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Subject Item
dbr:List_of_communist_parties
rdfs:label
List of communist parties Movimenti comunisti Partis communistes dans le monde Lijst van communistische partijen 共产党列表 Lista de partidos comunistas Liste sozialistischer und kommunistischer Parteien
rdfs:comment
There are a number of "communist parties" active in various countries across the world, and a number that used to be active. The formation of communist parties in various countries was first initiated by the formation of the communist Third International by the Russian Bolsheviks. Undoubtedly the most important of these parties were those of the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China: the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China, respectively. 共产党特指作为原共产国际支部的政党及其衍生的奉行共产主义意识形态的政党,而不是泛指以共产主义为指导意识形态的政党,故本表不包括托洛茨基主义政党和左翼共产主义政党。(参见各国托洛茨基主义组织列表和各国左翼共产主义组织列表)共产党不一定以“共产党”命名,有部分共产党命名为工人党、勞動黨、社会党、人民党等等。而以“共产党”命名的政党也不一定是共产主义政党,如2008年成立的台湾共产党、中华民国共产党、台湾民主共产党、1978年在印度成立的西藏共產黨等。本表中的某些政党虽被认为已经在实践上放弃了共产主义,但其纲领和章程中仍保留有奉行共产主义意识形态的内容,所以仍然列入。 Sozialistische Parteien haben oft ähnliche Werte wie sozialdemokratische Parteien. Häufig werden beide Begriffe auch synonym verwendet. Die meisten sozialistischen beziehungsweise sozialdemokratischen Parteien sind in der Sozialistischen Internationale zusammengeschlossen. Kommunistische Parteien befürworten in der Regel, jedoch nicht immer, einen revolutionären Weg, um Veränderungen zu erreichen. In questa voce sono elencati e analizzati i movimenti politici che si richiamano al comunismo, il cui scopo è la realizzazione di una società socialista attraverso un'azione rivoluzionaria, ritenendo che non vi sia altra via, se non in casi particolari. L'impostazione deve mantenere comunque saldi i principi del socialismo scientifico e l'azione internazionalista per lo scioglimento degli stati nazionali e il superamento del capitalismo. Il existe de nos jours un grand nombre de partis communistes actifs dans divers pays du monde. Divers groupes, dès le XIXe siècle, ont utilisé l'appellation communiste, le premier étant la Ligue des communistes. C'est cependant au XXe siècle que le nom s'est largement diffusé, à la suite de la révolution d'Octobre en Russie : les bolcheviks, s'étant rebaptisés du nom de Parti communiste, ont créé en 1919 l'Internationale communiste (dite également Troisième Internationale ou Komintern), bientôt rejointe par des partis communistes apparus sur tous les continents, souvent par scission des partis socialistes ou sociaux-démocrates. Er zijn een aantal communistische partijen die actief zijn in verschillende landen over de hele wereld, en een aantal die vroeger actief waren. Partijen die op dit moment en uitsluitend het trotskisme als ideologie hebben zijn niet meegenomen. Na atualidade existem centenares de partidos políticos comunistas, com um nível de sucesso muito variado, desde os que se encontram no poder aos que constituem pequenos grupúsculos escasamente influentes na política dos seus respeitivos países.
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dbr:List_of_socialist_countries dbr:Hadash n55: dbr:Chadian_Action_for_Unity_and_Socialism n56:Ivoire dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Italian_Communist_Party n57: n58: dbr:Movement_for_the_United_in_Action_Left dbr:Movement_for_Peace_and_Socialism n59:_Party_of_Iran n60: dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Republic_of_Korea n61: dbr:Bulgarian_Socialist_Party n62: dbr:Committee_for_a_Radical_Left_Rally dbr:West_Germany dbr:MPLA dbr:Workers_Party_of_Bangladesh dbr:Russian_United_Labour_Front n63: n64: dbr:MLN-29 dbr:Maoist_Communist_Party_of_China n65: n66:_Party dbr:Radical_Socialists n67: dbr:Communist_Revolutionary_Party n68: dbr:Peoples_Revolutionary_Party_of_India dbr:Communist_Party_of_Iran dbr:Communist_Party_of_Ireland dbr:Communist_Party_of_Quebec n69:s_Party dbr:Movement_for_the_Confederation_of_the_Communists dbr:Communist_Party_of_India n70: dbr:Corriente_Roja dbr:Hungarian_Socialist_Party n71:_Marxist–Leninist_Organization n5:s_Republic_of_Kampuchea n72:_Red_Star dbr:Nueva_Mayoría dbr:Democratic_Way dbr:Communist_Party_of_Puerto_Rico dbr:Communist_Party_of_Burma n73: n74: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Canada dbr:Communist_Party_of_Bangladesh dbr:Communist_Party_of_Britain dbr:Socialist_Workers_and_Farmers_Party_of_Nigeria dbr:African_National_Congress dbr:Communist_Party_of_Australia dbr:Somali_Revolutionary_Socialist_Party n76: n77: dbr:Communist_Voice_Organization dbr:Communist_Party_of_Thailand dbr:Japanese_Communist_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Philippines n78: dbr:Revolutionary_Communist_Group_of_Colombia dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union dbr:Communist_Party_of_Pakistan dbr:Left_Recomposition dbr:Communist_Party_of_Scotland dbr:Yugoslavia n79: dbr:Communist_Party_of_China dbr:Left_Anti-capitalist_Group dbr:Afghanistan_Liberation_Organization n80: dbr:Progressive_Party_of_Working_People dbr:Somali_Democratic_Republic dbr:Romanian_Communist_Party dbr:Malayan_Communist_Party n81: n82:s_Party n83:_Communist_Party n5:s_Democratic_Party_of_Afghanistan dbr:Afghanistan dbr:Workers_World_Party n84: n85: dbr:Party_of_Progress_and_Socialism dbr:Guadeloupe_Communist_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Free_Territory_of_Trieste dbr:Communist_Party_of_Greece n86: dbr:Party_of_Communists_of_Kyrgyzstan n87:_USA dbr:Organization_for_the_Reconstruction_of_the_Communist_Party_of_Greece dbr:National_Reconstruction_Movement dbr:Yemeni_Socialist_Party dbr:Clandestine_Colombian_Communist_Party n88: n89: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Workers_and_Peasants dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Republic_of_Tatarstan dbr:Unified_Party_of_Haitian_Communists dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Russian_Federation dbr:PSUC_viu dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Menadores n90:_Party_–_For_Peace_and_Socialism dbr:Brazilian_Communist_Party dbr:East_Germany n91: dbr:Portuguese_Communist_Party dbr:Patriotic_Socialist_Revolutionary_Party_WATAD n21:s_Party dbr:Party_of_Communists_of_the_Republic_of_Moldova n92: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Tajikistan dbr:Filipino_Workers_Party n11:_Party_of_Hungary_2006 n93: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Chile dbr:Communist_Party_of_United_States_of_India n94: n95: dbr:Communist_Party_of_San_Marino n96: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Turkmenistan n97: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Bulgaria n98:_Party dbr:Labour_Party_of_Iran n99: n102: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Pridnestrovie n103: n104: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Revolutionary_Marxists dbr:Communist_state n105: n106: dbr:United_Communist_Party_of_Georgia dbr:United_Communist_Party_of_India dbr:Communist_Party_of_Sri_Lanka n107: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Venezuela dbr:Communist_Party_of_Poland dbr:Comintern dbr:Communist_Party_of_Luxembourg dbr:United_Communist_Party_of_Azerbaijan n108: n109:_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_Peru_–_Red_Fatherland dbr:Swiss_Party_of_Labour n110: n111:s_Party n112:_Liberation dbr:Reconstrucción_Comunista dbr:Communist_Party_of_Denmark dbr:Society_for_Scientific_Communism dbc:Lists_of_political_parties dbr:Revolutionary_Party_of_the_Workers_of_Colombia dbr:Lao_Front_for_National_Construction 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dbr:Movement_for_the_Reorganization_of_the_Communist_Party_of_Greece_1918–55 n5:s_Democratic_Republic_of_Ethiopia dbr:Party_of_Italian_Communists n123: dbr:Shining_Path dbr:May_19th_Communist_Movement dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Front_of_the_Peoples_of_Spain dbr:League_of_Revolutionaries_for_a_New_America dbr:Maoist_Bolshevik_Reorganisation_Movement_of_the_Purba_Banglar_Sarbahara_Party n124:s_Power dbr:Worker-communist_Party_of_Kurdistan dbr:Pole_of_Communist_Rebirth_in_France n125: dbr:Worker-communist_Party_of_Iran_–_Hekmatist n126: dbr:Worker-communist_Party_of_Iraq dbr:Worker-communist_Party_of_Iran dbr:Communist_Party_of_Lesotho dbr:Jersey_Communist_Party n127:_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_Lithuania dbr:Democratic_Kampuchea dbr:Communist_Party_of_Latvia dbr:Resistance_Movement_‘23rd_September’_Bulgaria dbr:Communist_Party_of_Kyrgyzstan n128: n129: n130: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Malta dbr:Colombian_Communist_Party dbr:Iraqi_Communist_Party dbr:Israeli_Communist_Party dbr:Communist_Labor_Party_of_America dbr:Soviet_Union n112:_New_Democracy n131: dbr:Radical_Socialist dbr:Communist_Refoundation_Party n112:_Janashakti n112:_Naxalbari dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Netherlands dbr:Moroccan_Marxist–Leninist_Proletarian_Line dbr:Armenian_Workers_Union dbr:Vietnamese_Fatherland_Front n132: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Italy dbr:Communist_Party_of_Indonesia dbr:Iraqi_Revolutionary_Marxist–Leninists_Regroupment dbr:African_Solidarity_for_Democracy_and_Independence n133:_Party_of_the_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union n5:s_Republic_of_Mozambique n134:s_Movement dbr:Czechoslovakia dbr:South_African_Communist_Party n135: dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Catalan_People n136: dbr:Maoist_Communist_Party_of_Manipur dbr:Sudanese_Communist_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_Great_Britain dbr:Communist_Party_of_Romania n138: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Georgia dbr:Party_of_Communists_USA n139: dbr:Union_of_Revolutionary_Communists_of_France dbr:Party_of_the_Bulgarian_Communists dbr:Algerian_Party_for_Democracy_and_Socialism n140:s_Republic n141: n142: dbr:Free_Territory_of_Trieste dbr:List_of_left-wing_internationals dbr:Communist_Party_of_Honduras dbr:Communist_Party_of_Iceland n143:s_Party dbr:Borotba dbr:Worker-communism_Unity_Party_of_Iran dbr:Communist_Party_of_Cuba dbr:Egyptian_Communist_Party dbr:Partido_Komunista_ng_Pilipinas-1930 dbr:Hungarian_Soviet_Republic n144: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Estonia dbr:History_of_socialism dbr:Armenian_Workers_Communist_Party n145: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Ecuador_–_Red_Sun dbr:New_Left_Current dbr:Armenian_Communist_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_El_Salvador dbr:Communist_Party_of_Czechoslovakia dbr:Communist_Party_of_Belgium_–_Marxist–Leninist dbr:Progressive_Democratic_Tribune dbr:Communist_party dbr:Czechoslovak_Socialist_Republic n146: n147: n148: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Belarus dbr:Communist_Party_of_Artsakh dbr:Communist_Revolutionary_League_of_India dbr:Communist_Marxist_Party n149: n150: n151: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Brazil dbr:Janatha_Vimukthi_Peramuna n152:s_Republic dbr:Workers_Left_Unity_–_Iran dbr:Communist_Party_of_Bolivia n154:_Revolutionary_Party n155: dbr:Telangana_Communist_Party n156: dbr:Primeira_Linha n157: dbr:Pridnestrovie_Communist_Party dbr:Communists_of_Russia dbr:Renewed_Communist_Party_of_Armenia n158: dbr:Democratic_Party_of_the_Left dbr:Nepal_Workers_Peasants_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_Abkhazia dbr:Unidad_del_Pueblo dbr:Social_Democratic_Party_of_Kenya dbr:Kurdistan_Communist_Party_–_Iraq dbr:Communist_Party_in_Saudi_Arabia dbr:Marxism dbr:New_Communist_Party_of_the_Netherlands dbr:South_Sudan_Communist_Party n5:s_Communist_Party_of_Turkey dbr:Bolshevik dbr:Communist_Party_in_Denmark n5:s_Revolutionary_Party_of_Benin dbr:Communist_Party_for_Independence_and_Socialism dbr:Union_of_Communists_of_Armenia dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Workers_of_Belarus dbr:Commission_for_Organizing_the_Party_of_the_Working_People_of_Ethiopia dbr:American_Party_of_Labor n161: dbr:Yugoslav_Communist_Party_of_Montenegro dbr:Communist_Party_of_Austria dbr:Communist_Party_of_Bohemia_and_Moravia dbr:Communist_Party_of_Social_Justice n162:_of_Bolivia dbr:Communist_Party_of_Bharat dbr:Group_of_Revolutionary_Communists_‘Red_Wedge’ dbr:Communist_Party_USA n162:_of_Panama dbr:Bolsheviks n163: n164: n165:s_Front dbr:Communist_Party_of_Vietnam dbr:Communist_Party_of_Spain dbr:Communist_Party_of_Ukraine dbr:Derg n167: dbr:Left_Group dbr:United_Communist_League_of_Bangladesh dbr:Peasants_and_Workers_Party_of_India dbr:Communist_Party_of_Slovakia dbr:Georgian_Workers_Communist_Party dbr:Voltaic_Revolutionary_Communist_Party dbr:Cold_War dbr:Socialist_Republic_of_Romania n168: dbr:Malian_Party_of_Labour dbr:Great_Patriotic_Pole dbr:FMLN dbr:Purba_Banglar_Sarbahara_Party dbr:Bulgaria dbr:Unified_Communist_Party_of_Italy dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Communist_Organization_–_Proletarian_Way n169: n170: dbr:Anarcho-communism dbr:Revolutionary_Communist_Party_of_Turkey dbr:Sekretariat_Bersama_Serikat_Kerajinan_Seluruh_Indonesa dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Dominican_Republic dbr:Party_of_Labour_of_Austria n171: dbr:Syriza n172: n173: n174: dbr:Communism dbr:Japan_Labor_Party dbr:Socialist_state n11:_Party_of_Ethiopia dbr:Communist_Reformist_Party_of_Moldova dbr:Party_of_Labour_of_Albania n175: n176: dbr:Party_of_Democrats dbr:Communist_Party_Alliance dbr:Revolutionary_Independent_Labour_Movement dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Communist_Party_of_Ecuador n177: dbr:Revolutionary_Communist_Party_of_Uruguay dbr:Party_for_Socialism_and_Liberation n178: dbr:Black_Panther_Party dbr:Revolutionary_Communist_Movement_of_Greece n179: n180: dbr:List_of_Left_communist_organizations_by_country dbr:Socialist_Unity_Party_of_Germany n182:s_Revolutionary_Party dbr:Socialist_Unity_Party_of_New_Zealand n183: dbr:Bulgarian_Communist_Party_–_Marxists dbr:New_Communist_Party_of_Britain dbr:Taiwanese_Communist_Party dbr:Andalucía_Comunista dbr:In_Struggle dbr:Communist_Action_Organization_in_Lebanon dbr:Labour_Party_of_Colombia dbr:Channel_Islands dbr:Martinican_Communist_Party dbr:Socialist_Unity_Party_of_West_Berlin dbr:List_of_anarchist_organizations dbr:Freedom_Road_Socialist_Organization dbr:League_of_Communists_of_Yugoslavia dbr:Communist_Workers_Bloc_of_Andalusia dbr:Regional_Party_of_Communists n184: dbr:Party_of_the_Angolan_Communist_Community dbr:Socialist_Labour_Party_of_Croatia n185:Metba dbr:Communist_Party_of_Germany dbr:Partai_Komunis_Indonesia-Manusiawi dbr:Communist_Unification_of_Spain dbr:Partai_Manfaat_Revolusioner dbr:Party_of_Communists_of_the_Republic_of_South_Ossetia dbr:Marxist_Party_of_Armenia dbr:Bolshevik_Platform_of_the_KPSS n186:s_Party_of_Kazakhstan dbr:Socialist_Party_of_Latvia dbr:Communist_Renewal n187: dbr:Cuban_Communist_Party dbr:Marxist-Leninist_Centre_in_Mexico dbr:Socialist_Party_of_Albania dbr:List_of_anti-capitalist_and_communist_parties_with_national_parliamentary_representation dbr:Party_of_the_Dictatorship_of_the_Proletariat n188:_Party n189: n190: dbr:Partai_Nusantara dbr:Party_of_the_Worker_of_the_Republic_of_Korea dbr:Watan_Party_of_Afghanistan n191: n5:s_Party_of_Panama n192: dbr:Red_Flag_Party dbr:Communist_Party_of_Uruguay dbr:Post-Soviet_states dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Basque_Homelands n5:s_Republic_of_the_Congo n193:_of_Portugal dbr:Polish_Party_of_the_Working_Class_-_Initiative_Group dbr:Communist_Party_of_Togo dbr:All-Ethiopian_Socialist_Movement dbr:Left_Worker-communist_Party_of_Iraq n194: dbr:British_Mandate_of_Palestine dbr:Communist_Party_of_Benin n5:s_Republic_of_China dbr:Congress_Party_for_the_Independence_of_Madagascar dbr:Communist_Party_of_Kazakhstan n195: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Aotearoa dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Communist_Party_of_Greece n196: dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Communist_Party_of_Venezuela n197: n198: dbr:Partido_Patria_Libre n199: dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Communist_Party_of_Benin n200:Marxist–Leninist dbr:Marxism–Leninism dbr:Marxist_Co-ordination_Committee dbr:United_and_Alternative_Left dbr:Force_of_the_Revolution dbr:PAIS_Alliance n201: n202:Leninist dbr:Communist_Ghadar_Party_of_India n203: n204:s_Fedai_Guerrillas dbr:New_Communist_Party_of_Montenegro n205:s_Union dbr:Spartacist_League n205:s_Front dbr:For_Brazil_to_keep_on_changing dbr:Popular_Front_for_the_Liberation_of_Palestine n5:s_Republic_of_Benin dbr:Revolutionary_Workers_Party_of_Bangladesh dbr:Palestinian_Legislative_Council dbr:Sammarinese_Communist_Party dbr:Left_communism dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Popular_Action_Movement n206: dbr:Brazil dbr:Lal_Nishan_Party dbr:Popular_Socialist_Party_of_Mexico n207:Red_Dawn dbr:List_of_Trotskyist_organizations_by_country dbr:List_of_Trotskyist_internationals dbr:List_of_communist_parties_represented_in_European_Parliament n208:_Party n209: n210: n11:_Party_of_Belgium dbc:Communist_parties dbr:German_Communist_Party dbr:Party_of_the_Communists_of_Catalonia n211: n11:_Communist_Party_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina dbr:Krantikari_Samyavadi_Party n212: n213: dbr:Revolutionary_Palestinian_Communist_Party dbr:Marxist_Manch n214: dbr:Patriotic_Renewal_Party dbr:Trotskyism dbr:Republican_Committee_of_the_Communist_Party_of_Belarus dbr:Italian_Marxist–Leninist_Party dbr:Colombian_Communist_Party_–_Maoist n215: n216: dbr:New_Communist_Party_of_Yugoslavia n217: n218:_Party n219: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Kampuchea n5:s_Resistance_Moldova dbr:New_Communist_Party_of_Georgia n220: n221: dbr:Marxist–Leninist_Committee n222: n223: dbr:Communist_Party_of_Albania_8_November dbr:Proletarian_Party_of_Peru n224: dbr:Socialist_Party_of_Bangladesh n225:_Light n226: dbr:Russian_Maoist_Party dbr:Revolutionary_Party_of_the_Proletariat_–_Bases_for_Revolution n5:s_Socialist_Republic_of_Albania n227: dbr:Marxist_Periarist_Communist_Party dbr:URNG n11:_Communist_Party_of_Canada n228:Ivoire n5:s_Will_Party dbr:Labor-Progressive_Party dbr:Revolutionary_Communist_Party_of_India
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dbo:abstract
Il existe de nos jours un grand nombre de partis communistes actifs dans divers pays du monde. Divers groupes, dès le XIXe siècle, ont utilisé l'appellation communiste, le premier étant la Ligue des communistes. C'est cependant au XXe siècle que le nom s'est largement diffusé, à la suite de la révolution d'Octobre en Russie : les bolcheviks, s'étant rebaptisés du nom de Parti communiste, ont créé en 1919 l'Internationale communiste (dite également Troisième Internationale ou Komintern), bientôt rejointe par des partis communistes apparus sur tous les continents, souvent par scission des partis socialistes ou sociaux-démocrates. Certains partis communistes ont des noms tels que Parti socialiste, Socialist Workers' Party, Parti des travailleurs, etc. Les partis et organisations se revendiquant du communisme défendent des orientations très différentes, et il en existe souvent plusieurs dans le même pays. Des partis communistes opposés à la ligne soviétique - relevant de la gauche communiste, puis plus tard du trotskisme - sont apparus dès l'entre-deux-guerres, mais les mouvements alignés sur l'URSS et suivant une ligne stalinienne étaient à la fois les plus nombreux et les plus importants. Durant la Guerre froide, après la rupture sino-soviétique, certains partis se sont alignés sur la République populaire de Chine en adoptant une ligne maoïste, les partis pro-soviétiques demeurant cependant majoritaires. Depuis 1989, certains de ces partis ont changé de nom et renoncé au marxisme-léninisme, tout en restant des partis à la gauche de la social-démocratie ; d'autres ont au contraire choisi de s'autodissoudre et de renaître sous la forme de partis de centre gauche. Aujourd'hui les partis s'affirmant toujours communistes et ouvriers sont pour certains rassemblés dans de nombreuses structures internationales d'opinions très diverses. Un certain nombre de partis communistes se réunissent, au niveau international, à l'occasion des Conférences internationales des partis communistes et ouvriers (réseau Solidnet). Au niveau de l'Union européenne, plusieurs d'entre eux participent au Parti de la gauche européenne. Voir aussi : Parti communiste 共产党特指作为原共产国际支部的政党及其衍生的奉行共产主义意识形态的政党,而不是泛指以共产主义为指导意识形态的政党,故本表不包括托洛茨基主义政党和左翼共产主义政党。(参见各国托洛茨基主义组织列表和各国左翼共产主义组织列表)共产党不一定以“共产党”命名,有部分共产党命名为工人党、勞動黨、社会党、人民党等等。而以“共产党”命名的政党也不一定是共产主义政党,如2008年成立的台湾共产党、中华民国共产党、台湾民主共产党、1978年在印度成立的西藏共產黨等。本表中的某些政党虽被认为已经在实践上放弃了共产主义,但其纲领和章程中仍保留有奉行共产主义意识形态的内容,所以仍然列入。 Na atualidade existem centenares de partidos políticos comunistas, com um nível de sucesso muito variado, desde os que se encontram no poder aos que constituem pequenos grupúsculos escasamente influentes na política dos seus respeitivos países. Sozialistische Parteien haben oft ähnliche Werte wie sozialdemokratische Parteien. Häufig werden beide Begriffe auch synonym verwendet. Die meisten sozialistischen beziehungsweise sozialdemokratischen Parteien sind in der Sozialistischen Internationale zusammengeschlossen. Kommunistische Parteien befürworten in der Regel, jedoch nicht immer, einen revolutionären Weg, um Veränderungen zu erreichen. Viele ehemalige sozialistische oder kommunistische Parteien bezeichnen sich heute selbst als sozialdemokratisch. Häufig bezeichnen sich trotzkistische Organisationen als sozialistische oder kommunistische Partei. In questa voce sono elencati e analizzati i movimenti politici che si richiamano al comunismo, il cui scopo è la realizzazione di una società socialista attraverso un'azione rivoluzionaria, ritenendo che non vi sia altra via, se non in casi particolari. I movimenti che si possono ricondurre a questa definizione sono molti, vari e talvolta in contrasto tra loro. Inizialmente sono caratterizzati da un'ideologia marxista-leninista che considera prioritaria l'azione rivoluzionaria. L'organizzazione del partito s'imposta come movimento di massa all'interno del quale si deve formare una dialettica sulle iniziative e le modalità di azione. L'impostazione deve mantenere comunque saldi i principi del socialismo scientifico e l'azione internazionalista per lo scioglimento degli stati nazionali e il superamento del capitalismo. Con la vittoria, nella guerra civile russa e la conquista del potere, il partito bolscevico sovietico perde parte del suo carattere rivoluzionario per assumere una veste più burocratizzata e verticistica sotto il potere di Stalin. In questa nuova fase si formano molti partiti e movimenti che si rifanno al modello stalinista, caratterizzati per una maggior specificità da un'impronta nazionalista. Allo stesso tempo però nascono movimenti, ad esempio realtà trotskiste ma non solo, che pur richiamandosi al pensiero di Karl Marx e Lenin si contrappongono a Stalin considerandolo non solo responsabile della burocratizzazione sovietica ma anche un ostacolo alla nascita di forze genuinamente internazionaliste. La fine della seconda guerra mondiale libera l'URSS dal complesso dell'accerchiamento fondendogli una serie di stati satelliti e la possibilità di finanziare movimenti rivoluzionari comunisti e socialisti in chiave anticoloniale e antistatunitense. In questo periodo si organizzano movimenti comunisti che si distanziano dall'ideologia marxista formandone una propria o aggiungendo semplicemente un carattere di uguaglianza sociale e di proprietà statale dei mezzi di produzione a un programma di liberazione dal giogo coloniale o a una ricerca di egemonia di stampo etnico-culturale. Alcuni esempi possono essere il maoismo, il sandinismo, il lumumbismo e gran parte dei movimenti terzomondisti. Spesso lungo il loro percorso storico mutano gli obbiettivi e le modalità con le quali raggiungerli. Con la fine dell'URSS i movimenti e i partiti di ispirazione stalinista tendono a sciogliersi e a rifondarsi su basi socialiste o socialdemocratiche; i movimenti che sono sorti dalla lotta di liberazione coloniale tendono a mantenere il nome e il potere modificando i concetti comunisti aprendosi al mercato e alla libera iniziativa. Per ogni Stato si possono identificare partiti, organizzazioni stabili che partecipano alla vita politica sia in elezioni pubbliche che in clandestinità, associazioni e organizzazioni guerrigliere e terroriste, movimenti, organizzazioni instabili che mobilitano temporaneamente un certo numero di persone per influire sulla società, l'economia o la politica. Er zijn een aantal communistische partijen die actief zijn in verschillende landen over de hele wereld, en een aantal die vroeger actief waren. Partijen die op dit moment en uitsluitend het trotskisme als ideologie hebben zijn niet meegenomen. There are a number of "communist parties" active in various countries across the world, and a number that used to be active. The formation of communist parties in various countries was first initiated by the formation of the communist Third International by the Russian Bolsheviks. Undoubtedly the most important of these parties were those of the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China: the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China, respectively. Some communist parties have names such as Workers' Party, Socialist Party, Progressive Party, etc. Most, but not all, of the parties on this list are those that were aligned with either Moscow, Beijing or Tirana during the Cold War and their offshoots. Groups currently and exclusively participating in the Trotskyist or the Left communist tradition are not included in the listing, see List of Trotskyist organisations by country and List of Left communist organisations by country. Groups currently participating in non-Marxist movements related to communism, such as Anarcho-communism and Juche, are not included in the listing.
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