Werner Hegemann (June 15, 1881, Mannheim – April 12, 1936, New York City) was an internationally known German city planner, architecture critic, and author. His criticism of Hitler and the Nazi party required him to leave Germany with his family in 1933. He died prematurely in New York City in 1936.

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  • Werner Hegemann (June 15, 1881, Mannheim – April 12, 1936, New York City) was an internationally known German city planner, architecture critic, and author. His criticism of Hitler and the Nazi party required him to leave Germany with his family in 1933. He died prematurely in New York City in 1936. Hegemann was the son of Ottmar Hegemann (1839-1900), a manufacturer in Mannheim, and Elise Caroline Friedrich Vorster (1846-1911), daughter of Julius Vorster, a founder of Chemische Fabrik Kalk in Cologne. He graduated from Gymnasium Schloss Plön in 1901. Hegemann began college studies in Berlin, studied art history and economics in Paris, economics at the University of Pennsylvania and in Strasbourg, and completed his doctorate in Munich in 1908. In a 1909 trip to the US, he visited Philadelphia and New York and worked for the "Boston 1915" Exposition, held in Boston in 1909. Back in Berlin the following year Hegemann was made General Secretary of the first international city planning exhibition to be held in Berlin, in 1910. The exhibition aroused great interest and was reprised in refocused form in Düsseldorf; Hegemann wrote an article about it for a general audience and a two-volume official book. In 1913 he accepted an invitation from the People's Institute in New York to give lectures on city planning in over 20 American cities. At the end of his cross country speaking tour, Hegemann published extensive reports on the Californian cities of Oakland and Berkeley. In early 1914 he embarked by ship on a return voyage to Germany via the Pacific, in order to visit the Far East. In July, 1914, he boarded a German flagged ship in Australia for the final leg of the journey home. Off the coast of Africa that August, World War I broke out and Hegemann's ship dodged English warships for several weeks before being sequestered for months off the coast of Mozambique. In April, 1915, he stowed-away on a Norwegian vessel bound for the United States, where he spent the duration of the war. In 1916 Hegemann established a firm specializing in city and suburban planning based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with landscape architect Elbert Peets. In 1918, visiting a friend at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Hegemann met his future wife, Ida Belle Guthe. In 1922 Hegemann and Peets together published "The American Vitruvius: An Architects' Handbook of Civic Art," a "thesaurus" of civic art for architects, commenting on about 1200 examples of the discipline. Returning to Europe with his new bride in 1921, in 1922 Hegemann built a home in Nikolassee, outside of Berlin. He became editor of Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst, published by Ernst Wasmuth Verlagknown, known for its international coverage of architecture and Hegemann's incisive critiques. He wrote several historical books debunking German heroes and, in 1930, the work for which he is best remembered, Das steinerne Berlin: Geschichte der grössten Mietkasernenstadt der Welt (Stony Berlin: History of the Largest Tenement City in the World), which combines historical and architectural criticism. In the introduction he wrote, "It is a German illusion to believe in the possibility of creating an intellectual capital as long as the so-called educated people are almost proud of their inadequate understanding of urban planning." He also wrote political articles and warned against the Nazis, culminating in the book Entlarvte Geschichte (History Unmasked – 1933). Hegemann fled Germany in February, 1933, upon publication of the latter book (dedicated sarcastically to Adolph Hitler). In May, 1933, he was denounced by the Nazis as an "Historical Forger," and his books were burned in the Nazi book burnings. After several months in Switzerland and France, Hegemann was invited by Alvin Johnson to teach urban planning at The New School for Social Research in New York beginning in November 1933. That October Hegemann left Europe for the United States with his family. He was one of many intellectuals essentially exiled by Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Upon arriving in New York City on November 4, 1933, Hegemann opined that the German people would not tolerate Hitler for more than two more years in power. He began lecturing at the New School and organizing assistance for intellectuals and scholars detained by the Nazis in Germany. In 1935 he was also retained as a lecturer at Columbia University.[ Also in 1935 the Nazis seized Hegemann's house in Nikolassee. In early 1936 he became ill, first diagnosed with Sciatica, and then hospitalized with apparent pneumonia; While bed-ridden in New York City he worked on his last book, the three-volume City Planning, Housing, intended to supplement and update The American Vitruvius, eventually completed by two co-editors, the last volume appearing in 1938. Hegemann died on April 12, 1936, at age 55 in New York City. The treating doctor opined that the cause of death was Tuberculosis Meningitis. Hegemann's travel between Europe and the United States, along with his strong education and broad interests, made him an intermediary between architects and city planners throughout Europe and on both sides of the Atlantic. In particular, his The American Vitruvius refers extensively to European design, taking many examples from his book on the Berlin 1910 exhibition, while in Amerikanische Architektur und Stadtbaukunst he informs German architects of American solutions. However, his emphasis on urban planning rather than purely formal considerations and possibly his having not been present during the development of the Modern Movement in architecture in Europe put him at odds with modernists. For example, in 1929 he was forced to retract an accusation that Martin Wagner's primary activity as chief of city planning for Berlin was funnelling architectural commissions to extremist friends, and he labeled Le Corbusier's Ville Contemporaine project for transforming Paris "only vieux jeu" (old hat) and sarcastically predicted that it was likely to be realized, [not] because [the skyscrapers] are desirable, healthy, beautiful, and reasonable from the perspective of urban planning but because they are theatrical, romantic, unreasonable, and generally harmful, and because it is part of the money-making activities of a metropolis, in what is literally the world's most international city, Paris, to serve the need for sensation and the vices of native and imported fools. (en)
  • Werner Hegemann (* 15. Juni 1881 in Mannheim; † 12. April 1936 in New York, NY) war ein Stadtplaner, Architekturkritiker und politischer Schriftsteller. Hegemann war als Stadtplaner eine international bekannte Figur, eine zeitgenössische Größe als Architekturkritiker und gehörte als Schriftsteller zum Kreis der Linksliberalen, die die Weimarer Republik zu stärken suchten. (de)
  • ヴェルナー・ヘーゲマン(Werner Hegemann, 1881年6月15日 - 1936年4月12日)はドイツ・マンハイム出身の都市計画家。 1901年、ベルリン大学で哲学と歴史学を専攻後、1903年パリへ渡り経済学を修める。住宅問題に関心をもち、1904年住宅調査官としてアメリカ合衆国へ、翌年から1906年まではフランスで国際経済学を学ぶ。1907年、ベルリンに戻り大学で都市計画を研究し始める。1908年、ミュンヘン大学で博士号を取得した後、1909年に再渡米、「ボストン1915」という都市計画展の責任者に抜擢され。この会で大ボストン計画を発表。都市環境の改善や産業発展を試みる提案で、展示には約20万人ほどが来場し、成功をおさめた。 その後叔父によってドイツに呼び戻され、ボストンでの都市計画展を成功させたことから、政府主導による「Greater Berlin」計画(1910年)に際して主催者側よりベルリン都市計画展の統括者に推薦された。 1910年、29歳でベルリン都市計画展の統括者に抜擢され、1910年ベルリン、1911年デュッセルドルフでの国際都市計画展を成功に導く。再度1913年から講演旅行のために渡米し、都市計画講演で全米約30都市を訪問。訪問先では実際に計画案を作成している。1914年には西海岸から中国と日本を、つづいてオーストラリアを視察。母国が第一次大戦中のため、1915年アメリカに戻り、1921年まで留まる。翌1922年にアメリカでの成果を『The American Vitruvius』いう題名で出版する。 1922年にドイツに戻って以降は著述業に専念し、建築都市計画に関する雑誌『Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst』と『Der Städtebau』を創刊するが、ナチスが台頭し、結果1933年、アメリカに三たび渡る。1935年から没するまでコロンビア大学の都市計画学講座客員教授をつとめた。 (ja)
dbo:birthDate
  • 1881-6-15
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dbo:deathDate
  • 1936-4-12
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  • 1108136 (xsd:integer)
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  • urban planner and architectural critic (en)
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  • Werner Hegemann (* 15. Juni 1881 in Mannheim; † 12. April 1936 in New York, NY) war ein Stadtplaner, Architekturkritiker und politischer Schriftsteller. Hegemann war als Stadtplaner eine international bekannte Figur, eine zeitgenössische Größe als Architekturkritiker und gehörte als Schriftsteller zum Kreis der Linksliberalen, die die Weimarer Republik zu stärken suchten. (de)
  • Werner Hegemann (June 15, 1881, Mannheim – April 12, 1936, New York City) was an internationally known German city planner, architecture critic, and author. His criticism of Hitler and the Nazi party required him to leave Germany with his family in 1933. He died prematurely in New York City in 1936. (en)
  • ヴェルナー・ヘーゲマン(Werner Hegemann, 1881年6月15日 - 1936年4月12日)はドイツ・マンハイム出身の都市計画家。 1901年、ベルリン大学で哲学と歴史学を専攻後、1903年パリへ渡り経済学を修める。住宅問題に関心をもち、1904年住宅調査官としてアメリカ合衆国へ、翌年から1906年まではフランスで国際経済学を学ぶ。1907年、ベルリンに戻り大学で都市計画を研究し始める。1908年、ミュンヘン大学で博士号を取得した後、1909年に再渡米、「ボストン1915」という都市計画展の責任者に抜擢され。この会で大ボストン計画を発表。都市環境の改善や産業発展を試みる提案で、展示には約20万人ほどが来場し、成功をおさめた。 その後叔父によってドイツに呼び戻され、ボストンでの都市計画展を成功させたことから、政府主導による「Greater Berlin」計画(1910年)に際して主催者側よりベルリン都市計画展の統括者に推薦された。 1922年にドイツに戻って以降は著述業に専念し、建築都市計画に関する雑誌『Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst』と『Der Städtebau』を創刊するが、ナチスが台頭し、結果1933年、アメリカに三たび渡る。1935年から没するまでコロンビア大学の都市計画学講座客員教授をつとめた。 (ja)
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  • Werner Hegemann (en)
  • Werner Hegemann (de)
  • ヴェルナー・ヘーゲマン (ja)
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