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Доктор философии Doctor of Philosophy Doctor of Philosophy Philosophiæ doctor Doctor of Philosophy Dottorato di ricerca Doutorado em filosofia Ph.D. Philosophiæ doctor 哲學博士
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Philosophiæ doctor (o doctor philosophiæ, o abreviado PhD o Ph.D., literalmente «doctor en filosofía») es, en el sistema universitario anglosajón, el título más empleado para un diploma de doctorado especializado en investigación. El término philosophĭa se utiliza con la misma frecuencia con la que se empleaba y difundía antes del siglo XX en las universidades alemanas, y designa el estudio general de conocimientos y el amor por los mismos, según reza la etimología de la palabra. A Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.) is a type of doctorate degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph.D.s are awarded for a wide range of programs in the sciences (e.g., biology, physics, mathematics, etc.), engineering, and humanities (e.g., history, literature, musicology, etc.), among others. The Ph.D. is a terminal degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph.D. is a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. A clear distinction is made between an "earned doctorate", which is awarded for completion of a course of study and a thesis or dissertation, and an "honorary doctorate", a title granted by a university to a successful or notable person who has not completed doctoral academic work or completed a dissertation at t До́ктор филосо́фии (лат. Philosophiæ Doctor, Ph.D., PhD, обычно произносится как пи-эйч-ди, в Оксфордском университете Doctor of Philosophy, D.Phil., DPhil, произносится как ди-фил) — учёная степень, присуждаемая в некоторых странах Запада. В США существующая в некоторых университетах степень доктора наук (Sc.D. — Doctor of Science) также считается равной Ph.D. Квалификационной работой соискателя степени является докторская диссертация (англ. Ph.D. Thesis). Doctor of Philosophy (afkorting: PhD (Engels) of Ph.D. (Amerikaans), Latijn: Philosophiæ Doctor) is een Anglo-Amerikaanse variant op de academische titel doctor. Het betreft een research-doctoraat en is in vele landen de hoogste academische graad die iemand kan behalen (alhoewel er in het Verenigd Koninkrijk, Ierland en sommige Gemenebestlanden ook hogere doctoraten bestaan die gegeven worden aan seniorwetenschappers). Der Ph.D. [piː‿eɪtʃ diː] (auch PhD, englisch Doctor of Philosophy, neulateinisch philosophiae doctor) ist in englischsprachigen Ländern der wissenschaftliche Doktorgrad in fast allen Fächern und der höchste Abschluss des Postgraduiertenstudiums. In diesen Ländern ist der Ph.D.-Abschluss in aller Regel mit der Berechtigung verbunden, an einer Universität zu lehren. Doctor of Philosophy、Ph.D.(ピー・エイチ・ディー)は、おもに英語圏で授与されている博士水準の学位である。直訳では「哲学博士」となることから分かるように、基本的にはあくまで、伝統4学部のうち職業教育系の神学・法学・医学を除いた「哲学部(ないし教養部)」のリベラル・アーツ系の学位である。 Ph.D.(イギリス式ではピリオドを打たずPhDとも表記)は、ラテン語の「Philosophiae Doctor」(英語では「Doctor of Philosophy」)の略語である。同じイギリスでもオックスフォード大学、サセックス大学、ヨーク大学などでは英語表記の略を用いた「D.Phil.」と表記する。いずれの場合も、Ph. D.のようにスペースは空けない。また、Ph.Dも誤りである。 Il dottorato di ricerca è un titolo accademico dell'istruzione superiore in molti paesi del mondo, corrispondente al massimo grado di istruzione universitaria ottenibile. Nei paesi anglofoni è denominato Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. o PhD, abbreviazione del latino Philosophiæ Doctor). Philosophiæ doctor (ou doctor philosophiæ ; abrégé PhD ou Ph. D. ; littéralement « docteur en philosophie ») est, dans le système universitaire anglo-saxon ou franco-canadien, l'intitulé le plus courant d'un diplôme de doctorat. Le terme philosophie est utilisé dans son sens antérieur au XXe siècle, tel qu'il a été répandu par les universités allemandes, et désigne ici l'étude générale des connaissances. 哲學博士(拉丁语:Philosophiæ Doctor,英语:Doctor of Philosophy,簡稱 Ph.D. 或 D.Phil.),高級學銜之一,通常是學歷架構中最高級的學銜。擁有人一般在大學本科(學士)及/或研究院(碩士)畢業,再進行相當年數的研修後,撰畢論文並通過答辯,方獲發哲學博士學位。 Um Doutor em Filosofia, abreviado nos países anglófonos como PhD, Ph.D., DPhil ou D.Phil. (do Latim philosophiae doctor ou doctor philosophiae), é um título fornecido pelas Universidades reconhecido como grau terminal nos países de língua inglesa. As universidades brasileiras fornecem o título de DSc (Scientiae Doctor, Doctor of Science ou Doutor em Ciências) para as pessoas que completam um curso de doutorado, sendo este título (DSc) equivalente ao PhD obtido em universidades de outros países.
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A Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.) is a type of doctorate degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph.D.s are awarded for a wide range of programs in the sciences (e.g., biology, physics, mathematics, etc.), engineering, and humanities (e.g., history, literature, musicology, etc.), among others. The Ph.D. is a terminal degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph.D. is a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. A clear distinction is made between an "earned doctorate", which is awarded for completion of a course of study and a thesis or dissertation, and an "honorary doctorate", a title granted by a university to a successful or notable person who has not completed doctoral academic work or completed a dissertation at the university. Individuals with an earned doctorate can use the title of "Doctor" with their name and use the initials "Ph.D." (or "D.Phil.") after their name. The requirements to earn a Ph.D. degree varies considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. A person who attains a doctorate of philosophy is automatically awarded the academic title of doctor. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called doctoral student or Ph.D. student, but also "doctoral candidate" or "Ph.D. candidate" once the student has completed all of the coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis or dissertation. A Ph.D. candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities award other types of doctorates besides the Ph.D., such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.), a degree for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), a degree for professional educators. In the context of academic degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/natural sciences) other than theology, law, and medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy". До́ктор филосо́фии (лат. Philosophiæ Doctor, Ph.D., PhD, обычно произносится как пи-эйч-ди, в Оксфордском университете Doctor of Philosophy, D.Phil., DPhil, произносится как ди-фил) — учёная степень, присуждаемая в некоторых странах Запада. В США существующая в некоторых университетах степень доктора наук (Sc.D. — Doctor of Science) также считается равной Ph.D. Квалификационной работой соискателя степени является докторская диссертация (англ. Ph.D. Thesis). Der Ph.D. [piː‿eɪtʃ diː] (auch PhD, englisch Doctor of Philosophy, neulateinisch philosophiae doctor) ist in englischsprachigen Ländern der wissenschaftliche Doktorgrad in fast allen Fächern und der höchste Abschluss des Postgraduiertenstudiums. In diesen Ländern ist der Ph.D.-Abschluss in aller Regel mit der Berechtigung verbunden, an einer Universität zu lehren. Doctor of Philosophy、Ph.D.(ピー・エイチ・ディー)は、おもに英語圏で授与されている博士水準の学位である。直訳では「哲学博士」となることから分かるように、基本的にはあくまで、伝統4学部のうち職業教育系の神学・法学・医学を除いた「哲学部(ないし教養部)」のリベラル・アーツ系の学位である。 Ph.D.(イギリス式ではピリオドを打たずPhDとも表記)は、ラテン語の「Philosophiae Doctor」(英語では「Doctor of Philosophy」)の略語である。同じイギリスでもオックスフォード大学、サセックス大学、ヨーク大学などでは英語表記の略を用いた「D.Phil.」と表記する。いずれの場合も、Ph. D.のようにスペースは空けない。また、Ph.Dも誤りである。 Doctor of Philosophy (afkorting: PhD (Engels) of Ph.D. (Amerikaans), Latijn: Philosophiæ Doctor) is een Anglo-Amerikaanse variant op de academische titel doctor. Het betreft een research-doctoraat en is in vele landen de hoogste academische graad die iemand kan behalen (alhoewel er in het Verenigd Koninkrijk, Ierland en sommige Gemenebestlanden ook hogere doctoraten bestaan die gegeven worden aan seniorwetenschappers). Deze graad kan alleen verkregen worden door het doen van promotieonderzoek. Iemand die bezig is met zijn promotieonderzoek wordt ook wel een 'PhD student' of 'PhD candidate' genoemd, wat vergelijkbaar is met de functie promovendus in Nederland, of de functie doctorandus in België. Hoewel sommigen in de Nederlandstalige landen deze (begrijpelijke) fout maken, dient deze titel niet 'letterlijk' vertaald te worden als "Doctor in de Filosofie". Het is hier niet specifiek in de studierichting filosofie, maar omvat de bredere en originele betekenis van het Oudgriekse woord "philosophia" (φιλοσοφία), wat letterlijk betekent "liefde voor wijsheid". Iemand kan bijvoorbeeld ook aan de scheikundige faculteit promoveren en deze titel krijgen. In Oxford heet een PhD ook wel een DPhil. Het gebruik van de graad PhD is niet ongewoon onder wetenschappers in Nederland en België. Dit omdat zij veelal samenwerken met wetenschappers of onderzoeksgroepen in het buitenland en het gebruik van deze internationale titulatuur leidt dan tot betere herkenning in het buitenland. Wettelijk gezien is PhD echter geen graad binnen het Nederlandse onderwijs. In de nieuwe structuur onder de BAMA-regeling is de accreditatie van een in het buitenland verkregen PhD geregeld in Nederland. Namelijk: de Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs mag op grond van Art. 7.23 lid 3 WHW toestemming geven om de titel doctor (dr.) te voeren op basis van een buitenlands diploma. 哲學博士(拉丁语:Philosophiæ Doctor,英语:Doctor of Philosophy,簡稱 Ph.D. 或 D.Phil.),高級學銜之一,通常是學歷架構中最高級的學銜。擁有人一般在大學本科(學士)及/或研究院(碩士)畢業,再進行相當年數的研修後,撰畢論文並通過答辯,方獲發哲學博士學位。 Philosophiæ doctor (o doctor philosophiæ, o abreviado PhD o Ph.D., literalmente «doctor en filosofía») es, en el sistema universitario anglosajón, el título más empleado para un diploma de doctorado especializado en investigación. El término philosophĭa se utiliza con la misma frecuencia con la que se empleaba y difundía antes del siglo XX en las universidades alemanas, y designa el estudio general de conocimientos y el amor por los mismos, según reza la etimología de la palabra. Philosophiæ doctor (ou doctor philosophiæ ; abrégé PhD ou Ph. D. ; littéralement « docteur en philosophie ») est, dans le système universitaire anglo-saxon ou franco-canadien, l'intitulé le plus courant d'un diplôme de doctorat. Le terme philosophie est utilisé dans son sens antérieur au XXe siècle, tel qu'il a été répandu par les universités allemandes, et désigne ici l'étude générale des connaissances. Il dottorato di ricerca è un titolo accademico dell'istruzione superiore in molti paesi del mondo, corrispondente al massimo grado di istruzione universitaria ottenibile. Nei paesi anglofoni è denominato Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. o PhD, abbreviazione del latino Philosophiæ Doctor). Um Doutor em Filosofia, abreviado nos países anglófonos como PhD, Ph.D., DPhil ou D.Phil. (do Latim philosophiae doctor ou doctor philosophiae), é um título fornecido pelas Universidades reconhecido como grau terminal nos países de língua inglesa. O termo filosofia não se relaciona neste título apenas ao campo da filosofia propriamente dita, mas provém do sentido grego da palavra, que é amor ao conhecimento, sendo que o título de PhD é então fornecido na Europa para os campos de medicina e direito. O termo filosofia advém do ensino de artes liberais, baseada na ementa da Universidade Humboldt de Berlim, uma vez que até o início do século XIX muitos dos cursos de graduação atuais nem existiam, e a filosofia era composta de ementas de diferentes cursos atuais. As universidades brasileiras fornecem o título de DSc (Scientiae Doctor, Doctor of Science ou Doutor em Ciências) para as pessoas que completam um curso de doutorado, sendo este título (DSc) equivalente ao PhD obtido em universidades de outros países.
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437.704