The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and the invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh. Militarily, the battle pitted the French origin artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery (zamburak and jizail) of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah, both ethnic Afghans (the former is also known as Ahmad Shah Durrani). The battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, and has perhaps the largest number of fatalities in a single day

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dbo:abstract
  • The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and the invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh. Militarily, the battle pitted the French origin artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery (zamburak and jizail) of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah, both ethnic Afghans (the former is also known as Ahmad Shah Durrani). The battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, and has perhaps the largest number of fatalities in a single day reported in a classic formation battle between two armies. The decline of the Mughal Empire following the 27-year Mughal-Maratha war (1680–1707) had led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire. Under Peshwa Baji Rao, Gujarat, Malwa and Rajputana came under Maratha control. Finally, in 1737, Baji Rao defeated the Mughals on the outskirts of Delhi, and brought much of the former Mughal territories south of Delhi under Maratha control. Baji Rao's son, Balaji Baji Rao (popularly known as Nana Saheb), further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab in 1758. This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1759 he raised an army from the Pashtun tribes and Baloch tribes and made several gains against the smaller Maratha garrisons in Punjab. He then joined with his Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Gangetic Doab—forming a broad coalition against the Marathas. The Marathas, under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau, responded by gathering an army of between 45,000–60,000, which was accompanied by roughly 200,000 non-combatants, a number of whom were pilgrims desirous of making pilgrimages to Hindu holy sites in northern India. The Marathas started their northward journey from Patdur on the 14 March 1760. Both sides tried to get the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daulah, into their camp. By late July, Shuja-ud-Daulah made the decision to join the Afghan-Rohilla coalition, preferring to join what was perceived as the 'army of Islam'. This was strategically a major loss for the Marathas, since Shuja provided much needed finances for the long Afghan stay in North India. It is doubtful whether the Afghan-Rohilla coalition would have the means to continue their conflict with the Marathas without Shuja's support. The slow-moving Maratha camp finally reached Delhi on 1 August 1760, and took the city the next day. There followed a series of skirmishes along the banks of the river Yamuna, and a battle at Kunjpura, which the Marathas won against an Afghan garrison of about 15,000 (at this time, Abdali and the other Afghan forces were on the eastern side of the Yamuna river). However, Abdali daringly crossed the river Yamuna on the 25 October at Baghpat, cutting off the Maratha camp from their base in Delhi. This eventually turned into a two-month-long siege led by Abdali against the Marathas in the town of Panipat. During the siege both sides tried to cut off the other's supplies. At this the Afghans were considerably more effective, so that by the end of November 1760 they had cut off almost all food supplies into the besieged Maratha camp (which had about 250,000 to 300,000, most of whom were non-combatants). According to all the chronicles of the time, food in the Maratha camp ran out by late December or early January and cattle died by the thousands. Reports of soldiers dying of starvation began to be heard in early January. On 13 January the Maratha chiefs begged their commander, Sadashiv Rao Bhau, to be allowed to die in battle than perish by starvation. The next day the Marathas left their camp before dawn and marched south towards the Afghan camp in a desperate attempt to break the siege. The two armies came face-to-face around 8:00 a.m., and the battle raged until evening. The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle lasted for several days and involved over 125,000 troops. Protracted skirmishes occurred, with losses and gains on both sides. The forces led by Ahmad Shah Durrani came out victorious after destroying several Maratha flanks. The extent of the losses on both sides is heavily disputed by historians, but it is believed that between 60,000–70,000 were killed in fighting, while the numbers of injured and prisoners taken vary considerably. According to the single best eye-witness chronicle- the bakhar by Shuja-ud-Daulah's Diwan Kashi Raj, about 40,000 Maratha prisoners were slaughtered in cold blood the day after the battle. Grant Duff includes an interview of a survivor of these massacres in his History of the Marathas and generally corroborates this number. Shejwalkar, whose monograph Panipat 1761 is often regarded as the single best secondary source on the battle, says that "not less than 100,000 Marathas (soldiers and non-combatants) perished during and after the battle." The result of the battle was the halting of further Maratha advances in the north, and a destabilization of their territories, for roughly 10 years. This period of 10 years is marked by the rule of Peshwa Madhavrao, who is credited with the revival of Maratha domination following the defeat at Panipat. In 1771, 10 years after Panipat, he sent a large Maratha army into North India in an expedition that was meant to re-establish Maratha domination in North India and punish refractory powers that had either sided with the Afghans, such as the Rohillas, or had shaken off Maratha domination after Panipat. The success of this campaign can be seen as the last saga of the long story of Panipat. (en)
  • Die Dritte Schlacht von Panipat wurde am 14. Januar 1761 zwischen den afghanischen Durrani unter Ahmad Schah Durrani mit 75.000 Mann und dem indischen Marathenreich unter Sadashivrab Bhau mit 45.000 Mann im heutigen indischen Bundesstaat Haryana geschlagen.Die Niederlage der Marathen ebnete indirekt den Briten den Weg zur vollständigen Kolonialisierung Indiens, da die Marathen militärisch geschwächt wurden. An gleicher Stelle hatten 1526 die Erste Schlacht von Panipat und 1556 die Zweite Schlacht von Panipat stattgefunden. (de)
  • La troisième bataille de Panipat a eu lieu le 14 janvier 1761 à Panipat (État d’Haryana, Inde), située 130 km au nord de Delhi. La bataille opposa les forces des Marathes, soutenues par les Français à la cavalerie légère des Afghans dirigés par l'Empereur Ahmad Shâh Durrani, se terminant par la défaite de l'armée marathe. (fr)
  • 第三次パーニーパットの戦い(だいさんじパーニーパットのたたかい、英語:The Third Battle of Panipat)は、1761年1月14日にデリー近郊パーニーパット(パーニーパト)において、ムガル帝国衰退期にデカン地方を中心に台頭したマラーター同盟と北インドにたびたび侵攻していたアフガン勢力ドゥッラーニー朝との間で行われた戦い。なお、戦いは1月14日の激突前後の戦いも含める場合もある。 第三次パーニーパットの戦いは、かつてこの地で行われた第一次パーニーパットの戦い、第二次パーニーパットの戦いとは比べものにならないほどの激戦であった。この戦いはアフガン・マラーター戦争において、北インドにおける覇権を争うマラーター勢力とアフガン勢力の最終決戦であった。 この戦いでマラーター側は主だった武将らがほぼ戦死し、マラーター同盟の結束は緩み、同盟では諸侯の独立性が強くなった。マラーター勢力、アフガン勢力のみならず、ムガル帝国といったその他インド諸勢力の動向にも大きな影響を与え、その後の運命を決定づけた戦いでもあった。 (ja)
  • III bitwa pod Panipatem – starcie zbrojne, które miało miejsce dnia 14 stycznia 1761 r. w trakcie walk Afgańczyków z Marathami w Indiach. Do bitwy doszło w dzisiejszym stanie Haryana w Indiach. Armia afgańska w sile 80 tys. ludzi dowodzona przez Ahmeda Szaha Durraniego pokonała wojska Marathów (55 tys. ludzi) pod wodzą Sadaśiwrao Bhau. Klęska Marathów przybliżyła Brytyjczykom drogę do całkowitej kolonizacji Indii. (pl)
  • De derde slag bij Panipat (14 januari 1761) was een veldslag tussen de troepen van de Afghaanse koning Ahmed Shah Durrani en de Maratha's. Op het spel stond de heerschappij over het noorden van India. De Afghanen werden bijgestaan door twee belangrijke inheemse bondgenoten: de nawab van Avadh Shuja-ud-Daula, vizier van het Mogolrijk; en de Rohilla's, een etnisch Afghaanse groep die zich in het noorden van India gevestigd had, aangevoerd door Najib-ud-Daula. De Maratha's werden aangevoerd door generaal Sadashiv Rao Bhau, een neef van peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. De derde slag bij Panipat was mogelijk de grootste veldslag van de 18e eeuw. Uit de klassieke oorlogsvoering is geen veldslag bekend met een hoger gemeld aantal doden in een enkele dag. De uitkomst was een verpletterende nederlaag van de Maratha's, die daardoor zodanig verzwakt werden dat ze een decennium lang geen aanspraak meer op het noorden van India konden maken. Het waren vooral de Britten die van het na afloop van de slag ontstane machtsvacuüm konden profiteren door hun heerschappij over delen van het noorden van India te verstigen. (nl)
  • 第三次帕尼帕特战役是公元1761年1月14日发生在印度帕尼帕特(在今德里北部,哈里亚纳邦境内)的一场战役。在这次战役中来自阿富汗的艾哈迈德·沙阿·杜兰尼彻底击败了马拉塔人,但是阿富汗军队也受到重创。马拉塔人被击败,事实上摧毁了印度面对西方侵略时惟一一支可能进行有组织抵抗的力量,使得英国东印度公司在随后一百年内逐步控制了印度。 (zh)
  • Битва при Панипате (1761) — третья битва при Панипате, состоялась 14 января 1761 года, в Панипате, примерно в 60 милях (95,5 км) к северу от Дели между северными экспедиционными силами империи маратхов с одной стороны и коалицией правителя Афганистана Ахмад-шаха Дуррани и его индийских мусульманских союзников с другой. Союзниками Ахмад-шаха были рохиллские афганцы из Доаба, белуджи и наместник Ауда Шуджа уд-Доула. В ходе битвы предоставленная французами артиллерия и кавалерия маратхов сражались против тяжелой кавалерии и конной артиллерии (замбарук и джизаил) афганцев и рохилов во главе с Ахмад-Шахом Дуррани и Наджибом уд-Доулой, оба — этнические пуштуны. Битва считается одной из крупнейших битв в XVIII веке, и имеет, пожалуй, наибольшее число погибших в один день в классическом бою между двумя армиями. (ru)
dbo:causalties
  • Estimates between 20,000 and 40,000 combatants killed.
dbo:combatant
  • 65px|borderDurrani Empire
  • 65px|borderMaratha Empire
dbo:commander
dbo:date
  • 1761-01-14 (xsd:date)
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • DecisiveAfghanvictory
dbo:strength
  • 10,000 reserves
  • 120–130 pieces of cannon
  • 15,000Pindaris
  • 38,000 infantry
  • 4,000 personal guards
  • 40,000 cavalry
  • 42,000 cavalry
  • 5,000Qizilbash
  • 200 pieces of artillery. The force was accompanied by 300,000 non-combatants (pilgrims and camp-followers)
  • large numbers of irregulars
  • totally an army of 100,000.
  • totally an army of 70,000.
  • 15,000 infantry(divided to 9 battalyons of Gardi rifle infantry)
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  • 142027 (xsd:integer)
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  • 745227111 (xsd:integer)
dbp:caption
  • --01-14
dbp:casualties
  • Estimates between 30,000 and 40,000 combatants killed in the battle. Another 40,000-70,000 non-combatants massacred following the battle.
dbp:cause
  • Afghan raids in Punjab and Delhi.
dbp:territory
  • Marathas lost suzerainty over Punjab till north of Sutlej river to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah Durrani vacates Delhi soon after the battle.
dct:subject
georss:point
  • 29.39 76.97
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • Die Dritte Schlacht von Panipat wurde am 14. Januar 1761 zwischen den afghanischen Durrani unter Ahmad Schah Durrani mit 75.000 Mann und dem indischen Marathenreich unter Sadashivrab Bhau mit 45.000 Mann im heutigen indischen Bundesstaat Haryana geschlagen.Die Niederlage der Marathen ebnete indirekt den Briten den Weg zur vollständigen Kolonialisierung Indiens, da die Marathen militärisch geschwächt wurden. An gleicher Stelle hatten 1526 die Erste Schlacht von Panipat und 1556 die Zweite Schlacht von Panipat stattgefunden. (de)
  • La troisième bataille de Panipat a eu lieu le 14 janvier 1761 à Panipat (État d’Haryana, Inde), située 130 km au nord de Delhi. La bataille opposa les forces des Marathes, soutenues par les Français à la cavalerie légère des Afghans dirigés par l'Empereur Ahmad Shâh Durrani, se terminant par la défaite de l'armée marathe. (fr)
  • 第三次パーニーパットの戦い(だいさんじパーニーパットのたたかい、英語:The Third Battle of Panipat)は、1761年1月14日にデリー近郊パーニーパット(パーニーパト)において、ムガル帝国衰退期にデカン地方を中心に台頭したマラーター同盟と北インドにたびたび侵攻していたアフガン勢力ドゥッラーニー朝との間で行われた戦い。なお、戦いは1月14日の激突前後の戦いも含める場合もある。 第三次パーニーパットの戦いは、かつてこの地で行われた第一次パーニーパットの戦い、第二次パーニーパットの戦いとは比べものにならないほどの激戦であった。この戦いはアフガン・マラーター戦争において、北インドにおける覇権を争うマラーター勢力とアフガン勢力の最終決戦であった。 この戦いでマラーター側は主だった武将らがほぼ戦死し、マラーター同盟の結束は緩み、同盟では諸侯の独立性が強くなった。マラーター勢力、アフガン勢力のみならず、ムガル帝国といったその他インド諸勢力の動向にも大きな影響を与え、その後の運命を決定づけた戦いでもあった。 (ja)
  • III bitwa pod Panipatem – starcie zbrojne, które miało miejsce dnia 14 stycznia 1761 r. w trakcie walk Afgańczyków z Marathami w Indiach. Do bitwy doszło w dzisiejszym stanie Haryana w Indiach. Armia afgańska w sile 80 tys. ludzi dowodzona przez Ahmeda Szaha Durraniego pokonała wojska Marathów (55 tys. ludzi) pod wodzą Sadaśiwrao Bhau. Klęska Marathów przybliżyła Brytyjczykom drogę do całkowitej kolonizacji Indii. (pl)
  • 第三次帕尼帕特战役是公元1761年1月14日发生在印度帕尼帕特(在今德里北部,哈里亚纳邦境内)的一场战役。在这次战役中来自阿富汗的艾哈迈德·沙阿·杜兰尼彻底击败了马拉塔人,但是阿富汗军队也受到重创。马拉塔人被击败,事实上摧毁了印度面对西方侵略时惟一一支可能进行有组织抵抗的力量,使得英国东印度公司在随后一百年内逐步控制了印度。 (zh)
  • The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and the invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh. Militarily, the battle pitted the French origin artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery (zamburak and jizail) of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah, both ethnic Afghans (the former is also known as Ahmad Shah Durrani). The battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, and has perhaps the largest number of fatalities in a single day (en)
  • De derde slag bij Panipat (14 januari 1761) was een veldslag tussen de troepen van de Afghaanse koning Ahmed Shah Durrani en de Maratha's. Op het spel stond de heerschappij over het noorden van India. De Afghanen werden bijgestaan door twee belangrijke inheemse bondgenoten: de nawab van Avadh Shuja-ud-Daula, vizier van het Mogolrijk; en de Rohilla's, een etnisch Afghaanse groep die zich in het noorden van India gevestigd had, aangevoerd door Najib-ud-Daula. De Maratha's werden aangevoerd door generaal Sadashiv Rao Bhau, een neef van peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. De derde slag bij Panipat was mogelijk de grootste veldslag van de 18e eeuw. Uit de klassieke oorlogsvoering is geen veldslag bekend met een hoger gemeld aantal doden in een enkele dag. De uitkomst was een verpletterende nederlaag van de (nl)
  • Битва при Панипате (1761) — третья битва при Панипате, состоялась 14 января 1761 года, в Панипате, примерно в 60 милях (95,5 км) к северу от Дели между северными экспедиционными силами империи маратхов с одной стороны и коалицией правителя Афганистана Ахмад-шаха Дуррани и его индийских мусульманских союзников с другой. Союзниками Ахмад-шаха были рохиллские афганцы из Доаба, белуджи и наместник Ауда Шуджа уд-Доула. В ходе битвы предоставленная французами артиллерия и кавалерия маратхов сражались против тяжелой кавалерии и конной артиллерии (замбарук и джизаил) афганцев и рохилов во главе с Ахмад-Шахом Дуррани и Наджибом уд-Доулой, оба — этнические пуштуны. Битва считается одной из крупнейших битв в XVIII веке, и имеет, пожалуй, наибольшее число погибших в один день в классическом бою между (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Third Battle of Panipat (en)
  • Dritte Schlacht von Panipat (de)
  • Troisième bataille de Panipat (fr)
  • 第三次パーニーパットの戦い (ja)
  • III bitwa pod Panipatem (pl)
  • Slag bij Panipat (1761) (nl)
  • Битва при Панипате (1761) (ru)
  • 第三次帕尼帕特战役 (zh)
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