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Modernismo Modernizm (sztuka) Modernidad Modernisme Модернизм モダニズム حركة حداثية Modernism 現代主義 Modernità Modernisme
rdfs:comment
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernizm, sztuka nowoczesna (ang. modern art) – umowny okres w dziejach sztuki, którego ramy czasowe wyznacza się od lat 60. XIX wieku (w związku z impresjonizmem) do lat 70. XX wieku (konceptualizm). Sztuka nowoczesna silnie związana jest z pojęciem modernizmu w filozofii i zjawiskiem awangardy. Terminu modern art, we w miarę skrystalizowanej formie użył jako pierwszy Joris-Karl Huysmans w 1883. Sztuka modernistyczna opiera się na postawach o oświeceniowym rodowodzie, a więc na racjonalizmie, liberalizmie i wspomnianej już idei postępu. Het modernisme is een verzamelnaam voor vernieuwende stromingen in de kunsten en de westerse maatschappij vanaf het eind van de 19e eeuw tot en met de eerste helft van de 20e eeuw. De term wordt gebruikt voor een culturele beweging die vooral na de Eerste Wereldoorlog in verzet komt tegen de traditionele opvattingen en vormen van kunst, architectuur, literatuur, geloof, sociale organisatie en het dagelijks leven. De moderne roman, het moderne toneel, de architectuur en de poëzie moesten vernieuwd worden zodat zij de moderne geïndustrialiseerde maatschappij beter weerspiegelden. الحركة الحداثية هي حركة فلسفية، نشأت جنباً إلى جنب مع الاتجاهات الثقافية والتغيرات من نطاق واسع والتحولات بعيدة المدى في العالم الغربي في أواخر القرن 19 وأوائل القرن 20. ومن بين العوامل التي شكلت الحداثة كان تطور المجتمعات الصناعية الحديثة والنمو السريع للمدن، تليها بعد ذلك أهوال الحرب العالمية الأولى. وقد رفضت الحداثة أيضاً اليقين في فكر عصر التنوير، ورفض كثير من الحداثيين المعتقد الديني. Модерни́зм (итал. modernismo — «современное течение»; от лат. modernus — «современный, недавний») — направление в искусстве конца XIX — начала XX века, характеризующееся разрывом с предшествующим историческим опытом художественного творчества, стремлением утвердить новые, нетрадиционные начала в искусстве, непрерывным обновлением художественных форм, а также условностью (схематизацией, отвлечённостью) стиля. Модернистская парадигма была одной из лидирующих в западной цивилизации первой половины XX века; во второй половине века она была подвергнута развёрнутой критике. 現代主義,從文化的歷史角度來說,是1914年之前的幾十年中,興起的新藝術與文學風格,藝術家為了反抗19世紀末期的陈规旧矩,轉而用一種他們認為感情上更真實的方式,來表現出大家真正的感受與想法。 現代主義以科學為基礎,重視理性與邏輯,實驗探証。其中牛頓的力學理論、達爾文的進化論及弗洛伊德對自我的研究為現代主義奠定了重要的理论基礎。 有些人將20世紀區分為現代時期與後現代時期,有些人則認為它們是同一個大範圍時期的兩個階段。本文章是關於從19世紀末期和20世紀初期發展出來的運動,有關後現代主義的部份請參見相關條目。 現代主義通常包含著集體主義的意識形態,講求集體功利性與共同體。現代主義也延伸了民族主義的內涵價值。 La Modernidad es una categoría que hace referencia a los procesos social e histórico que tienen sus orígenes en Europa Occidental a partir de la emergencia del Renacimiento. El movimiento propone que cada ciudadano tenga sus metas según su propia voluntad. Se alcanza la meta de una manera lógica y racional, es decir, sistemáticamente se da un sentido a la vida. Por cuestiones de manejo político y de poder se trata de imponer la lógica y la razón, negándose en la práctica los valores tradicionales o impuestos por la autoridad. Chama-se genericamente modernismo (ou movimento modernista) o conjunto de movimentos culturais, escolas e estilos que permearam as artes e o design da primeira metade do século XX. Apesar de ser possível encontrar pontos de convergência entre os vários movimentos, eles em geral se diferenciam e até mesmo se antagonizam. Encaixam-se nesta classificação, dentre outros campos culturais, a literatura, a arquitetura, design, pintura, escultura, teatro e a música modernas. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Modernisme (homonymie). La notion de modernisme recouvre un ensemble de mouvements culturels ayant animé les sociétés occidentales de la fin du XIXe siècle et du XXe siècle, dans les domaines de l'art, de l'architecture, de la musique, de la littérature et du catholicisme (voir la Crise moderniste et la Nouvelle Théologie). Il termine modernità (modernité), utilizzato per la prima volta dal poeta decadente francese Charles Baudelaire, designava, per Baudelaire, la sfuggevole ed effimera esperienza della vita condotta all'interno della metropoli e della città, e anche la responsabilità che l'arte ha di catturare quell'esperienza e di esprimerla nelle forme più disparate, suggestive ed originali. モダニズム (英語: modernism)とは、 1. * 近代主義のこと。 2. * 20世紀初頭に各分野で起こった実験的な芸術運動。モダンアートともいう(本項で詳述)。 3. * 19世紀の末、カトリック教会で起こった運動で、現代にふさわしい信仰を主張したが、異端とされた。 4. * スペイン語やポルトガル語におけるモダニズム運動は、モデルニスモを参照のこと。 モダニズムは20世紀以降に起こった芸術運動、特に第一次世界大戦以後(戦間期)の1920年代を中心にした前衛的な動向を指す。従来の19世紀芸術に対して、伝統的な枠組にとらわれない表現を追求した。
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モダニズム (英語: modernism)とは、 1. * 近代主義のこと。 2. * 20世紀初頭に各分野で起こった実験的な芸術運動。モダンアートともいう(本項で詳述)。 3. * 19世紀の末、カトリック教会で起こった運動で、現代にふさわしい信仰を主張したが、異端とされた。 4. * スペイン語やポルトガル語におけるモダニズム運動は、モデルニスモを参照のこと。 モダニズムは20世紀以降に起こった芸術運動、特に第一次世界大戦以後(戦間期)の1920年代を中心にした前衛的な動向を指す。従来の19世紀芸術に対して、伝統的な枠組にとらわれない表現を追求した。 الحركة الحداثية هي حركة فلسفية، نشأت جنباً إلى جنب مع الاتجاهات الثقافية والتغيرات من نطاق واسع والتحولات بعيدة المدى في العالم الغربي في أواخر القرن 19 وأوائل القرن 20. ومن بين العوامل التي شكلت الحداثة كان تطور المجتمعات الصناعية الحديثة والنمو السريع للمدن، تليها بعد ذلك أهوال الحرب العالمية الأولى. وقد رفضت الحداثة أيضاً اليقين في فكر عصر التنوير، ورفض كثير من الحداثيين المعتقد الديني. 現代主義,從文化的歷史角度來說,是1914年之前的幾十年中,興起的新藝術與文學風格,藝術家為了反抗19世紀末期的陈规旧矩,轉而用一種他們認為感情上更真實的方式,來表現出大家真正的感受與想法。 現代主義以科學為基礎,重視理性與邏輯,實驗探証。其中牛頓的力學理論、達爾文的進化論及弗洛伊德對自我的研究為現代主義奠定了重要的理论基礎。 有些人將20世紀區分為現代時期與後現代時期,有些人則認為它們是同一個大範圍時期的兩個階段。本文章是關於從19世紀末期和20世紀初期發展出來的運動,有關後現代主義的部份請參見相關條目。 現代主義通常包含著集體主義的意識形態,講求集體功利性與共同體。現代主義也延伸了民族主義的內涵價值。 Il termine modernità (modernité), utilizzato per la prima volta dal poeta decadente francese Charles Baudelaire, designava, per Baudelaire, la sfuggevole ed effimera esperienza della vita condotta all'interno della metropoli e della città, e anche la responsabilità che l'arte ha di catturare quell'esperienza e di esprimerla nelle forme più disparate, suggestive ed originali. Con modernità oggigiorno si intende il periodo solitamente indicato dal pensiero sociologico come la crescita di centralità da parte dello stato-nazione (come mette in evidenza Anthony Giddens) e dall'affermarsi della razionalità in molti degli ambiti di vita sociale (si pensi, ad esempio, alla burocrazia di Max Weber). Da quest'ultima, consegue un importante incremento nell'innovazione tecnologica. Si può associare l'inizio della modernità con la seconda rivoluzione industriale e la nascita del positivismo, propositore dei suoi valori materialisti e prettamente scientifici. A cascata il mutamento sociale si fa più rapido e vede le sue origini in contesti spazio-temporali lontani dagli individui. Ne consegue una situazione di disagio e disorientamento per l'individuo, che perde i punti di riferimento ai quali è storicamente abituato. Alcuni autori sostengono che ciò generi un'epoca successiva alla modernità, definita dal dibattito sociologico in molti modi, tra cui "postmodernità". La sua caratteristica principale è il venir meno dell'idea di progresso che aveva accompagnato la modernità e il disvelarsi dei rischi connessi a questa: si pensi, in tal senso alle implicazioni del fenomeno sociale della globalizzazione, sia sul piano sociale che ambientale. La Modernidad es una categoría que hace referencia a los procesos social e histórico que tienen sus orígenes en Europa Occidental a partir de la emergencia del Renacimiento. El movimiento propone que cada ciudadano tenga sus metas según su propia voluntad. Se alcanza la meta de una manera lógica y racional, es decir, sistemáticamente se da un sentido a la vida. Por cuestiones de manejo político y de poder se trata de imponer la lógica y la razón, negándose en la práctica los valores tradicionales o impuestos por la autoridad. La Modernidad es un periodo que principalmente antepone la razón sobre la religión. Se crean instituciones estatales que buscan que el control social esté limitado por una constitución y la vez se garantizan y protegen las libertades y derechos de todos como ciudadanos. Surgen nuevas clases sociales que permiten la prosperidad de cierto grupo poblacional y la marginación de otro. Se industrializa la producción para aumentar la productividad y su economía; y, finalmente, es una etapa de actualización y cambio permanente. Modernizm, sztuka nowoczesna (ang. modern art) – umowny okres w dziejach sztuki, którego ramy czasowe wyznacza się od lat 60. XIX wieku (w związku z impresjonizmem) do lat 70. XX wieku (konceptualizm). Sztuka nowoczesna silnie związana jest z pojęciem modernizmu w filozofii i zjawiskiem awangardy. Terminu modern art, we w miarę skrystalizowanej formie użył jako pierwszy Joris-Karl Huysmans w 1883. Zakres pojęcia sztuki nowoczesnej wiąże się z nowymi koncepcjami sztuki i dzieła, zwracającymi się ku pogłębianiu refleksji nad językiem sztuki, artystycznemu eksperymentowi, stosowaniu nowych technik i materiałów, wiarą w głębokie związki kultury i techniki, a przede wszystkim z ideą postępu (liniowy rozwój sztuki i historii). Sztuka modernistyczna opiera się na postawach o oświeceniowym rodowodzie, a więc na racjonalizmie, liberalizmie i wspomnianej już idei postępu. Termin modernizm w węższym, obecnie rzadko stosowanym znaczeniu, oznacza też sztukę przełomu XIX i XX wieku, zobacz secesja (sztuka). Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, activities of daily life, and even the sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel, atonal (or pantonal) and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century. A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which often led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, poem, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody. Some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common, especially in the West, are those who see it as a socially progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end. Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, and anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) to Samuel Beckett (1906–1989). Het modernisme is een verzamelnaam voor vernieuwende stromingen in de kunsten en de westerse maatschappij vanaf het eind van de 19e eeuw tot en met de eerste helft van de 20e eeuw. De term wordt gebruikt voor een culturele beweging die vooral na de Eerste Wereldoorlog in verzet komt tegen de traditionele opvattingen en vormen van kunst, architectuur, literatuur, geloof, sociale organisatie en het dagelijks leven. De moderne roman, het moderne toneel, de architectuur en de poëzie moesten vernieuwd worden zodat zij de moderne geïndustrialiseerde maatschappij beter weerspiegelden. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Modernisme (homonymie). La notion de modernisme recouvre un ensemble de mouvements culturels ayant animé les sociétés occidentales de la fin du XIXe siècle et du XXe siècle, dans les domaines de l'art, de l'architecture, de la musique, de la littérature et du catholicisme (voir la Crise moderniste et la Nouvelle Théologie). L'adjectif « moderniste » est parfois utilisé au lieu de « moderne » pour distinguer la physique de Planck et Einstein de la fin du XIXe siècle ainsi que certaines innovations mathématiques et philosophiques de la même période telles que l'axiomatisation de l'arithmétique de Peano et Hilbert, la phénoménologie de Husserl et l'analyse logique de Frege et Russell. Le concept anglais de modernism correspond au concept français de modernité même si l'on traduit le mot anglais quelquefois par modernisme. Le modernisme est pris alors dans un sens restreint comme un courant spécifique à l'art du XXe siècle qui trouverait son apogée au moment de la Première Guerre mondiale ou dans les années suivantes et qui prendrait fin dans les années 1930 ou au contraire dans les années 1950 et même plus tard. On passerait alors du modernisme au postmodernisme. Le mot « modernisme » utilisé surtout dans les années 1960 désigne rétrospectivement cette période. Chama-se genericamente modernismo (ou movimento modernista) o conjunto de movimentos culturais, escolas e estilos que permearam as artes e o design da primeira metade do século XX. Apesar de ser possível encontrar pontos de convergência entre os vários movimentos, eles em geral se diferenciam e até mesmo se antagonizam. Encaixam-se nesta classificação, dentre outros campos culturais, a literatura, a arquitetura, design, pintura, escultura, teatro e a música modernas. O movimento modernista baseou-se na ideia de as formas "tradicionais" das artes plásticas, literatura, design, organização social e da vida cotidiana tornaram-se ultrapassadas, e que se fazia fundamental deixá-las de lado e criar no lugar uma nova cultura. Esta constatação apoiou a ideia de reexaminar cada aspecto da existência, do comércio à filosofia, com o objetivo de achar o que seriam as "marcas antigas" e substituí-las por novas formas, e possivelmente melhores, de se chegar ao "progresso". Em essência, o movimento moderno argumentava que as novas realidades do século XX eram permanentes e eminentes, e que as pessoas deveriam se adaptar a suas visões de mundo a fim de aceitar que o que era novo era também bom e belo. A palavra moderno também é utilizada em contraponto ao que é ultrapassado. Neste sentido, ela é sinónimo de contemporâneo, embora, do ponto de vista histórico-cultural, moderno e contemporâneo abranjam contextos bastante diversos. No Brasil, os principais artifícios do movimento modernista não se opunham a toda realização artística anterior a deles. A grande batalha se colocava contra ao passadismo, ou seja, tudo aquilo que impedisse a criação livre. Pode-se, assim, dizer que a proposta modernista era de uma ruptura estética quase completa com o engrossamento da arte encontrado nas escolas anteriores e de uma ampliação dos horizontes dessa arte antes delimitada pelos padrões académicos. Em paralelo à ruptura, não se pode negar o desejo dos escritores em conhecer e explorar o passado como fonte de criação, não como norma para se criar. Como manifestações desse desejo por ruptura, que ao mesmo tempo respeitavam obras da tradição literária, temos o Manifesto da Poesia Pau-Brasil, o livro Macunaíma, o retrato de brasileiros através das influências cubistas de Tarsila do Amaral, o livro Casa Grande & Senzala, dentre inúmeros outros. Revistas da época também se dedicaram ao tema, tais como Estética, Klaxon e Antropofagia, que foram meios de comunicação entre o movimento, os artistas e a sociedade. Модерни́зм (итал. modernismo — «современное течение»; от лат. modernus — «современный, недавний») — направление в искусстве конца XIX — начала XX века, характеризующееся разрывом с предшествующим историческим опытом художественного творчества, стремлением утвердить новые, нетрадиционные начала в искусстве, непрерывным обновлением художественных форм, а также условностью (схематизацией, отвлечённостью) стиля. Модернистская парадигма была одной из лидирующих в западной цивилизации первой половины XX века; во второй половине века она была подвергнута развёрнутой критике. В русской эстетике «модерн» означает исторически предшествовавший модернизму художественный стиль конца XIX — начала XX века (русский модерн, ар нуво, югендстиль, сецессион и др.), поэтому необходимо различать эти два понятия, с тем, чтобы избежать путаницы.
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