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キリスト神話説 Christ myth theory Jezusmythe Mito de Jesús Teoria mitu Jezusa Mito di Gesù Мифологическая школа Jesus-Mythos Thèse mythiste Teoria do mito de Jesus
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Мифологическая школа — теория происхождения христианства, направление в историографии христианства, а также в христологии — отрицает реальность Иисуса Христа как исторической личности и рассматривает его исключительно как факт мифологии. Als Jesus-Mythos (seltener: Christus-Mythos, englisch meist Christ-Myth-Theory; auch Nichtexistenz- oder Nichthistorizitäts-Hypothese) wird die Auffassung bezeichnet, Jesus von Nazaret sei keine historische Person gewesen oder man könne keinerlei gesicherte historische Aussagen über ihn treffen. Die in den Schriften des Urchristentums dargestellte Person sei eine Fiktion oder ein Mythos. Teoria mitu Jezusa – nazwa obejmująca trwające od XIX w. filozoficzne próby tłumaczenia genezy chrześcijaństwa z pominięciem osoby Jezusa, kwestionujące historyczność Jezusa. U podstaw takich założeń znajdują się współczesne kierunki filozoficzne (idealizm i materializm). De Jezusmythe is een term waarmee theorieën worden aangeduid die betogen dat de persoon die het christendom (en in zekere zin ook de islam) Jezus noemt, niet echt bestaan heeft. (Mythe betekent in dit verband dat het verhaal van Jezus fictie is.) Geschiedkundige en theoloog Bruno Bauer stelde de theorie in de 19e eeuw als eerste voor. Bauer stelde dat Jezus in de tweede eeuw is ontstaan uit de samensmelting van joodse, Romeinse en Griekse religieuze opvattingen. Il mito di Gesù è l'insieme di ipotesi che sostengono l'inesistenza storica del Gesù di Nazareth di tradizione cristiana e, in parte, musulmana. I sostenitori del mitismo affermano che Gesù sarebbe un personaggio fittizio, mitico o mitologico creato dalla comunità cristiana primitiva, e che quindi non sia mai esistito. Tale tesi di un'origine esclusivamente mitica di Gesù trae spunto soprattutto dal fatto che moltissimi fatti riguardanti la vita di Cristo sono frutto di una commistione di altri miti derivati da più antiche religioni e culti misterici (soprattutto la figura di Osiride-Dioniso e di suo figlio Horus, ma anche di Mitra, del Sol Invictus, di Esculapio etc.). For discussion of Jesus in a comparative mythological and religious context, see Jesus in comparative mythology, and for the body of myths associated with Christianity, see Christian mythology. For the scholarly study of the life of Jesus, see Historical Jesus, for analysis of information supporting the historical existence of Jesus, see Historicity of Jesus and Sources for the historicity of Jesus, and for the debate over the validity of stories in the New Testament, see Historical reliability of the Gospels. Some of the arguments commonly used by Christ myth theory proponents are: A teoria do mito de Cristo (também conhecido como Jesus mítico ou a hipótese da inexistência de Jesus) é a ideia de que Jesus de Nazaré não era uma pessoa histórica, mas sim um personagem fictício ou mitológico criado pela comunidade cristã primitiva . Alguns proponentes alegam que os eventos ou frases associados com a figura de Jesus no Novo Testamento podem ter sido elaborado a partir de uma ou mais pessoas que realmente existiram, mas que nenhum deles era em nenhum sentido o fundador do cristianismo. Praticamente todos os estudiosos envolvidos com a pesquisa do Jesus histórico acreditam que sua existência pode ser estabelecida usando documentos e outras evidências, embora a maioria sustenta que muito do material sobre ele no Novo Testamento não deve ser tomado ao pé da letra. Une thèse mythiste est une théorie selon laquelle la personne de Jésus de Nazareth n'a pas de caractère historique : le personnage de Jésus serait une création mythique ou mythologique. Ces thèses sont nées à partir du XVIIIe siècle et du développement des méthodes historico-critiques dans l'étude des textes du Nouveau Testament. Elles tentent d'expliquer entre autres l'apparition du christianisme. Ces thèses se développent selon deux axes complémentaires : キリスト神話説(英語:Christ myth theory キリスト神話・イエス神話・キリスト非実在説とも)とは、イエス・キリストは、歴史上の人物としては実在せず、最初期キリスト教におけるイエスは後世になって実際のできごとと結びつけられた神話的な存在であるとする議論である。キリスト教の神話的起源を支持する人々は、福音書の原典は歴史上の(ひとり、もしくは複数の)伝道者からとられた可能性を認めてはいるが、その伝道者たちはどのような観点からも「キリスト教の創始者」とは認められないと主張している。彼らの主張はむしろ、キリスト教はヘレニズム・ユダヤ教(en:Hellenistic Judaism)から自然発生したものであり、書簡や福音書は大部分が歴史上にはなかった神話上のイエスを記録したものだ、というものである。この説の支持者は、文献の発展史の中からキリスト教教義の発展史を追った結果、最初期キリスト教に関して福音書よりも使徒書簡に焦点をあてている。 キリスト神話説、もしくはそれに類する観点から、イエスの物語と、クリシュナ・アドーニス・オシリス・ミトラ教・ユダヤ教(キリスト教成立以前)のイエス信仰などとの類似性が指摘されることもあり、著述家の中にはキリスト教の創始はイエスの生涯よりも早い時期を生きた歴史上の創設者によるものとしている者もいる。 Con la expresión «mito de Jesús» se hace referencia a la teoría según la cual la historia de Jesús de Nazaret, tal y como se relata en las fuentes cristianas, es en realidad un mito. Las semejanzas dogmáticas con religiones mistéricas demostraría que el cristianismo no es el resultado de una revelación divina, sino el producto de un sincretismo religioso. La mayoría de los estudiosos que sostienen esta teoría, aunque no todos, mantienen posiciones escépticas en cuanto a la historicidad de Jesús de Nazaret.
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Als Jesus-Mythos (seltener: Christus-Mythos, englisch meist Christ-Myth-Theory; auch Nichtexistenz- oder Nichthistorizitäts-Hypothese) wird die Auffassung bezeichnet, Jesus von Nazaret sei keine historische Person gewesen oder man könne keinerlei gesicherte historische Aussagen über ihn treffen. Die in den Schriften des Urchristentums dargestellte Person sei eine Fiktion oder ein Mythos. Diese Ansicht wird heute vor allem im englischsprachigen Raum vertreten und steht dem Neuen Atheismus nahe. Frühe Hauptvertreter waren Bruno Bauer, John M. Robertson, Albert Kalthoff und Arthur Drews. Jüngere Hauptvertreter sind George Albert Wells, Earl Doherty, Robert M. Price und Richard Carrier. Sie berufen sich auf Ergebnisse der frühen Jesusforschung, die den mythischen und legendarischen Charakter vieler Texte des Neuen Testaments (NT) erwies. Die weitaus meisten historisch-kritischen Forscher zum Urchristentum erklären diese Texte jedoch als Reaktionen auf den historischen Jesus und rekonstruieren sein Wirken in Grundzügen daraus. Con la expresión «mito de Jesús» se hace referencia a la teoría según la cual la historia de Jesús de Nazaret, tal y como se relata en las fuentes cristianas, es en realidad un mito. Las semejanzas dogmáticas con religiones mistéricas demostraría que el cristianismo no es el resultado de una revelación divina, sino el producto de un sincretismo religioso. La mayoría de los estudiosos que sostienen esta teoría, aunque no todos, mantienen posiciones escépticas en cuanto a la historicidad de Jesús de Nazaret. Teoria mitu Jezusa – nazwa obejmująca trwające od XIX w. filozoficzne próby tłumaczenia genezy chrześcijaństwa z pominięciem osoby Jezusa, kwestionujące historyczność Jezusa. U podstaw takich założeń znajdują się współczesne kierunki filozoficzne (idealizm i materializm). Il mito di Gesù è l'insieme di ipotesi che sostengono l'inesistenza storica del Gesù di Nazareth di tradizione cristiana e, in parte, musulmana. I sostenitori del mitismo affermano che Gesù sarebbe un personaggio fittizio, mitico o mitologico creato dalla comunità cristiana primitiva, e che quindi non sia mai esistito. Tale tesi di un'origine esclusivamente mitica di Gesù trae spunto soprattutto dal fatto che moltissimi fatti riguardanti la vita di Cristo sono frutto di una commistione di altri miti derivati da più antiche religioni e culti misterici (soprattutto la figura di Osiride-Dioniso e di suo figlio Horus, ma anche di Mitra, del Sol Invictus, di Esculapio etc.). La persona di Gesù, secondo questa visione tuttavia per gran parte estranea al dibattito scientifico e ai risultati ottenuti dal metodo storico-critico, sarebbe il risultato di un'elaborazione teologica posteriore, avente l'obiettivo di costruire un fondamento tangibile per assicurare la diffusione di una nuova religione. Premesso che, date le circostanze e a così grande distanza di tempo, non è possibile dimostrare con assoluta certezza né la fondatezza del personaggio storico di Gesù di Nazareth né la sua infondatezza, lo studio sulla sua figura può essere comunque condotto sulla base di attente ricostruzioni filologiche e storiografiche al fine di comprendere cosa sia storicamente fondato di quanto ci è stato tramandato e cosa non lo sia. I sostenitori della tesi mitista ricordano in particolare che Gesù (in aramaico: Yeshua) è un nome comune di persona, ed evidenziano come il materiale più importante a supporto dell'esistenza di Gesù provenga da fonti cristiane postume e non da fonti indipendenti o neutrali. Nei casi nei quali vi è traccia del personaggio in scritti di autori non cristiani, alcuni sospettano alterazioni o manomissioni ad opera dei copisti che hanno contribuito a tramandare i testi: è dibattuta, ad esempio, l'autenticità del Testimonium Flavianum. La tesi mitista non è oggi accolta nel mondo accademico, che non registra dibattiti riguardo all'esistenza storica di Gesù. Storici e biblisti hanno infatti oggi una accresciuta fiducia, grazie anche a scoperte archeologiche come la biblioteca di Nag Hammâdi, di poter ricostruire la vita di Gesù, nell'ambito di una ricerca dai tratti internazionali e interconfessionali. La tesi mitista è quindi rifiutata da quasi tutti gli studiosi moderni, che ricordano come la figura di Gesù sia molto meglio conosciuta e documentata di altre persone vissute nello stesso periodo e nella stessa area geografica. Tuttavia a oggi manca una qualsiasi fonte coeva, cioe databile nel periodo della vita di Gesu: i primi cristiani a raccontarlo infatti sono San Paolo (di Tarso) negli anni sessanta e San Marco nel secondo secolo. Une thèse mythiste est une théorie selon laquelle la personne de Jésus de Nazareth n'a pas de caractère historique : le personnage de Jésus serait une création mythique ou mythologique. Ces thèses sont nées à partir du XVIIIe siècle et du développement des méthodes historico-critiques dans l'étude des textes du Nouveau Testament. Elles tentent d'expliquer entre autres l'apparition du christianisme. Selon certaines de ces thèses, Jésus est un personnage légendaire, mythique, haussé à une dimension archétypale, et qui a la même (in)consistance que les personnages décrits par exemple dans Le Rameau d'or de James George Frazer. Les thèses les plus fréquentes le comparent à Mithra, Dionysos, Sol Invictus ou Esculape. Selon d'autres thèses, sa personnalité serait le fruit d'une élaboration théologique, ayant pris progressivement une dimension historique à partir du IIe siècle de l'ère chrétienne. Dans ce contexte, Jésus devient un personnage conceptuel, instrumentalisé par les premiers chrétiens. Ces thèses se développent selon deux axes complémentaires : * d'une part, aucun document probant et aucune preuve archéologique n'attesteraient de l’existence de Jésus de Nazareth : les textes chrétiens ne seraient pas dignes de foi, et les textes non chrétiens seraient d'authenticité douteuse ou pourraient être l’écho du discours chrétien ; * d'autre part, des indices peuvent amener à croire qu’il serait un personnage mythique ou fictif. La thèse de l'inexistence historique de Jésus, apparue à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, restée marginale au sein de la recherche historique académique, complètement rejetée par les spécialistes universitaires du christianisme ancien depuis la fin des années 1930, a néanmoins continué d’être reprise régulièrement par des auteurs en dehors du milieu académique, se diffusant notamment sur internet. Elle a été popularisée dans les médias au début des années 2000, aux États-Unis par Earl Doherty, et en France par Michel Onfray lequel a repris les thèses de Paul-Louis Couchoud et Prosper Alfaric. キリスト神話説(英語:Christ myth theory キリスト神話・イエス神話・キリスト非実在説とも)とは、イエス・キリストは、歴史上の人物としては実在せず、最初期キリスト教におけるイエスは後世になって実際のできごとと結びつけられた神話的な存在であるとする議論である。キリスト教の神話的起源を支持する人々は、福音書の原典は歴史上の(ひとり、もしくは複数の)伝道者からとられた可能性を認めてはいるが、その伝道者たちはどのような観点からも「キリスト教の創始者」とは認められないと主張している。彼らの主張はむしろ、キリスト教はヘレニズム・ユダヤ教(en:Hellenistic Judaism)から自然発生したものであり、書簡や福音書は大部分が歴史上にはなかった神話上のイエスを記録したものだ、というものである。この説の支持者は、文献の発展史の中からキリスト教教義の発展史を追った結果、最初期キリスト教に関して福音書よりも使徒書簡に焦点をあてている。 キリスト神話説、もしくはそれに類する観点から、イエスの物語と、クリシュナ・アドーニス・オシリス・ミトラ教・ユダヤ教(キリスト教成立以前)のイエス信仰などとの類似性が指摘されることもあり、著述家の中にはキリスト教の創始はイエスの生涯よりも早い時期を生きた歴史上の創設者によるものとしている者もいる。 キリスト神話説の先駆者は、1790年代のフランスの啓蒙主義思想家コンスタンタン=フランソワ・シャスブフ(ヴォルネとも、en:Constantin-François Chassebœuf)や、シャルル=フランソワ・デュピュイ(Charles François Dupuis)までさかのぼることができる。最初の学問上の提唱者は、19世紀の歴史家・神学者のブルーノ・バウアーである。アーサー・ドレフス(en:Arthur Drews)といったキリスト神話説の支持者は、20世紀前半の聖書研究に強い影響力をもっていた。アール・ドハティ、ロバート・M・プライス、ジョージ・アルバート・ウェルズといった著述家が、近年この理論を再復興させている。だが聖書研究者・歴史家の大部分はこの説に対して否定的である。 For discussion of Jesus in a comparative mythological and religious context, see Jesus in comparative mythology, and for the body of myths associated with Christianity, see Christian mythology. For the scholarly study of the life of Jesus, see Historical Jesus, for analysis of information supporting the historical existence of Jesus, see Historicity of Jesus and Sources for the historicity of Jesus, and for the debate over the validity of stories in the New Testament, see Historical reliability of the Gospels. The Christ myth theory (also known as the Jesus myth theory, Jesus mythicism, mythicism, or Jesus ahistoricity theory) is the hypothesis that Jesus of Nazareth never existed, or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity and the accounts in the gospels. The Christ myth theory contradicts the mainstream historical view, which is that while the gospels include many mythical or legendary elements, these are religious elaborations added to the biography of a historical figure. Variations of the Christ myth theory may be asserted by different proponents of the theory. Typically, one or more of the arguments used are derived from or directly taken from the threefold argument first developed by Bruno Bauer (1809–1882), who is credited as the first scholar to deny the existence of Jesus. According to Albert Kalthoff (1850–1906) a social movement produced Jesus when it encountered Jewish messianic expectations. Arthur Drews (1865–1935) saw Jesus as the concrete form of a myth that predated Christianity. Some of the arguments commonly used by Christ myth theory proponents are: * that the lack of eyewitness or contemporary accounts of Jesus makes the historical position untenable. * that the New Testament has no evidential value. * that no evidential conclusion is possible—for the existence of Jesus—that is also independent of the New Testament. * that the evidence is so weak that no one can really know one way or another whether Jesus existed. * that there is no attestation of a human Jesus on earth—in the earliest authentic New Testament writings—that places him in a time period contemporary to Paul. * that Christianity had pagan or mythical roots and that the Biblical Jesus was the product of a downward transformation—from a celestial deity—to a supernatural human on earth, who was then historicized. The Christ Myth Theory is a fringe theory, but is accepted by a small number of academics, some of whom—in terms given by Robert M. Price—hold the "Jesus agnosticism" viewpoint, while others go further and hold the "Jesus atheism" viewpoint. Some scholars have made the case that there are a number of plausible "Jesuses" that could have existed, that there can be no certainty as to which Jesus was the historical Jesus. or that Jesus had lived far earlier, in a dimly remembered remote past. Despite this there remains a strong consensus in historical-critical biblical scholarship that a historical Jesus did live in that area and in that time period. However, scholars differ on the historicity of specific episodes described in the Biblical accounts of Jesus. There are two events whose historicity receives "almost universal assent": that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. Мифологическая школа — теория происхождения христианства, направление в историографии христианства, а также в христологии — отрицает реальность Иисуса Христа как исторической личности и рассматривает его исключительно как факт мифологии. De Jezusmythe is een term waarmee theorieën worden aangeduid die betogen dat de persoon die het christendom (en in zekere zin ook de islam) Jezus noemt, niet echt bestaan heeft. (Mythe betekent in dit verband dat het verhaal van Jezus fictie is.) De theorie betoogt dat het levensverhaal van Jezus in de evangeliën mythologisch parallel loopt aan die van de mysteriecultussen, zoals het mithraïsme en verschillende mythes van Leven-Dood-Wedergeboorte godheden (buiten- en bovennatuurlijk). Dit kan erop duiden dat het Jezus-personage een euhemerisme is, of samengesteld uit verschillende gedeeltes van oude mythologie. Een alternatieve visie op de Jezusmythe houdt het ook voor mogelijk dat Jezus een fictioneel personage is, samengesteld uit personen die wel echt bestaan hebben. Geschiedkundige en theoloog Bruno Bauer stelde de theorie in de 19e eeuw als eerste voor. Bauer stelde dat Jezus in de tweede eeuw is ontstaan uit de samensmelting van joodse, Romeinse en Griekse religieuze opvattingen. Er zijn serieuze pogingen gedaan om een Jezusmythetheorie wetenschappelijk acceptabel te maken. Volgens prominent Jezusmythicus Richard Carrier is er "een handvol geleerden met kwalificaties binnen deze discipline" die menen dat Jezus niet bestaan heeft, maar de meeste geleerden (zoals Bart D. Ehrman) volgen "nog steeds de oude traditionele opvatting dat er een historische Jezus is geweest." Met name Robert M. Price en Richard Carrier verdedigen de opvatting dat Jezus nooit bestaan heeft. De redenering die onder andere Carrier verdedigt is deze: dat Paulus enkel schrijft over Jezus als over een spirituele of geestelijke persoon, zoals binnen de gnostiek; dat het in die tijd gebruikelijk was om in dergelijke spirituele verlossers te geloven; dat het Marcusevangelie deze spirituele verlosser een aards leven gaf, onder meer op basis van bestaande mythologische geschiedenissen; en dat het in die tijd niet ongewoon was om een dergelijke aardse biografie te schrijven over een fictief persoon. Over de betekenis van het fragment Jakobus, de broer van de Heer, uit de brief van Paulus, schrijft Carrier dat het onwaarschijnlijk is dat Paulus een biologische broer bedoelt, onder meer omdat uit het N.T. duidelijk blijkt dat broer van de Heer een gebruikelijke benaming was voor medechristenen. Over de suggestie dat de vroegste christenen geen vernederende kruisdood zouden hebben verzonnen voor hun messias, schrijft Carrier dat geloof in een gekruisigde martelaar (zoals ook Johannes de Doper) juist aantrekkingskracht had voor bepaalde bevolkingsgroepen, vooral als deze vervolgens door God werd opgewekt en verheerlijkt. Ook verdedigen Carrier en anderen dat er geen primaire bronnen bestaan die het bestaan van een historische Jezus ondersteunen, en überhaupt geen buiten-Bijbelse bronnen uit de eerste eeuw; het Testimonium Flavianum wordt door hen beschouwd als een latere toevoeging of vervalsing. Gezien de mate waarin bronnen uit die tijd bewaard zijn gebleven, is het volgens hen zeer aannemelijk dat dergelijke bronnen wel zouden bestaan als een historische Jezus daadwerkelijk had geleefd. De alternatieve hypothese dat Jezus niet echt heeft geleefd, maar is verzonnen, past volgens hen daarom beter bij de historische bronnen. A teoria do mito de Cristo (também conhecido como Jesus mítico ou a hipótese da inexistência de Jesus) é a ideia de que Jesus de Nazaré não era uma pessoa histórica, mas sim um personagem fictício ou mitológico criado pela comunidade cristã primitiva . Alguns proponentes alegam que os eventos ou frases associados com a figura de Jesus no Novo Testamento podem ter sido elaborado a partir de uma ou mais pessoas que realmente existiram, mas que nenhum deles era em nenhum sentido o fundador do cristianismo. Praticamente todos os estudiosos envolvidos com a pesquisa do Jesus histórico acreditam que sua existência pode ser estabelecida usando documentos e outras evidências, embora a maioria sustenta que muito do material sobre ele no Novo Testamento não deve ser tomado ao pé da letra. A história da teoria do mito de Cristo pode ser atribuída aos pensadores do Iluminismo francês Constantin-François Volney e Charles François Dupuis na década de 1790. Proponentes notáveis ​​incluem Bruno Bauer e Arthur Drews, no século XX, e mais recentemente GA Wells, Alvar Ellegård e Robert M. Price. A ideia veio à atenção do público moderno através do trabalho de autores como Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens e o filósofo francês Michel Onfray. Argumentos utilizados para apoiar a teoria enfatizam a ausência de referências existentes sobre a vida de Jesus e da escassez de referências não cristãs no século I. Alguns proponentes alegam que o Cristianismo surgiu organicamente do Judaísmo helenístico e baseia-se em paralelos do Jesus histórico e dos deuses gregos, egípcios entre outros, especialmente aqueles que possuem mitos sobre a morte e ressurreição.
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Christ myth theory
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The Resurrection of Christ by Noel Coypel —Some myth theorists see this as a case of a dying-and-rising god.
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Key texts Modern proponents Subjects Early proponents Description
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