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正教會 正教会 Igreja Ortodoxa Église orthodoxe Iglesia ortodoxa Oosters-orthodoxe Kerk Eastern Orthodox Church Cerkiew prawosławna Orthodoxe Kirchen Chiesa ortodossa Православная церковь أرثوذكسية شرقية
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A Igreja Ortodoxa (do grego όρθος, transl. órthos: reto, correto, e δόξα, transl. dóxa: opinião, glória; literalmente, "igreja da opinião correta" ou "igreja da glória verdadeira", como traduzido pelos eslavos) ou Igreja Católica Ortodoxa é uma comunhão de igrejas cristãs autocéfalas, herdeiras da cristandade do Império Bizantino, que reconhece o primado de honra do Patriarcado Ecumênico de Constantinopla desde que a sede de Roma deixou de comungar com a ortodoxia. Reivindica ser a continuidade da Igreja fundada por Jesus, considerando seus líderes como sucessores dos apóstolos. 正教會(希腊语:Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία,orthódoxi ekklisía;俄語:Православная Церковь,羅馬化:pravoslavnaja tserkovʹ),也稱為東正教會,簡稱東正教,與天主教會及新教並列為基督教三大教派,信徒总人數少於天主教,但比新教最大的普世圣公宗要多出两倍,主要分佈在巴爾幹半島、東歐和西亞。 Cerkiew prawosławna, Kościół prawosławny – trzecia co do wielkości wspólnota wyznaniowa і druga co do wielkości chrześcijańska wspólnota wyznaniowa, zrzeszająca blisko 300 milionów chrześcijan, głosząca zasady wiary i życia określane mianem prawosławia. Według doktryny prawosławnej, najważniejszym i ostatecznym celem chrześcijaństwa jest osiągnięcie przez wierzących współudziału w naturze boskiej. Proces ten zwany jest przebóstwieniem. The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second largest Christian church and one of the oldest religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practises what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles. De Oosters-orthodoxe Kerk, ook wel Orthodoxe Kerk of Byzantijnse Kerk genoemd, ziet zichzelf als voortzetting van de ene, heilige, katholieke en apostolische Kerk. De Griekse naam 'orthodox' betekent letterlijk 'rechtgelovig’, 'het ware geloof behoudend' en 'juiste leer', en wordt in die zin ook wel gebruikt als synoniem voor 'rechtzinnig' of 'streng in de leer'. La Iglesia católica apostólica ortodoxa es una confesión cristiana, cuya antigüedad, tradicionalmente, se remonta a Jesús y a los doce apóstoles, a través de una sucesión apostólica nunca interrumpida. Es la segunda Iglesia cristiana más numerosa del mundo después de la Iglesia católica. Cuenta con entre 225 y 300 millones de fieles en todo el mundo. La Chiesa ortodossa, talvolta indicata come Chiesa ortodossa orientale o Chiesa cristiana d'oriente o Chiesa cattolica ortodossa, è una comunione di Chiese cristiane nazionali che sono o autocefale (cioè di cui il capo non riconosce alcuna autorità religiosa al di sopra di sé) o autonome (cioè dipendenti da un patriarcato, ma distinte). Delle Chiese autocefale, nove sono patriarcati storici o moderni. L'« Église orthodoxe » ou « Communion des Églises orthodoxes » regroupe les nombreuses Églises territoriales qui se réclament de la théologie des sept premiers conciles du christianisme et des canons ou lois qu'ils ont édictés. Le christianisme orthodoxe (en grec Ὀρθοδοξία, signifiant « opinion juste ») professe descendre directement des premières communautés chrétiennes fondées par les apôtres de Jésus dans les provinces orientales de l'Empire romain. Правосла́вная це́рковь — вторая после Католической по числу последователей Христианская церковь в мире, насчитывающая около 225 миллионов христиан. Также может называться Православной церковью византийской традиции или греко-православной церковью. Для православных христиан Православная церковь — единая святая соборная и апостольская Церковь, составляющая Тело Христово, а Иисус Христос — её глава. Orthodoxe Kirchen (von griechisch ὀρθός orthos ‚geradlinig, richtig‘ und δόξα doxa ,Verehrung, Glaube‘; also ‚die richtige Verehrung oder rechte Lehre Gottes‘; russisch Православная церковь pravoslavnaja cerkov oder rumänisch Biserica Ortodoxă Română) oder byzantinisch-orthodoxe Kirchen sind die vorreformatorischen Kirchen des byzantinischen Ritus. Sie sind dabei von Beginn an sowohl katholisch als auch apostolisch in der Nachfolge der Apostel (traditio apostolica). Die selbstverwalteten Ostkirchen sind teilweise Nationalkirchen und weisen kulturelle Unterschiede auf, stehen jedoch in Kirchengemeinschaft miteinander. Angehörige der orthodoxen Kirchen verstehen sich als Einheit und sprechen daher meist von der Kirche der Orthodoxie im Singular. Die orthodoxen Kirchen bilden mit ca. 300 Mill 正教会(せいきょうかい、ギリシア語: Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία、ロシア語: Православие、英語: Orthodox Church)は、ギリシャ正教もしくは東方正教会(とうほうせいきょうかい、Eastern Orthodox Church)とも呼ばれる、キリスト教の教会(教派)の一つ。 日本語の「正教」、英語名の"Orthodox"(オーソドックス)は、「正しい讃美」「正しい教え」を意味するギリシャ語のオルソドクシア "ορθοδοξία" に由来する。正教会は使徒継承を自認し、自身の歴史を1世紀の初代教会にさかのぼるとしている。 なお「東方教会」(とうほうきょうかい)が正教会を指している場合もある。 例外はあるものの、正教会の組織は国名もしくは地域名を冠した組織を各地に形成するのが基本である。コンスタンディヌーポリ総主教庁、アレクサンドリア総主教庁、アンティオキア総主教庁、エルサレム総主教庁、ロシア正教会、セルビア正教会、ルーマニア正教会、ブルガリア正教会、グルジア正教会、ギリシャ正教会、日本正教会などは個別の組織名であって教会全体の名ではない。いずれの地域別の教会組織も、正教として同じ信仰を有している。教会全体の名はあくまで正教会であり、「ロシア正教に改宗」「ルーマニア正教に改宗」といった表現は誤りである。 لإستخدامات أخرى راجع أرثوذكسية الأرثوذكسية الشرقية هي مذهب من المسيحية يُرجع جذوره بحسب أتباعه إلى المسيح والخلافة الرسولية والكهنوتية. وكانت المسيحية كنيسة واحدة حتى الانشقاق الذي حصل بين الكنيسة الغربية (الرومانية الكاثوليكية) والشرقية (الرومية الأرثوذكسية). ومن المعلوم أن المراجع القديمة بما فيها العربية كانت تسمي رومان القسم الشرقي من الإمبراطورية الرومانية روم تميزاً لهم عن رومان القسم الغربي من الإمبراطورية، في حين سمّأهم الغربيون منذ القرن التاسع "Greek".
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正教会(せいきょうかい、ギリシア語: Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία、ロシア語: Православие、英語: Orthodox Church)は、ギリシャ正教もしくは東方正教会(とうほうせいきょうかい、Eastern Orthodox Church)とも呼ばれる、キリスト教の教会(教派)の一つ。 日本語の「正教」、英語名の"Orthodox"(オーソドックス)は、「正しい讃美」「正しい教え」を意味するギリシャ語のオルソドクシア "ορθοδοξία" に由来する。正教会は使徒継承を自認し、自身の歴史を1世紀の初代教会にさかのぼるとしている。 なお「東方教会」(とうほうきょうかい)が正教会を指している場合もある。 例外はあるものの、正教会の組織は国名もしくは地域名を冠した組織を各地に形成するのが基本である。コンスタンディヌーポリ総主教庁、アレクサンドリア総主教庁、アンティオキア総主教庁、エルサレム総主教庁、ロシア正教会、セルビア正教会、ルーマニア正教会、ブルガリア正教会、グルジア正教会、ギリシャ正教会、日本正教会などは個別の組織名であって教会全体の名ではない。いずれの地域別の教会組織も、正教として同じ信仰を有している。教会全体の名はあくまで正教会であり、「ロシア正教に改宗」「ルーマニア正教に改宗」といった表現は誤りである。 なお、アルメニア使徒教会、シリア正教会、コプト正教会、エチオピア正教会なども同じく「正教会」を名乗りその正統性を自覚しているが、上に述べたギリシャ正教とも呼ばれる正教会とは別の系統に属する。英語ではこれらの教会は"Oriental Orthodox Church"とも呼ばれる。詳細は非カルケドン派正教会を参照。 De Oosters-orthodoxe Kerk, ook wel Orthodoxe Kerk of Byzantijnse Kerk genoemd, ziet zichzelf als voortzetting van de ene, heilige, katholieke en apostolische Kerk. De Griekse naam 'orthodox' betekent letterlijk 'rechtgelovig’, 'het ware geloof behoudend' en 'juiste leer', en wordt in die zin ook wel gebruikt als synoniem voor 'rechtzinnig' of 'streng in de leer'. Deze aanduiding doet echter geen recht aan de wijze waarop de Orthodoxe Kerk zichzelf ziet. Deze kerk verstaat onder 'geloof' niet in eerste plaats het aannemen van een systeem van dogmatische of morele regels, maar vooral de biddende gerichtheid op het hemelse. De Orthodoxe Kerk is daarom in de eerste plaats een liturgische en (aan)biddende kerk; de doctrine en ethiek kunnen alleen binnen de context van deze goddelijke aanbidding worden uitgelegd, of, zoals de eminente orthodoxe theoloog George Florovsky uitdrukte: 'Het christendom is een liturgische religie. Eerst komt de aanbidding, vervolgens de doctrine en discipline'. De Orthodoxe Kerk kent een groot aantal kerken met elk een eigen hoofd. Meestal zijn ze nationaal georganiseerd. Deze kerk vormt de groep chalcedoonse orthodoxe Kerken: Kerken die de leer van het concilie van Chalcedon volgen. De orthodoxie aanvaardt alleen de dogma's die vastgelegd zijn in de eerste zeven oecumenische concilies. Het grote schisma in de 11e eeuw (1054) tussen het oostelijke en het westelijke deel van de christenheid van het vroegere Romeinse Rijk leidde tot de scheiding tussen de orthodoxe of Byzantijnse patriarchaten en het patriarchaat van Rome, de rooms-katholieke of Latijnse kerk. Hoewel de term "oosters" gebruikelijk is, kan deze benaming in de huidige tijd misleidend zijn, daar de Orthodoxe Kerk thans ook bisdommen telt in West-Europa en vrijwel overal ter wereld.Het aantal orthodoxen in de gehele wereld varieert volgens de schattingen van 225 tot 300 miljoen. De situatie waarin vele van de lokale orthodoxe kerken leven, maakt elke religieuze statistiek moeilijk. L'« Église orthodoxe » ou « Communion des Églises orthodoxes » regroupe les nombreuses Églises territoriales qui se réclament de la théologie des sept premiers conciles du christianisme et des canons ou lois qu'ils ont édictés. Le christianisme orthodoxe (en grec Ὀρθοδοξία, signifiant « opinion juste ») professe descendre directement des premières communautés chrétiennes fondées par les apôtres de Jésus dans les provinces orientales de l'Empire romain. Sept de ces Églises orthodoxes se réclament d'une fondation par un apôtre, ou un évangéliste, au Ier siècle, l'Église orthodoxe de Constantinople fondée par l'apôtre André, l'Église d'Alexandrie et de toute l'Afrique fondée par Marc, l'Église d'Antioche et de tout l'Orient fondée par les apôtres Pierre et Paul, l'Église orthodoxe de Jérusalem fondée par l'apôtre Jacques, l'Église de Géorgie fondée par l'apôtre André, l'Église orthodoxe de Chypre fondée par Paul et l'Église orthodoxe de Grèce fondée par Paul : certaines portent la dénomination officielle d’apostoliques, d'autres non. Les Églises orthodoxes se sont réparties dans le monde entier au travers de la diaspora des communautés d'origine et par le biais de convertis. Ces Églises en inter-communion partagent une compréhension, un enseignement et des offices qui avaient cours à l'origine dans l'Empire romain d'Orient et se considère comme faisant partie d'une seule et même Église. Avec les chrétiens orthodoxes des Églises des deux conciles et ceux des Églises des trois conciles, les chrétiens orthodoxes des Églises des sept conciles représentent dans le monde la troisième plus grande confession chrétienne en nombre de fidèles après l'Église catholique et les dénominations protestantes. On estime à 250 millions le nombre de chrétiens orthodoxes dans le monde. Elles sont principalement présentes dans l'antique zone de culture grecque, c'est-à-dire dans la zone orientale du bassin de la Méditerranée (Grèce, Turquie, Syrie, Liban, Israël, Palestine, Égypte, Arménie, Géorgie), dans les zones de peuplement slave (Russie, Ukraine, Biélorussie, Bulgarie, Serbie, Monténégro, République de Macédoine) ainsi qu'en Roumanie et Moldavie. Les Églises orthodoxes célèbrent la liturgie selon cinq rites différents (byzantin, arménien, antiochien, chaldéen et alexandrin) ; la Bible et la Liturgie sont lues dans les langues nationales actuelles ou anciennes (araméen, arménien classique, grec des Évangiles, vieux-slave). The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second largest Christian church and one of the oldest religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practises what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches, each typically governed by a Holy Synod. It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination, and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church. The contemporary Orthodox Church had shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism starting around AD 1054, which had been triggered by disputes over doctrine, especially the authority of the Pope. Prior to the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Eastern Orthodox had also shared communion with the Oriental Orthodox churches, separating primarily over differences in Christology. Eastern Orthodoxy spread throughout the Roman and later Byzantine Empires and beyond, playing a prominent role in European, Near Eastern, Slavic, and some African cultures. Its most prominent episcopal see is Constantinople. The majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Greece, Eastern Europe and Russia, with less numerous communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Middle East and around the Eastern Mediterranean. There are also many in other parts of the world, formed through immigration, conversion and missionary activity. 正教會(希腊语:Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία,orthódoxi ekklisía;俄語:Православная Церковь,羅馬化:pravoslavnaja tserkovʹ),也稱為東正教會,簡稱東正教,與天主教會及新教並列為基督教三大教派,信徒总人數少於天主教,但比新教最大的普世圣公宗要多出两倍,主要分佈在巴爾幹半島、東歐和西亞。 A Igreja Ortodoxa (do grego όρθος, transl. órthos: reto, correto, e δόξα, transl. dóxa: opinião, glória; literalmente, "igreja da opinião correta" ou "igreja da glória verdadeira", como traduzido pelos eslavos) ou Igreja Católica Ortodoxa é uma comunhão de igrejas cristãs autocéfalas, herdeiras da cristandade do Império Bizantino, que reconhece o primado de honra do Patriarcado Ecumênico de Constantinopla desde que a sede de Roma deixou de comungar com a ortodoxia. Reivindica ser a continuidade da Igreja fundada por Jesus, considerando seus líderes como sucessores dos apóstolos. A Igreja Ortodoxa tem aproximadamente dois mil anos, contando-se a partir da Igreja Primitiva, e aproximadamente mil anos, contando-se a partir do Cisma do Oriente ou Grande Cisma, em 1054. Desde então, os ortodoxos não reconhecem a primazia papal, a cláusula Filioque e não aceitam muitos dos dogmas proclamados pela Igreja Católica Romana em séculos recentes, tais como a Imaculada Conceição e a infalibilidade papal. Também não consideram válidos os sacramentos ministrados por outras confissões cristãs e em geral têm uma história hagiográfica à parte do catolicismo romano. Apesar de católicos romanos e ortodoxos terem uma história comum, que começa com a fundação da Igreja e com a difusão do cristianismo pelos apóstolos, uma série de dificuldades ocasionou o progressivo distanciamento entre Roma e os Patriarcas. Primeiro veio a quebra da unidade política. Com a divisão do Império Romano em 395, a queda do Império Romano do Ocidente em 476 e o fracasso da tentativa de Justiniano I de reunificar o império a partir de 535, o Oriente e o Ocidente deixaram de ter o mesmo governo. A partir do século VII, com a ascensão do Islamismo, as trocas econômicas e os contatos por via marítima entre o Império Bizantino, de língua grega, e o Ocidente, de língua latina, tornaram-se mais difíceis, e a unidade cultural se deteriorou. Em que pesem diferenças teológicas, organizativas e de espiritualidade não desprezáveis, a Igreja Ortodoxa é, em muitos aspectos, semelhante à Igreja Católica: preserva os sete sacramentos (ainda que reconheça outros sacramentos e o número exato de sete tenha sido emprestado dos catecismos católicos romanos), o respeito a ícones e o uso de vestes litúrgicas nos seus cultos (denominados de Divina Liturgia). Seus fiéis são chamados de cristãos ortodoxos. No seu conjunto, a Igreja Ortodoxa é a terceira maior confissão cristã, contando, em todo o mundo, com aproximadamente 250 milhões de fiéis, concentrados sobretudo nos países da Europa Oriental. As igrejas ortodoxas mais importantes são a Igreja Ortodoxa Grega e a Igreja Ortodoxa Russa. Em inglês empregam-se dois sinônimos, cada um dos quais corresponde à palavra portuguesa "oriental", para distinguir as Igrejas que aceitam o Concílio de Calcedônia e a sua doutrina do diofisismo das que os rejeitam. As primeiras são chamadas de "Eastern Orthodox" e as outras, "Oriental Orthodox". Os correspondentes nomes em alemão são "östlich-orthodoxe" e "orientalisch-orthodoxe". Em línguas que não dispõem deste par de sinônimos (como o espanhol e o francês), segundo o Conselho Mundial de Igrejas, o termo "ortodoxas orientais" é geralmente reservado às igrejas que rejeitam o Concílio, enquanto que as que o aceitam são chamadas de "ortodoxas bizantinas" ou "ortodoxas calcedonianas". لإستخدامات أخرى راجع أرثوذكسية الأرثوذكسية الشرقية هي مذهب من المسيحية يُرجع جذوره بحسب أتباعه إلى المسيح والخلافة الرسولية والكهنوتية. وكانت المسيحية كنيسة واحدة حتى الانشقاق الذي حصل بين الكنيسة الغربية (الرومانية الكاثوليكية) والشرقية (الرومية الأرثوذكسية). ومعنى كلمة أرثوذكسية (باليونانية: Ορθοδοξία) الرأي القويم، أوالإيمان المستقيم. الكنائس الأرثوذكسية التقليدية هي الكنائس الشرقية، منها البيزنطية (أي الرومية التي تسمى أيضاً باليونانية) والسلافية، وقد تم انشقاق الكنيسة بين الغرب (الفاتيكان والمسماة اليوم الرومانية الكاثوليكية) وبين الشرق (الرومية، البيزنطية، والمسماة أيضاً اليوم الرومية الأرثوذكسية). وقد استفحل هذا الانشقاق في أيام ميخائيل كيرولارس بطريرك القسطنطينية عام 1054 ،لأسباب سياسية أكثر منها عقائدية. ومن المعلوم أن المراجع القديمة بما فيها العربية كانت تسمي رومان القسم الشرقي من الإمبراطورية الرومانية روم تميزاً لهم عن رومان القسم الغربي من الإمبراطورية، في حين سمّأهم الغربيون منذ القرن التاسع "Greek". وهي ثاني أكبر الكنائس المسيحية بعد الكنيسة الكاثوليكية في العالم؛ بالمقابل تتخطى المذاهب البروتستانتية مجتمعة الكنيسة الأرثوذكسية، وتتراوح أعداد أتباع الأرثوذكسية الشرقيين بين 223 مليونًا و300 مليون. انتشرت الأرثوذكسية الشرقية في روسيا وبلاد البلقان واليونان وعموم الشرق الأدنى, اما المسيحيون التابعين للكنيسة الأرثوذكسية والساكنين في البلدان العربية فيطلق عليهم اسم الروم الأرثوذكس بسبب انهم يتبعون الطقوس الدينية اليونانية البيزنطية. La Chiesa ortodossa, talvolta indicata come Chiesa ortodossa orientale o Chiesa cristiana d'oriente o Chiesa cattolica ortodossa, è una comunione di Chiese cristiane nazionali che sono o autocefale (cioè di cui il capo non riconosce alcuna autorità religiosa al di sopra di sé) o autonome (cioè dipendenti da un patriarcato, ma distinte). Delle Chiese autocefale, nove sono patriarcati storici o moderni. Come è indicato nelle pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di Statistiche delle Nazioni Unite, le denominazioni usate dai vari stati per indicare le religioni non sono uniformi. Così i cattolici sono identificati come "cattolici" in Albania, ma "cattolici romani" in Anguilla, e il termine "ortodosso", che in Etiopia indica soprattutto appartenenza alla Chiesa ortodossa etiope, una delle Chiese ortodosse orientali, in Romania indica soprattutto l'essere membri della Chiesa ortodossa rumena, una delle Chiese che in inglese e tedesco sono anch'esse chiamate orientali (usando però un vocabolo distinto ma sinonimo), ma che in lingue che non dispongono di una simile coppia di sinonimi sono chiamate bizantine o calcedonesi. Queste ultime lingue attualmente riservano l'aggettivo "orientali" per le Chiese che non accettano il Concilio di Calcedonia. La Chiesa ortodossa bizantina o calcedonese è l'erede della cristianità dell'antico Impero romano d'Oriente, chiamato poi Impero bizantino, e in seguito Ottomano, allora suddivisa negli antichi quattro Patriarcati storici di Gerusalemme, Antiochia, Alessandria e Costantinopoli, senza il quinto, d'Occidente. Essa ritiene che solo al proprio interno, quindi in via esclusiva, sussista la continuità della Chiesa universale fondata da Gesù Cristo (come lo ritiene da parte sua la Chiesa cattolica romana). Tale Comunità riconosce un primato d'onore alla sede patriarcale di Costantinopoli (autodefinitasi "ecumenica" in un sinodo tenuto a Costantinopoli nel 587, dopo l'autopromozione gerarchica nel Concilio di Calcedonia del 451, nonostante le proteste degli altri Patriarcati), dal momento che la principale sede patriarcale, quella di Roma o d'Occidente, alla quale, in base alla tradizione e ai Concili ecumenici tale primato spettava e spetterebbe, dal 1054 non è più in comunione con le 4 antiche sedi patriarcali e le loro affiliazioni orientali. Le Chiese ortodosse più conosciute sono la Chiesa ortodossa greca e la Chiesa ortodossa russa, riconosciute dal patriarcato ecumenico di Costantinopoli rispettivamente nel 1850 e nel 988. Di queste la seconda è numericamente maggiore. Nel suo complesso, la Chiesa ortodossa, sia euro-orientale sia medio-orientale, ecc., è per dimensioni la terza maggiore confessione cristiana: contando 250 milioni di fedeli in tutto il mondo, anche se in larga prevalenza nei paesi dell'Europa orientale, ora per opera dei fenomeni di immigrazione anche diffusa in Europa e in tutto l'Occidente. La Iglesia católica apostólica ortodoxa es una confesión cristiana, cuya antigüedad, tradicionalmente, se remonta a Jesús y a los doce apóstoles, a través de una sucesión apostólica nunca interrumpida. Es la segunda Iglesia cristiana más numerosa del mundo después de la Iglesia católica. Cuenta con entre 225 y 300 millones de fieles en todo el mundo. La Iglesia ortodoxa se considera la heredera de todas las comunidades cristianas de la mitad oriental del Mediterráneo.[cita requerida] Su doctrina teológica se estableció en una serie de concilios, de los cuales los más importantes son los primeros Siete Concilios, llamados "ecuménicos" que tuvieron lugar entre los siglos IV y VIII. Tras varios desencuentros y conflictos, la Iglesia católica ortodoxa y la Iglesia católica romana se separaron en el llamado "Cisma de Oriente y Occidente", el 16 de julio de 1054. El cristianismo ortodoxo se difundió por Europa Oriental gracias al prestigio del Imperio bizantino y a la labor de numerosos grupos misioneros. La Iglesia ortodoxa está en realidad constituida por 15 iglesias autocéfalas que reconocen sólo el poder de su propia autoridad jerárquica (por ejemplo, del Patriarca de Alejandría, de Antioquía, de Constantinopla, etc. o la de Metropolitanos, si es el caso), pero mantienen entre sí comunión doctrinal y sacramental. Cerkiew prawosławna, Kościół prawosławny – trzecia co do wielkości wspólnota wyznaniowa і druga co do wielkości chrześcijańska wspólnota wyznaniowa, zrzeszająca blisko 300 milionów chrześcijan, głosząca zasady wiary i życia określane mianem prawosławia. Według doktryny prawosławnej, najważniejszym i ostatecznym celem chrześcijaństwa jest osiągnięcie przez wierzących współudziału w naturze boskiej. Proces ten zwany jest przebóstwieniem. Cerkiew uważa siebie za jeden, święty, powszechny i apostolski Kościół założony przez Jezusa Chrystusa i jego apostołów blisko 2 tysiące lat temu. Składa się ona z licznych Cerkwi lokalnych nazywanych autokefaliami, które pozostają ze sobą w jedności dogmatycznej. Każdą lokalną Cerkwią autokefaliczną rządzi Święty Sobór Biskupów pod przewodnictwem patriarchy, metropolity lub arcybiskupa. Pierwsze honorowe miejsce wśród przywódców Cerkwi lokalnych zajmuje patriarcha Konstantynopola, ze względu na dawną pozycję Konstantynopola jako stolicy Cesarstwa Bizantyńskiego. Правосла́вная це́рковь — вторая после Католической по числу последователей Христианская церковь в мире, насчитывающая около 225 миллионов христиан. Также может называться Православной церковью византийской традиции или греко-православной церковью. Для православных христиан Православная церковь — единая святая соборная и апостольская Церковь, составляющая Тело Христово, а Иисус Христос — её глава. Учение Православной церкви содержится в Священном предании, которое включает в себя кроме Священного Писания, определения Вселенских и некоторых поместных соборов, принятые всей Церковью, каноны (своды правил апостолов, Вселенских и некоторых поместных соборов), утвержденные Церковью литургические тексты, творения Отцов Церкви, жития святых, а также обычаи Церкви. При этом Предание, в понимании святоотеческой литературы, «есть жизнь Святого Духа в Церкви». Священное Писание для православных христиан является наиважнейшей формой Священного Предания. Православная церковь составляется сообществом поместных церквей — автокефальных и автономных. Каждая автокефальная церковь полностью самостоятельна и независима в делах своего канонического и административного управления. Автономные церкви находятся в канонической зависимости от той или иной автокефальной (кириархальной) церкви. Православные церкви в светской религиоведческой классификации делят на: * мировое (вселенское) православие — четыре из пяти патриархатов древней пентархии: Константинопольский, Александрийский, Антиохийский, Иерусалимский (церкви собственно греко-византийской традиции наряду с Церковью Кипра, особый статус которых в неразделённой Христианской церкви закреплён постановлениями Вселенских Соборов) и находящиеся с ними в евхаристическом общении (то есть признанные как православные) поместные церкви; * малочисленные юрисдикции греко-православной традиции, не признанные мировым православием и являющиеся с его точки зрения неканоническими (соответственно, не находящиеся в евхаристическом общении с ними, а зачастую и между собой). Orthodoxe Kirchen (von griechisch ὀρθός orthos ‚geradlinig, richtig‘ und δόξα doxa ,Verehrung, Glaube‘; also ‚die richtige Verehrung oder rechte Lehre Gottes‘; russisch Православная церковь pravoslavnaja cerkov oder rumänisch Biserica Ortodoxă Română) oder byzantinisch-orthodoxe Kirchen sind die vorreformatorischen Kirchen des byzantinischen Ritus. Sie sind dabei von Beginn an sowohl katholisch als auch apostolisch in der Nachfolge der Apostel (traditio apostolica). Die selbstverwalteten Ostkirchen sind teilweise Nationalkirchen und weisen kulturelle Unterschiede auf, stehen jedoch in Kirchengemeinschaft miteinander. Angehörige der orthodoxen Kirchen verstehen sich als Einheit und sprechen daher meist von der Kirche der Orthodoxie im Singular. Die orthodoxen Kirchen bilden mit ca. 300 Millionen Angehörigen die drittgrößte christliche Gemeinschaft der Welt. Sie sind zu unterscheiden von den altorientalischen Kirchen (auch orientalisch-orthodox) und den katholischen Ostkirchen, die größtenteils von orthodoxen Kirchen abstammen.
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A church being dynamited Large church
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1931 The rebuilt Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
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April 2014
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Christ saviour explosion.jpg Cathedrale du Christ Sauveur.jpg
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please rewrite this overlong sentence to avoid damaging reader's brain
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569.204