Calendario sarebbe stata solo la prima del progetto del Metaxakis e foriera di uno sconvolgimento della loro Chiesa. Inoltre la loro opposizione si appoggiava su documenti canonici promulgati in vari periodi della storia della Chiesa. Il movimento paleoimerologhita si divise quasi subito in due fazioni: * I Floriniti, capeggiati dal Metropolita Crisostomo di Florina, di posizioni teologiche moderate a cui seguiva un corrispondente atteggiamento; * i Matteiti, dal nome del vescovo Matteo Bresteni, che ritenevano che la variazione del calendario aveva privato della grazia dei sacramenti tutte le Chiese che la avevano adottata e quelle che mantenevano comunione canonica con loro. Su questa questione teologica, nelle chiese ortodosse modernizzanti si sviluppò un ambio dibattito ed i Vecchio-calendaristi si sono trovati divisi in vari Sinodi. Il più moderato di questi è il Sinodo della resistenza con sede principale nel monastero di Filì vicino ad Atene, che ritiene che fino alla condanna di un concilio generale di tutta l'ortodossia nessuno ha diritto di affermare che le Chiese che seguono il nuovo Calendario sono private di grazia. Gli altri Sinodi, anche se di derivazione florinita si sono oggi arroccate su posizioni intransigenti e spesso intolleranti. Le Chiese ufficiali li considerano scismatici ma essi, al contrario, si considerano i testimoni dell'autentico cristianesimo ortodosso. Il Sinodo più presente in Italia, con due diocesi ed un esarcato è quello moderato dei Resistenti, che in Italia ha assunto il nome di Chiesa Ortodossa Tradizionale ed ha il suo centro principale nel Monastero di San Serafino di Sarov a San Felice di Pistoia. Als Altkalendarier (griech.: Παλαιοημερολογίτες) bezeichnet man in der orthodoxen Kirche: * Diejenigen Teilkirchen, die bis heute für alle kirchlichen Feiertage am julianischen Kalender festhalten, z. B. die russische, weißrussische, ukrainische, serbische, mazedonische, georgische und jerusalemitische Kirche, sowie die Klöster auf dem Berge Athos. Sie begehen alle festliegenden Feiertage wie zum Beispiel Weihnachten im Zeitraum der Jahre 1900 bis 2100 jeweils 13 Tage später als die westlichen Kirchen und die orthodoxen Neukalendarier. * Splittergruppen, die sich aus Protest gegen den neuen Kalender im frühen 20. Jahrhundert von den neukalendarischen Teilkirchen getrennt haben. Vor allem in Griechenland gibt es bis heute mehrere solche Gruppen, die sich gegenseitig meist nicht anerkennen. Im Gegensatz zu den Altkalendariern stehen die Neukalendarier, die zumeist im frühen 20. Jahrhundert zum Milanković-Kalender übergegangen sind. Den altkalendarischen Traditionen sind auch weitere Kirchen verbunden: * Verschiedene altorientalische Kirchen wie die Armenische Apostolische Kirche oder die äthiopische Kirche. Der in der Öffentlichkeit Äthiopiens verwendete Äthiopische Kalender lehnt sich an den julianischen Kalender an. * In der nicht-katholischen „Kirche des Ostens“ bilden die Altkalendarier eine abgespaltene Teilkirche unter Katholikos-Patriarch Addai II. Ortodoxos Viejo-calendaristas (del griego παλαιοημερολογίτης, paleoimerologitis), se les conoce con este nombre o como genuinos cristianos ortodoxos (Γνησίων Ορθοδόξων Χριστιανών), a una rama de miembros de la Iglesia ortodoxa, que desde 1924 han puesto en manifiesto, el desacuerdo con las jurisdicciones y cuerpos de la Iglesia ortodoxa, que posterior de dicha fecha, abandonaron el uso del calendario eclesiástico original de fundamento juliano o del Calendario de Julio Cesar, para pasar al uso del calendario conocido como gregoriano (aprobado originalmente dentro la Iglesia católica romana, por el Papa Gregorio XIII). Esta Iglesias ortodoxas y sus fieles, por consiguiente, no aceptan la comunión con las sedes patriarcales de la Iglesia ortodoxa que adoptaron a dicho "nuevo calendario" ni de cualquier otro grupo eclesiástico en comunión con aquellas; en perspectiva contraria, los patriarcados e iglesias en comunión consideran a estas ramas como cismáticas y no canónicas. An Old Calendarist is any Orthodox Christian or any Eastern Orthodox Church body which uses the historic Julian calendar (called "Old Style Calendar" or "Church calendar" or "Old Calendar"), and whose Church body is not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar. The "Old Calendarists" (who are also sometimes styled "Old Calendar") are to be distinguished from Eastern Orthodox Christians or Eastern Orthodox Church bodies which are on the Old Calendar. The latter use the historic Julian calendar cited above, but are in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar (the Revised Julian calendar). Thus, to be "Old Calendarist" or "Old Calendar" is not the same thing as being "on the Old Calendar". The Russian Orthodox Church, for instance, is not Old Calendarist (or Old Calendar), but it is on the Old Calendar. There are a great many Eastern Orthodox Christians who are (or who belong to Churches that are) on the Old Calendar, but far fewer in number are the Eastern Orthodox Christians who are Old Calendar or Old Calendarist. It also should not be confused with the Oriental Orthodox churches, all of which are either on the Old Calendar or use their own calendar, but who are not in communion with either the Old Calendarists or mainstream Eastern Orthodoxy, although they are currently engaged in ecumenical dialogue with the latter. The Julian Calendar is commonly opposed to the Gregorian Calendar introduced to Christianity by the Pope during the 16th century. A revised form of the Julian Calendar, developed by the Serbian astronomer Milutin Milanković, which mostly coincides with the Gregorian one was finally adopted by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1924 as well as by the autocephalous Church of Greece. A minority of Eastern Orthodox Christians regarded this as a surrender of the Eastern Orthodox Church to the West and to the Pope and continued following the old calendar. Some of these also broke communion with those who had adopted the new calendar, thus creating their own church, or denomination, which means in the Latin "to take a new name". This schism is the beginning of the Old Calendar Churches which suspended full communion and/or concelebration with other Eastern Orthodox churches ("New Calendarists") over the adoption by the latter of the Revised Julian calendar (called "New Calendar," although some churches did not specify the details of which New calendar they were adopting). This is the most common use of the term. Those Eastern Orthodox Churches which remain in full communion with the New Calendarists and yet continue to use the Julian calendar include the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Serbian Orthodox Church, and the Georgian Orthodox Church. (The Julian calendar is also used by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia which has reunited with the Russian Orthodox Church.) Mount Athos, subordinate to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, also follows the Julian Calendar. On appelle Orthodoxes vieux-calendaristes, Vieux-calendaristes, Vétéro-calendaristes ou Paléoïmérologites les Orthodoxes en désaccord avec plusieurs Églises orthodoxes, notamment avec l'Église orthodoxe de Constantinople, l'Église orthodoxe de Grèce, l'Église orthodoxe roumaine et l'Église orthodoxe bulgare, sur l'abandon du calendrier julien par ces Orthodoxes lors d'un synode partiellement pan-orthodoxe qui eut lieu en mai 1923 à Constantinople . Ces Orthodoxes conservent le calendrier traditionnel julien, utilisé à ce jour encore, par les Églises qui constituent la majorité des fidèles de l'Église orthodoxe. Starokalendarzowcy (gr. Παλαιοημερολογίτες, Paleoimerologites) – grupy wiernych greckiego Kościoła prawosławnego oraz patriarchatu Konstantynopolitańskiego, sprzeciwiające się reformom kalendarza liturgicznego – zaadaptowania kalendarza gregoriańskiego jako neojuliańskiego w miejsce dotychczasowego juliańskiego – dokonanym przez prawosławne władze kościelne.
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