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Jozef Stalin Iosif Stalin Josef Stalin Joseph Staline جوزيف ستالين Joseph Stalin Iósif Stalin Сталин, Иосиф Виссарионович Józef Stalin Josef Stalin 约瑟夫·维萨里奥诺维奇·斯大林 ヨシフ・スターリン
rdfs:comment
约瑟夫·维萨里奥诺维奇·斯大林(格魯吉亞語:იოსებ სტალინი,俄語:Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин,發音[ˈjosʲɪf vʲɪsɐˈrʲonəvʲɪt͡ɕ ˈstalʲɪn],1878年12月18日-1953年3月5日),原名约瑟夫·维萨里奥诺维奇·泽·朱加什维利(格魯吉亞語:იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი,发音[iɔsɛb bɛsɑriɔnis dzɛ dʒuɣɑʃvili]),苏联前领导人,執政近三十年(1924-1953年),任全联盟共产党(布尔什维克)中央委员会总书记、苏联人民委员会(后改称苏联部长会议)主席(苏联总理)、苏联国防部长、苏联大元帅,对二十世纪苏联和世界影响深远。他全面推行农业集体化,引發1932年苏联大饥荒,以计划经济实施大规模工业化,使苏联成为重工业和军事大国。同时树立个人崇拜,对党、政、军领导人以至普通干部和群众進行大清洗,大量屠殺和压迫流放少数族裔,造成逾數以十萬人死亡。第二次世界大战中,苏联红军和盟军共同击败軸心國,苏联领土大扩张。战后扶植社会主义阵营,在冷战中与美国为首的北大西洋公约组织对峙。 جوزيف فيساريونوفيتش ستالين (بالجورجية იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი بالروسية: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин) (الكنية الأصلية: جوغاشفيلي) (18 ديسمبر 1878 - 5 مارس 1953) هو القائد الثاني للاتحاد السوفييتي ورئيس الوزراء (1941-1953)، عرف بقسوته وقوته وأنه قام بنقل الاتحاد السوفييتي من مجتمع زراعي إلى مجتمع صناعي مما مكن الاتحاد السوفييتي من الانتصار على دول المحور في الحرب العالمية الثانية والصعود إلى مرتبة القوى العظمى. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (/ˈstɑːlɪn/; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин (настоящая фамилия — Джугашви́ли, груз. იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; 6 [18] декабря 1878 (по официальной версии 9 (21) декабря 1879), Гори, Тифлисская губерния, Российская империя — 5 марта 1953, Волынское, Кунцевский район, Московская область, РСФСР, СССР) — российский революционер, советский политический, государственный, военный и партийный деятель, генералиссимус. С конца 1920-х — начала 1930-х годов до своей смерти в 1953 году Сталин единолично руководил Советским государством. Josef Vissarionovitch Stalin (em russo: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин; Gori, 18 de dezembro de 1878 — Moscou, 5 de março de 1953), nascido Iossif Vissarionovitch Djugashvili (em russo : Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили, translit. Ióssif Vissariónovitch Djugashvíli; pronúncia (ajuda·info); em georgiano: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, transliterado Iosseb Bessarionis dze Djuğashvili), foi secretário-geral do Partido Comunista da União Soviética e do Comitê Central a partir de 1922 até a sua morte em 1953, sendo assim o líder da União Soviética. Jozef Stalin (Russisch: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин, Iosif Vissarionovitsj Stalin, oorspronkelijke naam: Ioseb dze Besarionis Dzjoegasjvili, Georgisch: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, Russisch: Джугашвили) (Gori, Russische Rijk, 18 december [O.S. 6 december] 1878 – Koentsevo (nu Moskou), Sovjet-Unie, 5 maart 1953) was een Sovjet-Russisch politicus die in de jaren 20 dictatoriale macht kreeg over de Sovjet-Unie en deze tot zijn dood in 1953 bleef behouden. Iósif Stalin, nacido como Iósif Vissariónovich Dzhugashvili, (Gori, 6 de diciembrejul./ 18 de diciembre de 1878greg.-Moscú, 5 de marzo de 1953), fue un dictador soviético, presidente del Consejo de Ministros de la Unión Soviética entre 1941 y 1953. ヨシフ・ヴィッサリオノヴィチ・スターリン(ロシア語: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин, 1878年12月18日 – 1953年3月5日)は、ソビエト連邦の政治家、軍人。同国の第2代最高指導者。一般に広く知られているスターリンという姓は「鋼鉄の人」を意味する筆名であり、本姓はジュガシヴィリ(ロシア語: Джугашвили、グルジア語: ჯუღაშვილი)である。 Joseph (Iossif) Vissarionovitch Djougachvili (en géorgien : იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, Iosseb Bessarionis dze Djoughachvili; en russe : Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвилиprononciation), connu sous le nom de Joseph Staline (Иосиф Сталин), également surnommé par sa propre propagande le Vojd ("Guide") ou Le père des peuples, né à Gori le 18 décembre 1878 — officiellement le 21 décembre 1879 — et mort à Moscou le 5 mars 1953, est un révolutionnaire communiste et homme d'État soviétique d'origine géorgienne. Josef Wissarionowitsch Stalin (russisch Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин/Iossif Wissarionowitsch Stalin, wiss. Transliteration Iosif Vissarionovič Stalin; * 6. Dezemberjul./ 18. Dezember 1878greg. in Gori, Russisches Kaiserreich, heute Georgien; † 5. März 1953 in Kunzewo bei Moskau, Sowjetunion) war ein sowjetischer Politiker georgischer Herkunft und Diktator der Sowjetunion (1927–1953). Nativo della Georgia, di umili origini, visse un'avventurosa giovinezza come rivoluzionario socialista attivista, prima di assumere un ruolo importante di dirigente all'interno della fazione bolscevica del Partito Operaio Socialdemocratico Russo guidata da Lenin. Capace organizzatore, dotato di grande energia e di durezza di modi e di metodi, nonché strettamente fedele alle direttive di Lenin, Stalin divenne uno dei principali capi della rivoluzione d'ottobre e del nuovo Stato socialista: l'Unione Sovietica. Il suo ruolo e il suo potere politico crebbero durante la guerra civile russa in cui svolse compiti politico-militari di grande importanza, entrando spesso in rivalità con Lev Trockij. Józef Stalin (ros. Иосиф Сталин), właśc. Iosif Wissarionowicz Dżugaszwili (ros. Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили; Ioseb Besarionis Dze Dżughaszwili, gruz. იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი; ps. Stalin, ros. Сталин, Koba; ur. 18 grudnia (6 grudnia według kalendarza juliańskiego) 1878 w Gori, zm. 5 marca 1953 w Kuncewie) – radziecki polityk pochodzenia gruzińskiego, formalnie pełniący obieralne, kadencyjne funkcje sekretarza generalnego KPZR i jej poprzedniczek oraz premiera ZSRR, a faktycznie dożywotni dyktator Związku Radzieckiego, posiadający nieograniczoną władzę.
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Joseph Stalin
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General secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
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Stalin
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Iósif Stalin, nacido como Iósif Vissariónovich Dzhugashvili, (Gori, 6 de diciembrejul./ 18 de diciembre de 1878greg.-Moscú, 5 de marzo de 1953), fue un dictador soviético, presidente del Consejo de Ministros de la Unión Soviética entre 1941 y 1953. Estuvo entre los bolcheviques revolucionarios que impulsaron la Revolución de Octubre en Rusia en 1917 y más tarde ocupó la posición de secretario general del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética desde 1922 hasta que el cargo fue formalmente suprimido en 1952, poco antes de su muerte. Mientras que el cargo de secretario general era oficialmente electivo y no se lo consideraba como la máxima posición dentro del Estado soviético, Stalin logró utilizarlo para acaparar cada vez más poder en sus manos tras la muerte de Vladímir Lenin en 1924 y para sofocar gradualmente a todos los grupos opositores dentro del Partido Comunista. Esto incluyó a León Trotski, un teórico socialista y el principal crítico de Stalin entre los primeros líderes soviéticos, que fue desterrado de la Unión Soviética en 1929. En tanto que Trotski fue un exponente de la revolución mundial, fue el concepto de Stalin de socialismo en un solo país el que se convirtió en principal enfoque de la política soviética. En 1928, Stalin reemplazó la Nueva Política Económica de la década de 1920 por una economía planificada muy centralizada y por planes quinquenales que iniciaron un período de rápida industrialización y de colectivización económica en el campo. Como resultado, la Unión pasó de ser una sociedad mayoritariamente agraria a una gran potencia industrial, siendo ésta la base de su aparición como segunda mayor economía del mundo después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Como resultado de los rápidos cambios económicos, sociales y políticos de la época estalinista, millones de personas fueron enviadas a campos de trabajo como castigo, y millones fueron deportadas y exiliadas a zonas remotas de la Unión Soviética. La agitación inicial en el sector agrícola interrumpió la producción de alimentos en la década de 1930 y contribuyó a la catastrófica hambruna soviética de 1932-1933. En 1937, una campaña contra supuestos enemigos de su gobierno culminó en la Gran Purga, un período de represión masiva en el que cientos de miles de personas fueron ejecutadas, e incluso fueron condenados líderes del Ejército Rojo acusados de participar en complots para derrocar el gobierno soviético. En agosto de 1939, tras el fracaso para establecer una alianza anglo-franco-soviética, la URSS de Stalin firmó un pacto de no agresión con la Alemania nazi que dividió sus esferas de influencia en Europa oriental. Este pacto permitió que la Unión Soviética recuperase algunos de los antiguos territorios del Imperio ruso con la invasión soviética de Polonia de 1939, la Guerra de Invierno en Finlandia, y la ocupación de las Repúblicas bálticas, de Besarabia y de Bucovina del Norte durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Pero después de que Alemania violara el pacto al invadir la Unión Soviética con la Operación Barbarroja en 1941, se abrió un Frente Oriental y la Unión Soviética se unió a los Aliados. A pesar de grandes pérdidas humanas y territoriales en el período inicial de la guerra, la Unión Soviética logró detener el avance del Eje en la batalla de Moscú y la batalla de Stalingrado. Finalmente, el Ejército Rojo avanzó a través de Europa en 1944-45 y capturó la capital del Tercer Reich tras la batalla de Berlín en mayo de 1945. Habiendo jugado el papel decisivo en la victoria aliada, la URSS surgió como una superpotencia reconocida después de la guerra. Stalin encabezó las delegaciones soviéticas en las conferencias de Yalta y Potsdam, en las que se trazó el mapa de la Europa de posguerra. En los Estados satélites del Bloque del Este se instalaron gobiernos de izquierda leales a la Unión Soviética. En esa época la URSS había entrado en una lucha por el dominio global, conocida como la Guerra Fría, con los Estados Unidos. En Asia, estableció buenas relaciones con Mao Zedong en China y Kim Il-sung en Corea del Norte y de diversas maneras, la Unión Soviética de la era estalinista sirvió como modelo para la recién formada República Popular de China y República Popular Democrática de Corea. Al mantenerse en el poder hasta su muerte en 1953, Stalin dirigió la URSS durante el período de reconstrucción de la posguerra, marcado por el predominio de la arquitectura estalinista. El desarrollo exitoso del programa nuclear soviético permitió que el país se convirtiese en la segunda potencia mundial en armas nucleares. También se inició el programa espacial soviético. En sus últimos años, Stalin lanzó los denominados Grandes Proyectos de Construcción del Comunismo y el Gran Plan para la Transformación de la Naturaleza. Tras su muerte, Stalin y su régimen han sido condenados en numerosas ocasiones. La más significativa de estas condenas se dio durante el XX Congreso del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética en 1956, cuando su sucesor, Nikita Jrushchov, denunció su legado en una famosa intervención con la que se inició un proceso de desestalinización de la URSS. Las visiones modernas de Stalin en la Federación de Rusia siguen siendo mixtas, con algunas personas viéndolo como un tirano y otras como un líder capaz. Fue nominado al Premio Nobel de la Paz de 1945 y 1948. Jozef Stalin (Russisch: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин, Iosif Vissarionovitsj Stalin, oorspronkelijke naam: Ioseb dze Besarionis Dzjoegasjvili, Georgisch: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, Russisch: Джугашвили) (Gori, Russische Rijk, 18 december [O.S. 6 december] 1878 – Koentsevo (nu Moskou), Sovjet-Unie, 5 maart 1953) was een Sovjet-Russisch politicus die in de jaren 20 dictatoriale macht kreeg over de Sovjet-Unie en deze tot zijn dood in 1953 bleef behouden. Stalin wist Rusland, voorheen ten opzichte van Europa ver achtergebleven in economische ontwikkeling, in snel tempo te industrialiseren; tot een grootmacht te transformeren en in de Tweede Wereldoorlog Adolf Hitler te verslaan. Aan de andere kant bewerkstelligde zijn meedogenloze totalitaire bewind tevens, direct en indirect, vele miljoenen slachtoffers onder de Russen en andere volkeren. 约瑟夫·维萨里奥诺维奇·斯大林(格魯吉亞語:იოსებ სტალინი,俄語:Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин,發音[ˈjosʲɪf vʲɪsɐˈrʲonəvʲɪt͡ɕ ˈstalʲɪn],1878年12月18日-1953年3月5日),原名约瑟夫·维萨里奥诺维奇·泽·朱加什维利(格魯吉亞語:იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი,发音[iɔsɛb bɛsɑriɔnis dzɛ dʒuɣɑʃvili]),苏联前领导人,執政近三十年(1924-1953年),任全联盟共产党(布尔什维克)中央委员会总书记、苏联人民委员会(后改称苏联部长会议)主席(苏联总理)、苏联国防部长、苏联大元帅,对二十世纪苏联和世界影响深远。他全面推行农业集体化,引發1932年苏联大饥荒,以计划经济实施大规模工业化,使苏联成为重工业和军事大国。同时树立个人崇拜,对党、政、军领导人以至普通干部和群众進行大清洗,大量屠殺和压迫流放少数族裔,造成逾數以十萬人死亡。第二次世界大战中,苏联红军和盟军共同击败軸心國,苏联领土大扩张。战后扶植社会主义阵营,在冷战中与美国为首的北大西洋公约组织对峙。 1991年苏联解体,還有著‘超級強國’之稱使得一些俄罗斯民众怀念前苏联的光辉,正是在斯大林执政期间苏联得到大片领土及成为超级大国。2008年,俄罗斯国家电视台举行“最伟大的俄罗斯人”评选,结果斯大林名列第三位(四至六位分别是普希金、彼得大帝、列宁),仅次于亚历山大·涅夫斯基和彼得·斯托雷平。民众对斯大林的正面评价之高出乎俄罗斯政府意料之外令俄罗斯政府感到不安。俄罗斯共产党指责说“评选被政府操控以防止斯大林、列宁居榜首”。2009年10月29日,时任俄罗斯总统梅德韦杰夫在克里姆林宫博客上,谴责部分人试图重树斯大林形象的做法,他说那个年代大规模杀害是不可以正当化的。儘管高壓統治沙皇時代即有之,史達林本人也曾遭到流放對待,但在1937年至1938年他的統治時代被称为苏联“大恐怖”时期,期间130万人被判刑,其中68.2万人遭枪杀。梅德韋傑夫表示斯大林“对自己的人民发动战争,这是令人发指的罪行……(卫国战争)是全国的胜利也是人民的胜利。虽然我对当时绝大多数领导人并没有好感”。 Josef Wissarionowitsch Stalin (russisch Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин/Iossif Wissarionowitsch Stalin, wiss. Transliteration Iosif Vissarionovič Stalin; * 6. Dezemberjul./ 18. Dezember 1878greg. in Gori, Russisches Kaiserreich, heute Georgien; † 5. März 1953 in Kunzewo bei Moskau, Sowjetunion) war ein sowjetischer Politiker georgischer Herkunft und Diktator der Sowjetunion (1927–1953). Geboren wurde er als Iosseb Bessarionis dse Dschughaschwili (georgisch იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი; russisch Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили/Iossif Wissarionowitsch Dschugaschwili, wiss. Transliteration Iosif Vissarionovič Džugašvili, anhören?/i).Den Kampfnamen Stalin, der nach verschiedenen Deutungen für „der Stählerne“ steht, nahm er 1912 an. Von 1922 bis 1953 war er Generalsekretär des Zentralkomitees der Kommunistischen Partei der Sowjetunion (KPdSU), ab 1941 Vorsitzender des Rates der Volkskommissare (Regierungschef), ab 1946 Vorsitzender des Ministerrats der UdSSR und in den Jahren 1941 bis 1945 Oberster Befehlshaber der Roten Armee – der „Generalissimus“. Während seiner Regierungszeit errichtete Stalin eine totalitäre Diktatur, ließ im Rahmen politischer „Säuberungen“ mehrere Millionen vermeintliche und tatsächliche Gegner verhaften, in Schau- und Geheimprozessen zu Zwangsarbeit verurteilen oder hinrichten sowie Millionen weiterer Sowjetbürger und ganze Volksgruppen besetzter Gebiete in Gulag-Strafarbeitslager deportieren. Viele wurden dort ermordet oder kamen durch die unmenschlichen Bedingungen ums Leben. Unter Stalins Führung wurde das Konzept des Sozialismus in einem Land zum zentralen Grundsatz der sowjetischen Gesellschaft. Stalin ersetzte die unter Lenin und Trotzki im Jahr 1921 eingeführte Neue Ökonomische Politik durch eine hoch-zentralisierte Kommandowirtschaft und startete eine Phase der Industrialisierung, Kollektivierung und Entkulakisierung, was zu einer rapiden Transformation der UdSSR von einer Agrargesellschaft zu einer Industriegesellschaft führte. Entkulakisierung und Kollektivierung der Landwirtschaft trugen insbesondere in der Ukraine, an der Wolga, im Kuban-Gebiet und in anderen Teilen der Sowjetunion zu Hungersnöten bei, denen ungefähr sechs Millionen Menschen zum Opfer fielen. In Kasachstan kam die erzwungene Sesshaftmachung der nomadischen Bevölkerung hinzu. Die daraus resultierende Hungerkatastrophe kostete circa 1,3 bis 1,5 Millionen Menschenleben. Als wichtiger Partner zuerst des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands im Rahmen des Hitler-Stalin-Pakts und später der Alliierten hatte Stalin starken Einfluss auf den Verlauf des Zweiten Weltkrieges sowie auf die Nachkriegsgestaltung Europas. Sein Regime und seine Interpretationen des Marxismus und des Leninismus werden als Stalinismus bezeichnet. Auf dem Gebiet der ehemaligen Sowjetunion wirkt die jahrzehntelange Glorifizierung Stalins durch einen in der sowjetischen Geschichte einzigartigen Personenkult bis heute nach. Nach Stalins Tod leitete sein Nachfolger Nikita Chruschtschow mit der Entstalinisierung eine öffentliche Abrechnung mit Stalins Person und Wirken ein, die von späteren Regierungen nicht fortgeführt und teilweise zurückgenommen wurde. Im Jahr 2009 ergab eine Umfrage des Meinungsforschungsinstitutes WZIOM zur Einstellung der befragten Russen zu Stalin: 37 % positiv, 28 % egal, 24 % negativ. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (/ˈstɑːlɪn/; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenin's criticisms (in the postscript of his testament) and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward. Under Stalin's rule the concept of "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of Soviet society, contrary to Leon Trotsky's view that socialism must be spread through continuous international revolutions. He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920s with a highly centralised command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power. The economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–33, known in Ukraine as the Holodomor. Between 1934 and 1939 he organized and led the "Great Purge", a massive campaign of repression of the party, government, armed forces and intelligentsia, in which millions of so-called "enemies of the working class" were imprisoned, exiled or executed, often without due process. Major figures in the Communist Party and government, and many Red Army high commanders, were killed after being convicted of treason in show trials. In August 1939, after failed attempts to conclude anti-Hitler pacts with other major European powers, Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany known as the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, that divided their influence and territory within Eastern Europe, resulting in their invasion of Poland in September of that year. Germany later violated the agreement and launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow and Stalingrad. After defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States. Communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were established in most countries freed from German occupation by the Red Army, which later constituted the Eastern Bloc. Stalin also had close relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea. Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would later be known as the Cold War. During this period, the USSR became the second country in the world to successfully develop a nuclear weapon, as well as launching the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature in response to another widespread famine and the Great Construction Projects of Communism. In the years following his death, Stalin and his regime have been condemned on numerous occasions, most notably in 1956 when his successor Nikita Khrushchev denounced his legacy and initiated a process of de-Stalinization and rehabilitation to victims of his regime. Stalin remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant. However, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed. The exact is still a subject of debate, but it is widely agreed to be in the order of millions. جوزيف فيساريونوفيتش ستالين (بالجورجية იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი بالروسية: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин) (الكنية الأصلية: جوغاشفيلي) (18 ديسمبر 1878 - 5 مارس 1953) هو القائد الثاني للاتحاد السوفييتي ورئيس الوزراء (1941-1953)، عرف بقسوته وقوته وأنه قام بنقل الاتحاد السوفييتي من مجتمع زراعي إلى مجتمع صناعي مما مكن الاتحاد السوفييتي من الانتصار على دول المحور في الحرب العالمية الثانية والصعود إلى مرتبة القوى العظمى. Josef Vissarionovitch Stalin (em russo: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин; Gori, 18 de dezembro de 1878 — Moscou, 5 de março de 1953), nascido Iossif Vissarionovitch Djugashvili (em russo : Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили, translit. Ióssif Vissariónovitch Djugashvíli; pronúncia (ajuda·info); em georgiano: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, transliterado Iosseb Bessarionis dze Djuğashvili), foi secretário-geral do Partido Comunista da União Soviética e do Comitê Central a partir de 1922 até a sua morte em 1953, sendo assim o líder da União Soviética. Sob a liderança de Stalin, a União Soviética desempenhou um papel decisivo na derrota da Alemanha nazista na Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939 - 1945) e passou a atingir o estatuto de superpotência, após rápida industrialização e melhoras nas condições sociais do povo soviético. Durante esse período, o país também expandiu seu território para um tamanho semelhante ao do antigo Império Russo. Apesar dos progressos e avanços conquistados, o regime de Stalin também foi marcado por violações constantes de direitos humanos, massacres, expurgos e execuções extra-judiciais de milhares de pessoas e fome. Estima-se que entre 20 e 60 milhões de pessoas tenham morrido durante seus trinta anos de governo. Durante o XX Congresso do Partido Comunista da União Soviética, em 1956, o sucessor de Stalin, Nikita Khrushchov, apresentou seu Discurso secreto oficialmente chamado "Do culto à personalidade e suas consequências", a partir do qual iniciou-se um processo de "desestalinização" da União Soviética. Ainda hoje existem diversas perspectivas ao redor de Stalin e seu governo, alguns o vendo como ditador tirano e outros como líder habilidoso. Joseph (Iossif) Vissarionovitch Djougachvili (en géorgien : იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, Iosseb Bessarionis dze Djoughachvili; en russe : Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвилиprononciation), connu sous le nom de Joseph Staline (Иосиф Сталин), également surnommé par sa propre propagande le Vojd ("Guide") ou Le père des peuples, né à Gori le 18 décembre 1878 — officiellement le 21 décembre 1879 — et mort à Moscou le 5 mars 1953, est un révolutionnaire communiste et homme d'État soviétique d'origine géorgienne. Secrétaire général du Parti communiste soviétique à partir de 1922, il dirige l'Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques (URSS) à partir de la fin des années 1920 jusqu'à sa mort. Il établit un régime de dictature personnelle : les historiens lui attribuent, à des degrés divers, la responsabilité de la mort de trois à plus de vingt millions de personnes. Surnommé Sosso (diminutif de Iossef ou de Iosseb) pendant son enfance, il se fait ensuite appeler Koba (d'après un héros populaire géorgien) dans ses premières années de militantisme clandestin et par ses amis proches. Il utilise ensuite le pseudonyme de Staline, formé sur le mot russe сталь (stal), qui signifie acier. Par un jeu patient d'intrigues souterraines et d'alliances successives avec les diverses factions du parti unique bolchevik, et en s'appuyant sur la toute-puissante police politique et sur la bureaucratisation croissante du régime, il impose progressivement un pouvoir personnel absolu et transforme l'URSS en un régime de type totalitaire dont le culte obligatoire rendu à sa propre personne est un des traits les plus marquants. Il fait nationaliser intégralement les terres, et industrialise l'Union soviétique à marche forcée par des plans quinquennaux, au prix d'un lourd coût humain et social. Son long règne est marqué par un régime de terreur et de délation paroxystique et par la mise à mort ou l'envoi aux camps de travail du Goulag de millions de personnes, notamment au cours de la collectivisation des campagnes et des Grandes Purges de 1937. Il pratique aussi bien des déplacements de population massifs, dont la déportation intégrale d'une quinzaine de minorités nationales, que la sédentarisation forcée non moins désastreuse de nomades d'Asie centrale. Il nie aussi l'existence des famines meurtrières de 1932-1933 (Holodomor) et de 1946-1947 après les avoir en partie provoquées par sa politique brutale. Le secret et la propagande systématiquement entretenus autour de ses actes font du travestissement de la réalité et de la réécriture du passé une caractéristique permanente de son pouvoir absolu. Son souvenir est aussi associé à la victoire militaire des Alliés sur l'Allemagne nazie dont l'Union soviétique est un des principaux artisans, après la rupture en juin 1941 du pacte de non-agression mutuelle conclu entre les deux dictatures, pacte dont la signature en août 1939 a été le prélude au déclenchement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Ce conflit, après avoir mis l'URSS au bord du gouffre, apporte ensuite à Staline un très grand prestige dans le monde entier, et lui permet d'affirmer son emprise sur un empire s'étendant de la frontière occidentale de la RDA à l'océan Pacifique. Joseph Staline est également l'auteur de textes exposant ses conceptions du marxisme et du léninisme, qui contribuent à fixer pour des décennies, au sein du mouvement communiste, l'orthodoxie marxiste-léniniste. Sa pratique politique et ses conceptions idéologiques sont désignées sous le terme de stalinisme. Après la mort de Staline, ces pratiques sont dénoncées par Nikita Khrouchtchev au cours du XXe congrès du Parti communiste de l'Union soviétique de 1956 : la déstalinisation et la relative détente qui s'ensuivent n'entraînent cependant pas une démocratisation en profondeur du bloc de l'Est. Ce n'est qu'à l'époque de la perestroïka mise en place par Mikhaïl Gorbatchev que les crimes de Staline peuvent être dénoncés en URSS dans toute leur ampleur. ヨシフ・ヴィッサリオノヴィチ・スターリン(ロシア語: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин, 1878年12月18日 – 1953年3月5日)は、ソビエト連邦の政治家、軍人。同国の第2代最高指導者。一般に広く知られているスターリンという姓は「鋼鉄の人」を意味する筆名であり、本姓はジュガシヴィリ(ロシア語: Джугашвили、グルジア語: ჯუღაშვილი)である。 Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин (настоящая фамилия — Джугашви́ли, груз. იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; 6 [18] декабря 1878 (по официальной версии 9 (21) декабря 1879), Гори, Тифлисская губерния, Российская империя — 5 марта 1953, Волынское, Кунцевский район, Московская область, РСФСР, СССР) — российский революционер, советский политический, государственный, военный и партийный деятель, генералиссимус. С конца 1920-х — начала 1930-х годов до своей смерти в 1953 году Сталин единолично руководил Советским государством. Одержав верх во внутрипартийной борьбе за власть, завершившейся к концу 1920-х годов разгромом оппозиционных течений, Сталин взял курс на форсированную индустриализацию и сплошную коллективизацию сельского хозяйства для осуществления перехода в кратчайшие сроки от традиционного аграрного общества к индустриальному путём всемерной мобилизации внутренних ресурсов, сверхцентрализации экономической жизни и формирования в СССР целостной командно-административной системы. В конце 1930-х годов в обстановке обострения внешнеполитической ситуации в Европе Сталин пошёл на сближение с нацистской Германией, достигнув договорённости о разграничении сфер интересов, на основании которой после начала Второй мировой войны СССР присоединил к себе территории Западной Украины и Западной Белоруссии, Прибалтики, Бессарабии и Северной Буковины, а также осуществил нападение на Финляндию. Подвергшись в июне 1941 года нападению Германии, СССР под руководством Сталина как верховного главнокомандующего Вооружёнными силами понёс тяжёлые материальные и человеческие потери, присоединился к антигитлеровской коалиции и внёс решающий вклад в победу над нацизмом, что способствовало расширению сферы влияния СССР в Восточной Европе и Восточной Азии, формированию мировой социалистической системы, что, в свою очередь, привело к холодной войне и расколу мира на две противоборствующие системы. В послевоенные годы Сталин способствовал созданию в стране мощного военно-промышленного комплекса и превращению СССР в одну из двух мировых сверхдержав, обладающую ядерным оружием и соучредителя ООН, являющуюся постоянным членом Совета безопасности ООН с правом вето. Правление Сталина характеризовалось наличием автократического режима личной власти, господством авторитарно-бюрократических методов управления, чрезмерным усилением репрессивных функций государства, сращиванием партийных и государственных органов, жёстким контролем государства за всеми сторонами жизни общества, нарушением фундаментальных прав и свобод граждан, депортациями народов, массовой гибелью людей в результате голода 1932—1933 годов и репрессий. Józef Stalin (ros. Иосиф Сталин), właśc. Iosif Wissarionowicz Dżugaszwili (ros. Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили; Ioseb Besarionis Dze Dżughaszwili, gruz. იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი; ps. Stalin, ros. Сталин, Koba; ur. 18 grudnia (6 grudnia według kalendarza juliańskiego) 1878 w Gori, zm. 5 marca 1953 w Kuncewie) – radziecki polityk pochodzenia gruzińskiego, formalnie pełniący obieralne, kadencyjne funkcje sekretarza generalnego KPZR i jej poprzedniczek oraz premiera ZSRR, a faktycznie dożywotni dyktator Związku Radzieckiego, posiadający nieograniczoną władzę. Jako metodę rządzenia stosował masowy, państwowy wewnętrzny i zewnętrzny terror, który pochłonął, według różnych ocen, od kilku do kilkudziesięciu milionów ofiar śmiertelnych. Podpisując sojusz z III Rzeszą, umożliwił Niemcom rozpoczęcie agresji zbrojnej na Polskę, przyczyniając się do wybuchu II wojny światowej. Nativo della Georgia, di umili origini, visse un'avventurosa giovinezza come rivoluzionario socialista attivista, prima di assumere un ruolo importante di dirigente all'interno della fazione bolscevica del Partito Operaio Socialdemocratico Russo guidata da Lenin. Capace organizzatore, dotato di grande energia e di durezza di modi e di metodi, nonché strettamente fedele alle direttive di Lenin, Stalin divenne uno dei principali capi della rivoluzione d'ottobre e del nuovo Stato socialista: l'Unione Sovietica. Il suo ruolo e il suo potere politico crebbero durante la guerra civile russa in cui svolse compiti politico-militari di grande importanza, entrando spesso in rivalità con Lev Trockij. Nonostante le critiche mossegli da Lenin nell'ultima parte della sua vita e il duro contrasto con Trockij, alla morte di Lenin assunse progressivamente, grazie alla sua abilità organizzativa e politica e al ruolo di segretario generale del partito, il potere supremo in Unione Sovietica. Dopo aver sconfitto politicamente prima la sinistra di Trockij, poi l'alleanza tra Trockij, Zinovev, Kamenev e poi la destra di Bucharin, Rykov e Tomskji, Stalin adottò una prudente politica di costruzione del "socialismo in un solo Paese", mentre nel campo economico mise in atto le politiche estremistiche di interruzione della NEP, di collettivizzazione forzata delle campagne e di industrializzazione mediante i piani quinquennali, lo stakanovismo e la crescita dell'industria pesante. A metà degli anni trenta, in una fase di superamento delle difficoltà economiche e di crescita industriale, Stalin cominciò il tragico periodo delle purghe e del grande terrore in cui progressivamente eliminò fisicamente, con un metodico e spietato programma di repressione, tutti i suoi reali o presunti avversari nel partito, nell'economia, nella scienza, nelle forze armate e nelle minoranze etniche. Per rafforzare il suo potere e lo Stato sovietico contro possibili minacce esterne o interne di disgregazione, Stalin organizzò un vasto sistema di campi di detenzione e lavoro (gulag) in cui furono imprigionati in condizioni miserevoli milioni di persone. Nel campo della politica estera Stalin, timoroso delle minacce tedesche e giapponesi alla sopravvivenza dell'Unione Sovietica, in un primo momento adottò una politica di collaborazione con l'Occidente secondo la dottrina della sicurezza collettiva; dopo l'accordo di Monaco Stalin, sospettoso delle potenze occidentali e intimorito dalla potenza tedesca, preferì ricercare un accordo temporaneo con Adolf Hitler che favorì l'espansionismo sovietico verso occidente e i Paesi Baltici. Colto di sorpresa dall'attacco iniziale tedesco con il quale la Germania nazista violava il patto di non aggressione sottoscritto dalle due potenze solo due anni prima, nonostante alcuni errori di strategia militare nella fase iniziale della guerra, Stalin seppe riorganizzare e dirigere con efficacia il Paese e l'Armata Rossa fino a ottenere, pur a costo di gravi perdite militari e civili, la vittoria totale nella grande guerra patriottica. Stalin rivestì un ruolo di grande importanza nella lotta contro il nazismo e nella sconfitta di Hitler; le sue truppe, dopo aver liberato l'Europa orientale dall'occupazione tedesca, conquistarono Berlino e Vienna, costringendo lo stesso Hitler al suicidio. Dopo la vittoria Stalin, divenuto detentore di un enorme potere in Unione Sovietica e nell'Europa centro-orientale e assurto al ruolo di capo indiscusso del comunismo mondiale, accrebbe il suo dispotismo violento riprendendo politiche di terrore e di repressione. Morì a causa di un'emorragia cerebrale nel 1953, lasciando l'Unione Sovietica ormai trasformata in una grande potenza economica, una delle due superpotenze mondiali dotata di armi nucleari e guida del mondo comunista. Dal 1956, a partire dal XX Congresso del PCUS, Stalin, che era stato oggetto di un vero e proprio culto della personalità da parte di dirigenti e simpatizzanti del comunismo mondiale, è stato sottoposto a da parte di politici e storici per la sua attività politica e per i suoi spietati metodi di governo.
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dbr:Soviet_Armed_Forces
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All (supreme commander)
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dbr:Generalissimus_of_the_Soviet_Union dbr:Marshal_of_the_Soviet_Union
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n18: dbr:Soviet_people
dbo:office
General Secretaryof theCentral Committeeof theCommunist Party of the Soviet Union Chairmanof theCouncil of Ministers
dbo:party
dbr:Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union
dbo:predecessor
dbr:Vyacheslav_Molotov dbr:Responsible_Secretary
dbo:serviceStartYear
1943-01-01
dbo:signature
Stalin Signature.svg
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dbr:Ekaterina_Svanidze dbr:Nadezhda_Alliluyeva
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dbr:Nikita_Khrushchev dbr:Georgy_Malenkov
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dbr:Joseph_Stalin__2 dbr:Joseph_Stalin__1
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dbr:First_Deputy_Premier_of_the_Soviet_Union
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dbr:Nikolai_Voznesensky dbr:Vyacheslav_Molotov dbr:Nikolai_Bulganin
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left right
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no
dbp:birthName
Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili
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1930.0
dbp:commons
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин
dbp:d
Q855
dbp:date
20120308124314
dbp:df
yes
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horizontal vertical
dbp:footer
Middle: Stalin's handwriting: "за" . Right: The Politburo's decision is signed by Stalin Left: Beria's January 1940 letter to Stalin asking permission to execute 346 "enemies of the CPSU and of the Soviet authorities" who conducted "counter-revolutionary, right-Trotskyite plotting and spying activities"
dbp:footnotes
----
dbp:image
Execute 346 Politburo passes.jpg The Commissar Vanishes 2.jpg Execute 346 Berias letter to Politburo.jpg Voroshilov, Molotov, Stalin, with Nikolai Yezhov.jpg Execute 346 Stalins resolution.jpg
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no
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Besarion Jughashvili and Ketevan Geladze
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Joseph Stalin
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None prev. Georgian Orthodox
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Lenin's Mausoleum, Moscow Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow
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Author:Joseph Stalin
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collapsed
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(People's Commissar until 1946) Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union dbr:Minister_of_Defence_of_the_Soviet_Union Articles and topics related to Joseph Stalin Death of Stalin dbr:General_Secretary_of_the_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union (Council of People's Commissars until 1946)
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220 150
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Stalin
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1922 1941
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_:vb27521062
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Subject Item
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251.835