Transnationalism is a social phenomenon and scholarly research agenda grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people and the receding economic and social significance of boundaries among nation states. The term was popularized in the early 20th century by writer Randolph Bourne to describe "a new way of thinking about relationships between cultures". However, the term itself was coined by a colleague in college.

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  • Transnationalism is a social phenomenon and scholarly research agenda grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people and the receding economic and social significance of boundaries among nation states. The term was popularized in the early 20th century by writer Randolph Bourne to describe "a new way of thinking about relationships between cultures". However, the term itself was coined by a colleague in college. Transnationalism as an economic process involves the global reorganization of the production process, in which various stages of the production of any product can occur in various countries, typically with the aim of minimizing costs. Economic transnationalism, commonly known as Globalization, was spurred in the latter half of the 20th century by the development of the internet and wireless communication, as well as the reduction in global transportation costs caused by containerization. Multinational corporations could be seen as a form of transnationalism, in that they seek to minimize costs, and hence maximize profits, by organizing their operations in the most efficient means possible irrespective of political boundaries. Proponents of capitalists transnationalism seek to facilitate the flow of people, ideas, and goods among regions. They believe that it has increasing relevance with the rapid growth of capitalist globalization. They contend that it does not make sense to link specific nation-state boundaries with for instance migratory workforces, globalized corporations, global money flow, global information flow, and global scientific cooperation. However, critical theories of transnationalism have argued that transnational capitalism has occurred through the increasing monopolization and centralization of capital by leading dominant groups in the global economy and various power blocs. Scholars critical of global capitalism (and its global ecological and inequality crises) have argued instead for a transnationalism from below between workers and co-operatives as well as popular social and political movements. (Robinson, 2004) Transnationalism as concept, theory and experience has nourished an important literature in social sciences. In practice transnationalism refers to increasing functional integration of processes that cross-borders or according to others trans bordered relations of individuals, groups, firms and to mobilizations beyond state boundaries. Individuals, groups, institutions and states interact with each other in a new global space where cultural and political characteristic of national societies are combined with emerging multilevel and multinational activities. Transnationalism is a part of the process of capitalist globalization. The concept of transnationalism refers to multiple links and interactions linking people and institutions across the borders of nation-states. Some have argued that Diasporas, such as the overseas Chinese, are a historical precursor to modern transnationalism. However, unlike some people with transnationalist lives, most diasporas have not been voluntary. The field of diaspora politics does consider modern diasporas as having the potential to be transnational political actors and be influenced by transnational political forces. While the term transnationalism emphasizes the ways in which nations are no longer able to contain or control the disputes and negotiations through which social groups annex a global dimension to their meaningful practices, the notion of diaspora brings to the fore the racial dynamics underlying the international division of labor and the economic turmoil of global capital. In an article published in 2006, Asale Angel-Ajani claimed that “there is the possibility within diaspora studies to move away from the politically sanitized discourse that surrounds transnational studies.”(296) Since African diaspora studies have focused on racial formation, racism, and white supremacy, diaspora theory has the potential to bring to transnationalism “a varied political, if not radical political, perspective to the study of transnational processes and --globalization” (296). (en)
  • 45xCe modèle est-il pertinent ? Cliquez pour en voir d'autres.Cet article ne cite pas suffisamment ses sources (indiquez la date de pose grâce au paramètre date). Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l'article, comment ajouter mes sources ?). Le transnationalisme est un phénomène social, vieux de quelques décennies, développé à partir de l'interconnexion accrue entre les gens et l'importance économique et sociale de recul des frontières entre les États-nations. Le terme a été popularisé au début du XXe siècle par l'écrivain Randolph Bourne pour décrire « une nouvelle façon de penser au sujet des relations entre les cultures ». Toutefois, le terme lui-même a été inventé par un de ses collègues à l'université. (fr)
  • Транснационализация — перемещение капитала из стран с его относительным избыточным количеством в страны, где он находится в дефиците, но в избытке имеются другие факторы производства (труд, земля, полезные ископаемые), которые не могут быть рационально использованы в воспроизводственных процессах из-за нехватки капитала. Транснационализация хозяйственной жизни — процесс усиления роли транснациональных корпораций (ТНК) в мировой экономике. Экономическая транснационализация — это наиболее зрелая стадия процесса интернационализации экономической деятельности, характеризующаяся перемещением капитала через границы страны происхождения, которое выражается в формировании международных по характеру своей деятельности, но национальных по сохраняемому над акционерным капиталом контролю, организационных бизнес-структур. (ru)
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  • Transnationalism is a social phenomenon and scholarly research agenda grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people and the receding economic and social significance of boundaries among nation states. The term was popularized in the early 20th century by writer Randolph Bourne to describe "a new way of thinking about relationships between cultures". However, the term itself was coined by a colleague in college. (en)
  • 45xCe modèle est-il pertinent ? Cliquez pour en voir d'autres.Cet article ne cite pas suffisamment ses sources (indiquez la date de pose grâce au paramètre date). Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l'article, comment ajouter mes sources ?). (fr)
  • Транснационализация — перемещение капитала из стран с его относительным избыточным количеством в страны, где он находится в дефиците, но в избытке имеются другие факторы производства (труд, земля, полезные ископаемые), которые не могут быть рационально использованы в воспроизводственных процессах из-за нехватки капитала. Транснационализация хозяйственной жизни — процесс усиления роли транснациональных корпораций (ТНК) в мировой экономике. (ru)
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  • Transnationalism (en)
  • Transnationalisme (fr)
  • Транснационализация (ru)
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