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通奸 Adultério Cudzołóstwo 姦通罪 Ehebruch Adultery خيانة زوجية Adulterio Adulterio Adultère Echtbreuk Супружеская измена
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Adultery (anglicised from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral or legal grounds. Though what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social, religious and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Islam, Christianity and Judaism. A single act of sexual intercourse is generally sufficient to constitute adultery, and a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair. Adultério (do Latim adulterǐum) é a prática da infidelidade conjugal. Com o tempo, o termo estendeu-se ao sentido de fraudar ou falsificar, adjeta ao verbo "adulterar". 姦通罪(かんつうざい、英: adultery, criminal conversation)とは、婚姻して配偶者のある者が、他の者と姦通することにより成立する犯罪。 L'adultère est « le fait pour un époux de violer son serment de fidélité, de partage, et d'avoir des relations sexuelles avec une personne autre que son conjoint envers qui il a affirmé ce serment ». Aussi appeler infidélités ou tromperie * L'homme avec qui une personne, qui n'est pas son conjoint, a des relations sexuelles est appelé amant. * La femme avec qui une personne, qui n'est pas son conjoint, a des relations sexuelles est appelée maîtresse ou amante. Le recours à la prostitution par un des époux est aussi vu comme une violation du devoir de fidélité.[réf. nécessaire] 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (مارس 2016) الخيانة الزوجية أو زنا المحصن هي الفعل الذي يحدث عندما يُقبل عضو واحد من الإتحاد الزوجي (مؤسسة زوجية) على الجماع الجنسي مع شخص آخر بصرف النظر عن الاتحاد (زنا المحصن). في بعض الثقافات هذا التصرف يجوز النظر فيه اخلاقيا فقط إذا كان الزوج موافقا، وقد يكون مقبولا طالما ان الشركاء الجنسيين ليسوا في اطار مؤسسة زوجية، في حين ان بعض الثقافات الأخرى تنظر لهذه العلاقة ليست في إطار الزوجية على انها جريمة، دون الدخول في تفاصيل الخيانة في مثل هذه العلاقة. Ehebruch ist nach rechtlicher Definition „der zumindest bedingt vorsätzliche Vollzug des Beischlafs eines Ehegatten mit einer dritten Person anderen Geschlechts“. Vor allem in Gesellschaften mit patrilinearen Gesellschaftsordnungen wird Ehebruch der Frau streng bestraft. In matrilinearen Gesellschaften hingegen, in denen der biologischen Vaterschaft keine große Bedeutung beigemessen wird, gilt der Ehebruch meist als minder schweres Delikt. Супру́жеская изме́на, прелюбодея́ние, адюльте́р (фр. adultère, лат. adulter — распутный) — добровольный половой акт между лицом, состоящим в браке, и лицом, не являющимся его или её супругой или супругом. Несмотря на то, что в различных правовых системах определения адюльтера, то есть супружеской измены, различаются, общим для всех является факт сексуальной близости состоящего в браке лица со сторонним по отношению к браку лицом. L'adulterio (dal latino adulterare, corrompere) è una relazione sentimentale o sessuale fra due persone delle quali almeno una già coniugata con un'altra persona, consistendo quindi in una violazione della fedeltà coniugale. L'etimologia è palese, il nesso è combattuto tra due tesi, di cui la prima sembra più accreditata:1) Ad alterum = andare verso un altro, verso qualcosa/qualcuno di diverso dal legittimo coniuge;2) Ad alterum = cambiare, adulterarsi, diventare diversi, come a dire che dopo l'adulterio non si è più come prima.Quindi secondo l'etimologia anche andare con prostitute sarebbe da considerarsi adulterio, mentre in passi biblici (Levitico 18:20) l'adulterio con schiave e in generale donne non libere, non comprendeva la pena di morte, ma solo una forte espiazione di peccati. E p Bij een huwelijk is echtbreuk of overspel de schending van de huwelijkstrouw. Het is een begrip dat gebruikt wordt in de burgerlijke wetgeving, de jurisprudentie en in de huwelijksmoraal. Cudzołóstwo – termin religijny oznaczający zdradę małżeńską, za którą uważany jest stosunek płciowy z cudzą żoną lub z cudzym mężem. Niekiedy definicja jest formułowana ogólniej – jako stosunek płciowy pomiędzy jednym z małżonków, a kimkolwiek oprócz własnego męża lub żony. Pojęcie cudzołóstwa w myśli katolickiej (jak i żydowskiej i innych religii) odnosi się do wszelkich kontaktów seksualnych pozamałżeńskich. 通姦,一般泛指有配偶者与第三者出于自愿发生性关系的行为,是一個法律和道德性質的名稱,英文稱為Adultery,是源自拉丁文的adulterium,有損壞名譽之意。其中有配偶者与他人同居,或者明知道他人有配偶,仍然与其同居的行为就是属于通奸。部份古代社會及伊斯蘭國家等,将两人都是未婚或喪偶、離婚者而自愿发生性关系及婚前性行為都归类为通奸。 在有些地區,例如中華民國,通姦可能被歸屬於犯法行為,是會受到刑事法律制裁。 El adulterio (del latín adulterium) se refiere a la unión sexual de dos personas cuando uno o ambos están casados con otra persona. A través de los siglos, en diversas culturas, el adulterio ha sido moralmente censurado y hasta penado, considerándoselo un delito, pero esto no ha impedido que muchas personas lo practiquen.
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Adultery (anglicised from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral or legal grounds. Though what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social, religious and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Islam, Christianity and Judaism. A single act of sexual intercourse is generally sufficient to constitute adultery, and a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair. Historically, many cultures have considered adultery as a very serious crime. Adultery often incurred severe punishment, usually for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, mutilation or torture. Such punishments have gradually fallen into disfavor, especially in Western countries from the 19th century. In most Western countries, adultery itself is no longer a criminal offense, but may still have legal consequences, particularly in divorce cases. For example, in fault-based family law jurisdictions, adultery almost always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc. Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions which have adopted a no-fault divorce model. In some societies and among certain religious adherents, adultery may affect the social status of those involved, and may result in social ostracism. In countries where adultery is a criminal offense, punishments range from fines to caning and even capital punishment. Since the 20th century, criminal laws against adultery have become controversial, with international organizations calling for their abolition, especially in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries. The head of the United Nations expert body charged with identifying ways to eliminate laws that discriminate against women or are discriminatory to them in terms of implementation or impact, Kamala Chandrakirana, has stated that: "Adultery must not be classified as a criminal offence at all". A joint statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice states that: "Adultery as a criminal offence violates women’s human rights". In Muslim countries that follow sharia law, the punishment for adultery may be stoning. There are 15 countries where stoning is authorized as lawful punishment; however instances have occurred outside the legal system (extrajudicially). Most countries that criminalize adultery are those where the dominant religion is Islam, and several Sub-Saharan African Christian-majority countries, but there are some notable exceptions to this rule, namely Philippines, Taiwan, and several US states. In some jurisdictions, having sexual relations with the king's wife or the wife of his eldest son constitutes treason. By analogy, in cultures which value and normally practice exclusive interpersonal relationships, sexual relations with a person outside the relationship may also be described as infidelity or cheating, and is subject to sanction. Cudzołóstwo – termin religijny oznaczający zdradę małżeńską, za którą uważany jest stosunek płciowy z cudzą żoną lub z cudzym mężem. Niekiedy definicja jest formułowana ogólniej – jako stosunek płciowy pomiędzy jednym z małżonków, a kimkolwiek oprócz własnego męża lub żony. Cudzołóstwo potępiane jest przez niektóre religie. W kościele rzymskokatolickim uznawane jest za jeden z grzechów ciężkich. Cudzołóstwa zakazuje przykazanie Dekalogu (Wj 20,14; Pwt 5,18) – siódme według podziału żydowskiego i m.in. prawosławnego, a szóste według podziału katolickiego i luterańskiego. Biblia nazywa cudzołóstwem bałwochwalstwo („duchowe cudzołóstwo"). Pojęcie cudzołóstwa w myśli katolickiej (jak i żydowskiej i innych religii) odnosi się do wszelkich kontaktów seksualnych pozamałżeńskich. Również w islamie cudzołóstwo (زناء zina) jest uznane za ciężki grzech jako złamanie kontraktu małżeńskiego i jest karane ukamienowaniem lub chłostą, jeśli znajdzie się czterech dorosłych świadków tego czynu. L'adulterio (dal latino adulterare, corrompere) è una relazione sentimentale o sessuale fra due persone delle quali almeno una già coniugata con un'altra persona, consistendo quindi in una violazione della fedeltà coniugale. L'etimologia è palese, il nesso è combattuto tra due tesi, di cui la prima sembra più accreditata:1) Ad alterum = andare verso un altro, verso qualcosa/qualcuno di diverso dal legittimo coniuge;2) Ad alterum = cambiare, adulterarsi, diventare diversi, come a dire che dopo l'adulterio non si è più come prima.Quindi secondo l'etimologia anche andare con prostitute sarebbe da considerarsi adulterio, mentre in passi biblici (Levitico 18:20) l'adulterio con schiave e in generale donne non libere, non comprendeva la pena di morte, ma solo una forte espiazione di peccati. E per fornicazione s'intendeva proprio evitare il concubinato, e vari tipi di relazione tra cui l'abbandonare il proprio marito per un soldato romano ricco ad esempio (cosa diffusa al tempo dei giudei), gli incesti e cose simili. Secondo la guida Scopri se lui ti tradisce e con chi di Elizabeth Wilson, l'adulterio non è altro che la diretta conseguenza di una naturale programmazione biologica volta a garantire la sopravvivenza della specie. El adulterio (del latín adulterium) se refiere a la unión sexual de dos personas cuando uno o ambos están casados con otra persona. A través de los siglos, en diversas culturas, el adulterio ha sido moralmente censurado y hasta penado, considerándoselo un delito, pero esto no ha impedido que muchas personas lo practiquen. L'adultère est « le fait pour un époux de violer son serment de fidélité, de partage, et d'avoir des relations sexuelles avec une personne autre que son conjoint envers qui il a affirmé ce serment ». Aussi appeler infidélités ou tromperie * L'homme avec qui une personne, qui n'est pas son conjoint, a des relations sexuelles est appelé amant. * La femme avec qui une personne, qui n'est pas son conjoint, a des relations sexuelles est appelée maîtresse ou amante. Dans certains textes, le mot adultère désigne n'importe quelle relation sexuelle hors mariage (donc par exemple entre célibataires), cependant, en français, le terme consacré pour ceci fut fréquemment fornication (mot largement tombé en désuétude de nos jours). La confusion est d'autant plus fréquente que dans les pays islamiques qui ont hérité de culture anglo-saxonne (Koweït, Arabie saoudite), les textes locaux en anglais utilisent le mot adultery pour désigner à la fois adultère et fornication, et le terme français adultère est repris, par proximité, dans les textes français. Cela ne constitue pas un anglicisme mais un retour de l'usage ancien par l'influence de l'anglais. Il est difficile d'avoir des statistiques précises sur le pourcentage d'hommes et de femmes adultères. En effet, lors des sondages, les hommes ont tendance à exagérer et les femmes à minimiser le nombre de leurs relations adultérines. Gérard Mermet indique que, en France, en moyenne, les hommes revendiquent 11,3 partenaires dans leur vie, et pour les femmes 3,4, mais ceci peut prendre en compte les liaisons avant mariage et ne rend donc pas compte strictement de la violation du serment conjugal. Un sondage réalisé en 2005 établissait que 39 % des hommes et 25 % des femmes avaient trompé leur partenaire. Le célèbre rapport Hite indique qu'aux États-Unis, 70 % des femmes ayant plus de cinq ans de mariage déclarent avoir été infidèles au moins une fois. Ce chiffre est de 92 % pour les hommes. Selon des études sur les groupes sanguins, confirmées par des tests de paternité résultant de l'étude de l'ADN, on estime qu'environ 4 % des enfants ne sont pas ceux du père de famille. Évelyne Sullerot donne une estimation qui se monte au double. L'adultère, en tant que violation du devoir de fidélité entre époux, a été et reste considéré, dans de nombreuses civilisations, comme répréhensible. Le recours à la prostitution par un des époux est aussi vu comme une violation du devoir de fidélité.[réf. nécessaire] Ehebruch ist nach rechtlicher Definition „der zumindest bedingt vorsätzliche Vollzug des Beischlafs eines Ehegatten mit einer dritten Person anderen Geschlechts“. Vor allem in Gesellschaften mit patrilinearen Gesellschaftsordnungen wird Ehebruch der Frau streng bestraft. In matrilinearen Gesellschaften hingegen, in denen der biologischen Vaterschaft keine große Bedeutung beigemessen wird, gilt der Ehebruch meist als minder schweres Delikt. In derselben Gesellschaft können unterschiedliche, teilweise sogar sich gegenseitig ausschließende Konzepte des Ehebruchs vorkommen. Trotz mitunter sehr schwerer Strafen kommt Ehebruch in allen von Anthropologen untersuchten Gesellschaften vor. Gegen Ehebruch zu sein, lässt nicht auf ein Bekenntnis zur Monogamie und gegen Polygamie schließen. Bij een huwelijk is echtbreuk of overspel de schending van de huwelijkstrouw. Het is een begrip dat gebruikt wordt in de burgerlijke wetgeving, de jurisprudentie en in de huwelijksmoraal. Супру́жеская изме́на, прелюбодея́ние, адюльте́р (фр. adultère, лат. adulter — распутный) — добровольный половой акт между лицом, состоящим в браке, и лицом, не являющимся его или её супругой или супругом. Несмотря на то, что в различных правовых системах определения адюльтера, то есть супружеской измены, различаются, общим для всех является факт сексуальной близости состоящего в браке лица со сторонним по отношению к браку лицом. 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (مارس 2016) الخيانة الزوجية أو زنا المحصن هي الفعل الذي يحدث عندما يُقبل عضو واحد من الإتحاد الزوجي (مؤسسة زوجية) على الجماع الجنسي مع شخص آخر بصرف النظر عن الاتحاد (زنا المحصن). في بعض الثقافات هذا التصرف يجوز النظر فيه اخلاقيا فقط إذا كان الزوج موافقا، وقد يكون مقبولا طالما ان الشركاء الجنسيين ليسوا في اطار مؤسسة زوجية، في حين ان بعض الثقافات الأخرى تنظر لهذه العلاقة ليست في إطار الزوجية على انها جريمة، دون الدخول في تفاصيل الخيانة في مثل هذه العلاقة. وعلاوة على ذلك، فان مؤسسة الزواج تُسلط الضوء على مسألة العلاقات الجنسية قبل الزواج، حيث ان بعض الشباب/الشابات يُمارسونه مع الأشخاص، الذين قد يختارون في مرحلة ما من حياتهم الزواج بهم، والانخراط في نشاط جنسي مع شركاء جنسيين، قد تربطهم بهم علاقة زوجية في المستقبل أو لا. وقد تُعتبر في بعض الثقافات على انه خيانة قبل الزواج (زنا غير المحصن). للعديد من الثقافات الحديثة اليوم مواقف مختلفة حول اخلاقيات هذه التصرفات، فمنهم من يُدينها والبعض الآخر يتفهّم مشاركة الشباب في مثل هذه التصرفات. 姦通罪(かんつうざい、英: adultery, criminal conversation)とは、婚姻して配偶者のある者が、他の者と姦通することにより成立する犯罪。 Adultério (do Latim adulterǐum) é a prática da infidelidade conjugal. Com o tempo, o termo estendeu-se ao sentido de fraudar ou falsificar, adjeta ao verbo "adulterar". 通姦,一般泛指有配偶者与第三者出于自愿发生性关系的行为,是一個法律和道德性質的名稱,英文稱為Adultery,是源自拉丁文的adulterium,有損壞名譽之意。其中有配偶者与他人同居,或者明知道他人有配偶,仍然与其同居的行为就是属于通奸。部份古代社會及伊斯蘭國家等,将两人都是未婚或喪偶、離婚者而自愿发生性关系及婚前性行為都归类为通奸。 在有些地區,例如中華民國,通姦可能被歸屬於犯法行為,是會受到刑事法律制裁。
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