The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from immigrating to Australia. There was never any specific policy titled such, but the term was invented later to describe a collection of policies that were designed to exclude people from Asia (particularly China) and the Pacific Islands (particularly Melanesia). These policies had their inception in the goldfields where there was antagonism to Chinese miners who worked co-operatively and were perceived to be doing better than their white counterparts. From the 1850s there were restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners already in Australia. The colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Tow

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  • The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from immigrating to Australia. There was never any specific policy titled such, but the term was invented later to describe a collection of policies that were designed to exclude people from Asia (particularly China) and the Pacific Islands (particularly Melanesia). These policies had their inception in the goldfields where there was antagonism to Chinese miners who worked co-operatively and were perceived to be doing better than their white counterparts. From the 1850s there were restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners already in Australia. The colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Towards the end of the nineteenth century there was also a push by the labour unions to stop work done by Chinese immigrants in the furniture and market garden industries. Australian furniture had to be labelled "Made with Chinese Labour". The formal White Australia policy officially came soon after the Federation of Australia with the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. The policy was progressively dismantled between 1949 and 1973. Competition in the goldfields between British and Chinese miners, and labour union opposition to the importation of Pacific Islanders into the sugar plantations of Queensland, reinforced the demand to eliminate or minimize low wage immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Soon after Australia became a federation it passed the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901. The passage of this bill is considered the commencement of the White Australia Policy as Australian government policy. Subsequent acts further strengthened the policy up to the start of the Second World War. These policies effectively allowed for British migrants to be preferred over all others through the first four decades of the 20th century. During the Second World War, Prime Minister John Curtin reinforced the policy, saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race." The policy was dismantled in stages by successive governments after the conclusion of the Second World War, with the encouragement of first non-British, non-white immigration, allowing for a large multi-ethnic post-war program of immigration. The Menzies and Holt Governments effectively dismantled the policies between 1949 and 1966 and the Whitlam Government passed laws to ensure that race would be totally disregarded as a component for immigration to Australia in 1973. In 1975 the Whitlam Government passed the Racial Discrimination Act, which made racially based selection criteria unlawful. In the decades since, Australia has maintained largescale multi-ethnic immigration. Australia's current Migration Program allows people from any country to apply to migrate to Australia, regardless of their nationality, ethnicity, culture, religion, or language, provided that they meet the criteria set out in law. (en)
  • Australia blanca (o política blanca australiana) fue el nombre dado a la política oficial de los gobiernos y los principales partidos políticos en Australia basada en la exclusión de la migración de personas «no blancas» hacia la isla-continente y estipulada en el Acta de Restricciones de Inmigración de 1901. Varios aspectos oficiales de esta política fueron efectivos desde la década de 1880 hasta la de 1950, y algunos aspectos todavía permanecían en la ley australiana en los años 70. Aunque la expresión «Política de la Australia Blanca» nunca tuvo un uso oficial, fue común en el debate público durante este periodo. (es)
  • Le terme Australie blanche (White Australia Policy) désigne une politique migratoire ayant eu court en Australie de 1861 à 1973, qui privilégiait l'immigration européenne blanche au détriment de celles issues des autres continents, en particulier d'Asie de l'Est. (fr)
  • Als White Australia Policy oder White Australia (Politik des Weißen Australien oder Weißes Australien) wird eine australische Politik bezeichnet, die zum Ziel hatte, die Einwanderung von Nicht-Weißen nach Australien zu verhindern. Diese Politik wurde von 1901 bis ins Jahr 1973 in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß auf unterschiedliche ethnische Gruppen mehr als 70 Jahre lang auf gesetzlicher Grundlage betrieben. Die White Australia Policy lässt sich in drei Phasen einteilen: Der Anfang dieser Politik liegt im Jahre 1851, als sich durch die australischen Goldfunde ein erheblicher Bevölkerungszuwachs unter Einbezug von Chinesen entwickelte und durch den Sezessionskrieg in Amerika die dortige Baumwolle- und Zuckerrohrindustrie zusammenbrach, während diejenige in Queensland mit einem erheblichen Arbeitskräftebedarf aufblühte. Dieser Bedarf wurde durch Arbeitsrekrutierung von 62.000 Insulanern aus Melanesien gedeckt. Beide Entwicklungen beförderten Tendenzen einer rassistischen Politik, die sich verfestigte und ihren juristischen Abschluss in einem Gesetz Pacific Island Labourers Act von 1901 fand und zur bundesstaatlichen White Policy wurde. Nach 1901 bis zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs wurde die White Australia Policy fortgesetzt und mit unterschiedlichem Ziel und Umfang betrieben. Nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs setzte ein Umdenken ein, das vermutlich durch die Kriegserfahrungen und auch teilweise Beteiligung von Nicht-Europäern und nichteuropäischen Australiern im Krieg verursacht wurde. Die White Australia Policy wurde nach und nach aufgelöst und juristisch mit dem Racial Discrimination Act 1973 beendet. (de)
  • 白豪主義(または白濠主義、はくごうしゅぎ、英: White Australia policy)とは、オーストラリアにおける白人最優先主義とそれに基づく非白人への排除政策である。狭義では1901年の移住制限法制定から1973年移民法までの政策方針を指す。広義では、先住民族アボリジニやタスマニア州のオーストラロイド系住民やカナカ人などのメラネシア系先住民への迫害や隔離など、オーストラリアにおける人種差別主義の歴史全般を指す。 (ja)
  • La politica dell'Australia bianca o White Australia Policy fu un movimento politico isolazionista e di corrente xenofoba attivo in Australia dal 1901 al 1973, volto a limitare o bloccare totalmente i flussi immigratori dall'estero che incutevano timore di sovraimmigrazione tra i pionieri. È storicamente riconosciuto che l'ideatore e artefice di questo movimento fu Alfred Deakin, convinto che cinesi e giapponesi costituivano una seria minaccia al progresso del popolo bianco australiano, soprattutto per le proprie caratteristiche di instancabili lavoratori e la loro resistenza allo scarso tenore di vita. Prima dell'avvento dell'Australia bianca vi è stata una legislazione anti-immigrazione emanata dalle singole federazioni, conseguente al fenomeno dei primi anni 1850, durante il pieno svolgimento della corsa all'oro, quando immigrati cinesi venivano in migliaia nell'isola alla ricerca di lavoro come minatori e operai minacciando di superare la maggioranza democratica sui bianchi. (it)
  • A política da Austrália Branca abrange várias políticas históricas que intencionalmente restringiam a imigração de pessoas "não-brancas" para a Austrália entre 1901 e 1973. A concorrência nas minas de ouro, disputas trabalhistas e o nacionalismo australiano criou um ambiente de antagonismo racial durante a segunda metade do século XIX que levou à aprovação do Immigration Restriction Act (em português: Lei de Restrição à Imigração), em 1901, um das primeiras leis do novo Parlamento nacional, depois da federação. A aprovação desta lei é considerado o início da política da Austrália Branca como política do governo australiano. As leis subsequentes reforçaram a política até o início da Segunda Guerra Mundial. A política foi desmantelada em estágios pelos sucessivos governos após o término da Segunda Guerra Mundial, com o incentivo das primeiras imigrações não-britânicas e, posteriormente, à imigração não-branca. A partir de 1973, a política da Austrália Branca foi em todos os efeitos práticos extinta, e em 1975 o governo australiano aprovou a Lei de Discriminação Racial, o que tornou os critérios baseados em seleção racial ilegais. (pt)
  • 白澳政策(英语:White Australia Policy)是澳大利亚联邦反亚洲移民的种族主义政策的通称。1901年,白澳政策正式确立为基本国策,只许白人移民流入。在此政策下,部分华人忍受不了欺压,被迫离开澳大利亚。1972年,澳大利亚工党政府取消了白澳政策。 (zh)
  • Белая Австралия (англ. White Australia Policy) — целенаправленная политика правительств Австралии и её метрополии — Великобритании, которая преднамеренно ограничивала так называемую «цветную» иммиграцию в Австралию. Представляла собой комплекс законов и мер, действовавших с 1901 до 1973. (ru)
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  • Australia blanca (o política blanca australiana) fue el nombre dado a la política oficial de los gobiernos y los principales partidos políticos en Australia basada en la exclusión de la migración de personas «no blancas» hacia la isla-continente y estipulada en el Acta de Restricciones de Inmigración de 1901. Varios aspectos oficiales de esta política fueron efectivos desde la década de 1880 hasta la de 1950, y algunos aspectos todavía permanecían en la ley australiana en los años 70. Aunque la expresión «Política de la Australia Blanca» nunca tuvo un uso oficial, fue común en el debate público durante este periodo. (es)
  • Le terme Australie blanche (White Australia Policy) désigne une politique migratoire ayant eu court en Australie de 1861 à 1973, qui privilégiait l'immigration européenne blanche au détriment de celles issues des autres continents, en particulier d'Asie de l'Est. (fr)
  • 白豪主義(または白濠主義、はくごうしゅぎ、英: White Australia policy)とは、オーストラリアにおける白人最優先主義とそれに基づく非白人への排除政策である。狭義では1901年の移住制限法制定から1973年移民法までの政策方針を指す。広義では、先住民族アボリジニやタスマニア州のオーストラロイド系住民やカナカ人などのメラネシア系先住民への迫害や隔離など、オーストラリアにおける人種差別主義の歴史全般を指す。 (ja)
  • 白澳政策(英语:White Australia Policy)是澳大利亚联邦反亚洲移民的种族主义政策的通称。1901年,白澳政策正式确立为基本国策,只许白人移民流入。在此政策下,部分华人忍受不了欺压,被迫离开澳大利亚。1972年,澳大利亚工党政府取消了白澳政策。 (zh)
  • Белая Австралия (англ. White Australia Policy) — целенаправленная политика правительств Австралии и её метрополии — Великобритании, которая преднамеренно ограничивала так называемую «цветную» иммиграцию в Австралию. Представляла собой комплекс законов и мер, действовавших с 1901 до 1973. (ru)
  • The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from immigrating to Australia. There was never any specific policy titled such, but the term was invented later to describe a collection of policies that were designed to exclude people from Asia (particularly China) and the Pacific Islands (particularly Melanesia). These policies had their inception in the goldfields where there was antagonism to Chinese miners who worked co-operatively and were perceived to be doing better than their white counterparts. From the 1850s there were restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners already in Australia. The colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Tow (en)
  • Als White Australia Policy oder White Australia (Politik des Weißen Australien oder Weißes Australien) wird eine australische Politik bezeichnet, die zum Ziel hatte, die Einwanderung von Nicht-Weißen nach Australien zu verhindern. Diese Politik wurde von 1901 bis ins Jahr 1973 in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß auf unterschiedliche ethnische Gruppen mehr als 70 Jahre lang auf gesetzlicher Grundlage betrieben. Nach 1901 bis zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs wurde die White Australia Policy fortgesetzt und mit unterschiedlichem Ziel und Umfang betrieben. (de)
  • La politica dell'Australia bianca o White Australia Policy fu un movimento politico isolazionista e di corrente xenofoba attivo in Australia dal 1901 al 1973, volto a limitare o bloccare totalmente i flussi immigratori dall'estero che incutevano timore di sovraimmigrazione tra i pionieri. (it)
  • A política da Austrália Branca abrange várias políticas históricas que intencionalmente restringiam a imigração de pessoas "não-brancas" para a Austrália entre 1901 e 1973. A concorrência nas minas de ouro, disputas trabalhistas e o nacionalismo australiano criou um ambiente de antagonismo racial durante a segunda metade do século XIX que levou à aprovação do Immigration Restriction Act (em português: Lei de Restrição à Imigração), em 1901, um das primeiras leis do novo Parlamento nacional, depois da federação. A aprovação desta lei é considerado o início da política da Austrália Branca como política do governo australiano. As leis subsequentes reforçaram a política até o início da Segunda Guerra Mundial. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • White Australia policy (en)
  • White Australia Policy (de)
  • Australia blanca (es)
  • Australie blanche (fr)
  • Politica dell'Australia bianca (it)
  • 白豪主義 (ja)
  • Austrália Branca (pt)
  • Белая Австралия (ru)
  • 白澳政策 (zh)
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